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Building large-scale digital repeatable systems e.g Smart Cities

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Building large-scale digital repeatable systems e.g Smart Cities

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Building large-scale digital repeatable systems e.g Smart Cities

  1. 1. Building large-scale digital repeatable systems (e.g. Smart Cities) iCMG World Award, 2018-11-28 Alexander Samarin
  2. 2. • Digital transformation of business & IT & systems – methodologist, architect, practitioner – from a programmer to a systems architect – have created production systems that work without me – systems of various sizes: company, corporate, canton, city, country, continent, community • Some of my professional roles – “cleaning lady” (usually in an IT department) – “peacemaker” (between the IT and business) – “swiss knife” (for solving any problem) – “patterns detective” (seeing commonalities in “unique” cases) – “assembler” (making unique things from commodities) – “barriers breaker” (there is always a bigger system) 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 2 About me
  3. 3. Active Assisted Living for people with disabilities and the elderly 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 3 Relations between system domains IoT Smart Manufacturing Smart Homes AAL Smart Cities Smart Energy Digital Healthcare Digital Country Digital Economy Digital Legislation
  4. 4. • Unpredictable and unlimited growth and development • Each city is different; all cities have some commonalities • Digital data and information in huge volumes • Contradictory demands for security and privacy • Many diverse stakeholders • Software-intensive • Distributed and decentralised • Great influence on our society • Ability to interact with the physical world • Mixture of socio-technical, cyber-physical, real-time, software intensive and information systems 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 4 Smart City complexity
  5. 5. • Smart Cities make the world easier for the citizens, society, business and governments • Being “smart” means being able to achieve some goals in a sustainable way – short time to market & low cost of creation and operations • Smart is an emergent characteristic of a system – achieved by digital technologies – explicitly architected and engineered to reduce complexity – gradually built up through digital transformation – permanently demonstrating value delivery – combining diversity and uniformity – coordinating and cooperating between all the stakeholders • A Smart City is a large-scale digital repeatable system 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 5 Why, What and How is a Smart City?
  6. 6. • Digital system is a system which designs the life cycles of its primary artefacts on the primacy of digital description of those artefacts • Digital description is explicit, formal, computer-readable and computer-executable • For a man-made object, a digital twin comes first • For a nature-made object, a digital twin comes second 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 6 About Digital Systems
  7. 7. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 7 Many descriptions of a house House design (digital) v1 Built house (physical) v1 Built house (physical) v2 Built house (digital) Time House design (digital) v2 Implement Monitor Improve Model Improve
  8. 8. • India plans to build 100 Smart Cities; their IT infrastructure will comprise the “repeated” use of a standard and tailorable digital platform. • Smart Cities will be built by a “coherent ecosystem” which comprises start-ups, local IT companies and international IT giants. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 8 Digital repeatable systems
  9. 9. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 9 The essential pattern: Platform-Enabled Agile Solutions • The platform must standardise and simplify core elements of future system. • New opportunities should be explored using agile principles • The platform frees up resource to focus on new opportunities • Successful agile innovations are rapidly scaled up when incorporated into the platform • This requires coordination at an overall level
  10. 10. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 10 IEC Systems Committee approach: Reference Architecture How to build many Smart Cities in a smart way: 1) build a common understanding 2) isolate the common parts 3) find how to integrate unique and common parts 4) develop common parts once, and with high quality, as a platform 5) have a version of the common platform for each Smart City 6) cooperate and coordinate among Smart Cities If Smart City programmes work together, there will be gains in quality, time and money
  11. 11. • N is the total cost of a Smart City implementation (construction) • 70 % - common, 30 % - unique • Total cost for 100 Smart Cities WITHOUT standardisation – N * 100 • Total cost for 100 Smart Cities WITH standardisation – N * 100 * 0.3 (unique parts) + N * 1 * 0.7 (common parts) * 3 (complexity factor) = N * (30 + 2.1) = N * 32.1 • Cost difference is (N*100) / (N*32.1) ≈ 3 times! • Maintenance and evolution will be much cheaper as well 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 11 Simple calculations
  12. 12. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 12 4 levels of systems architecting 2. Reference architecture 1.Reference model 4. Implementation A2 3. Solution architecture B 3. Solution architecture A 4. Implementation A1 4. Reference implementation 3a. Common solution architecture build and test build and testdesign and engineer field feedback feasibility feedback design and engineer architect extract essentials constraints and opportunities refinement constraints and opportunities design and engineer Problem space Solution space Various needs - stakeholders - system - domain architect extract See the definitions at the end of this slide deck Outside scope of international standardisation
  13. 13. • Explain to any stakeholder how future implementations (which are based on the reference architecture) can address his/her concerns and change his/her personal, professional and social life for the better – explicitly link needs (or high-level requirements) with the principles of the reference architecture • Provide a common approach for architecting systems in the particular system domain – different people in similar situations find similar solutions or propose innovations • Help stakeholders, programmes and projects to collaborate and coordinate their efforts – common agreements (i.e. standards) on various system elements (e.g. services, interfaces, data, etc.), common vision, etc. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 13 Purpose of reference architecture
  14. 14. Geometrical viewpoints of buildings are viewed side by side ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 architecture description View (system-of-interest dependent) vs viewpoint (system-of-interest independent) Multiple viewpoints are mandatory Architectural viewpoints are often originated by different people — thus they must be aligned to be used together 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 14 Each model kind consists of artefacts (e.g. applications, servers, etc.) and relationships between them
  15. 15. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 15 ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 needs modernisation for the digital age + Artefact-type 1..* Model-type is part of 1..* + Artefact
  16. 16. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 16 Zachman Framework example
  17. 17. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 17 Enterprise Anatomy iCMG example
  18. 18. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 18 TOGAF example
  19. 19. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 19 Examples from various sources (1)
  20. 20. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 20 Examples from various sources (2) http://www.slideshare.net/craigrmartin/design-of-business-in-an-age-of-disruption/68
  21. 21. http://www.slideshare.net/TheDesignOfBusiness/introducing-the-open-group-it4it-standard https://www.salesforce.com/blog/2016/04/how-salesforce-does-enterprise-architecture-.html https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/design-direct-monitor-enterprise-digital-using-sarath-chandran 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 21 Examples from various sources (3)
  22. 22. • How to combine existing de-facto standard frameworks? • Different applications within the same enterprise may need different set of viewpoints • Tailoring is a pain – let us industrialise it • What is more important? – life cycle management or work management? – work products or processes to produce them? • Everything must be formal, explicit, machine-readable and machine-executable – artefacts – models (relationships between artefacts) – relationships between views and models 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 22 Towards a common approach: motivation
  23. 23. • Common ontologies (and classifications) • Common viewpoints • Common model kinds • Common artefact-types • Common modelling techniques • Common patterns • Common processes • Common guidance 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 23 Towards a common approach: structuring elements
  24. 24. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 24 Towards a common approach: some models may be generated from others View A Model 1 Model 2 Common techniques, patterns, guesses, magic, automation, etc. View B Model 3
  25. 25. 2018-11-28 25 Towards a common approach: design your own framework Viewpoint u1 Viewpoint A Viewpoint B … Pattern 1 Pattern 2 … Building large-scale digital repeatable systems Viewpoint A Viewpoint B Viewpoint D Viewpoint E Viewpoint E Viewpoint u2 Common set
  26. 26. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 26 Towards a unified approach: models and artefacts dependency • Each model is simple and requires some particular competence • A tool can help to keep the alignment between various models and artefacts • A bit of top-down, a bit of bottom-up and a lot of “pin-ball”
  27. 27. • Value viewpoint – stakeholders, high-level requirements, mission, vision, UC • Big picture viewpoint – illustrative, essential characteristics, architecture principles • Capability map viewpoint – level 1 decomposition, level 2 decomposition • System Target Operating Model (STOM) engineering viewpoint – function map, service map, process map, data flows, organigramme • Operating viewpoint • Performance viewpoint • Implementation viewpoint • Security, safety, risk, privacy and resilience viewpoint • Standards viewpoint 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 27 Towards a common approach: some viewpoints and model-kinds
  28. 28. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 28 Towards a unified approach: tailoring made easy Reference architecture Tailored solution architecture
  29. 29. • Stakeholders, their roles and their concerns 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 29 Value view: stakeholders’ concerns analysis
  30. 30. • The guiding principles for defining Smart Cities architectures are – interoperability – safety – security (including confidentiality, integrity and availability) – privacy – resilience – simplicity – low cost of operation – short time to market – combining diversity and uniformity – self-referential 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 30 Value view: guiding principles (example)
  31. 31. • List of high-level requirements – Adequate water supply – Assured electricity supply – Sanitation, including solid waste management – Efficient urban mobility and public transport – Affordable housing, including for the poor – Robust IT connectivity and digitalisation – Good governance and citizen participation – Sustainable environment – Safety and security of citizens, particularly women, children and the elderly – Affordable healthcare for everyone – Modern education for children and adults – Attractive for business 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 31 Value view: high-level requirements (example)
  32. 32. • Flows handling • Multidimensionality • Unpredictability of growth • Technology absorption • Synergy • Holistic overview • Trustworthiness 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 32 Big picture view: essential characteristics (example)
  33. 33. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 33 Big picture view: high-level requirements vs. essential characteristics High-level requirements Essential characteristics
  34. 34. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 36 Capability map view: level 1 visualisation (example) Leading capabilities ProcurementFinance Legal Media PMO ICT … Supporting capabilities Facilities&buildingsmanagement Energymanagement Watermanagement Wastemanagement Publicsafetyandsecuritymanagement Environment(nature)management Transportationmanagement Healthcaremanagement Educationmanagement Socialeventsmanagement Economicdevelopmentmanagement Culture&entertainmentmanagement Geomatics Census Registries Urban info Enabling capabilities Core capabilities Management Operations Governance Emergent characteristics by design Tourismmanagement Security Short time to market Low cost for operations Interoperability Resilience Privacy Safety
  35. 35. § 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 37 STOM engineering view: operational patterns (example) Data analysis Data enrichment Decision selection Action activation Continuous monitoring Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) pattern Coordination, Event Streams, Analytics, Rules (CESAR) pattern Sensor A Sensor B Sensor C Situation prediction Case (e.g. incident) coordination Rules application Actions execution Case (e.g. incident) data flow-of-control flow-of-data flow-of-events
  36. 36. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 38 Security, safety, risk, privacy and resilience view: example
  37. 37. • IoT device “fridge” has a few digital contracts: – with persons who are living in the particular household – with the producer of the fridge – with the service company for maintenance of the fridge – with some online shops to order various food – with some other Things within the particular household to achieve together some goals for energy consumption • Note: The in-house network router knows that the fridge has rights to connect only to a few external sites; any other contacts will be blocked by the router • http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.ch/2016/07/digital-contract-as-process-enables.html 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 39 Security, safety and risk viewpoint: digital contracts for Smart Homes
  38. 38. • The goals of this methodology – set of capabilities to be implemented once for everyone – ability to easily change, extend and amend existing solutions – help different people in similar situations find similar services or bring innovations • The common methodology pillars – platform-enabled agile solutions – microservices and APIs guidelines – BizDevOps guidelines (alignment of solutions lifecycle) – common software development toolkit aka “software factory” 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 40 Common methodology for Smart Cities IT
  39. 39. • To find common capabilities, it is necessary to view software-design artefacts – classes – modules – schemas • as solution artefacts – events – processes – forms – roles – rules – KPIs – audit-trails – reports – functions (computational) – data – documents – … 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 41 Platform-enabled agile solutions: solutions artefacts
  40. 40. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 42 Platform-enabled agile solutions: reference solution architecture Reference solution Solution artefacts Tool Model Object API Patterns Forms Information, documents Rules Processes Roles Functions Information, KPIs, reports, audit-trails Events, data IoT
  41. 41. • Each solution artefact can have several facets – special management tool, e.g. BPM-suite tool – models, e.g. process templates – objects, e.g. process instances – APIs (or interfaces) to all functionality – patterns used by models, e.g. workflow patterns • Typical facets per level of Smart Cities – universal – tools, APIs, patterns – city – tools, APIs – zones – models – solutions – objects 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 43 Platform-enabled agile solutions: solution artefacts Solution α Solution β CityProcurement Finance Legal PMO ICT Geomatics Census Governance Management Operations Water Waste Energy Zones Public safety Environment Tourism Culture Transport Process management API management Security management IoT management Analytics & reporting Universal Event management Software factory Data persistence
  42. 42. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 44 Platform-enabled agile solutions: classification of solution artefact facets Reference solution Solution artefacts Tool Model Object API Patterns Forms Information, documents Rules Processes Roles Functions Information, KPIs, reports, audit-trails Events, data IoT Tool, API Model Object • Data may have different arrangements, e.g. zone-specific data is kept not in solutions, but in a common zone storage • Some data may be fetched from the city level Solution α Solution β CityProcurement Finance Legal PMO ICT Geomatics Census Governance Management Operations Water Waste Energy Zones Public safety Environment Tourism Culture Transport Process management API management Security management IoT management Analytics & reporting Universal Event management Software factory Data persistence
  43. 43. 1. Minimal architecting – to understand the type of solution 2. Collecting use cases – to define capabilities 3. Quick prototyping – to outline functions, APIs, and other solution artefacts 4. Gap analysis – to determine what is missing in the common platform 5. Developing missing parts as microservices – to close the gaps 6. Assembling – to deliver the solutions 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 45 Platform-enabled agile solutions: solution genesis steps Solution and software artefacts 1 26 5 4 3
  44. 44. • An initial set of types – event centric – data-entry centric – document/content centric – data and/or information flow centric – data and/or information visualisation – IoT-device centric – short-running operations (activities-based) – long-running operations (processes-based) – any combination • Each type has its own reference architecture, typical solution artefacts, tools and techniques 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 46 Platform-enabled agile solutions: typology of solution architectures
  45. 45. Only microservices (shown in blue) have to developed for this solution 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 47 Platform-enabled agile solutions: solution and its microservices Key Synchronous Asynchronous Check History Review Loan Microservice Unit-of-functionality Check Client Approve Loan Prepare Contract Reject Loan Domain Rules Census Levels: universal, city, zones, solutions BPM Tool Finance Monolith
  46. 46. • Exception: Solution is made only from microservices • Normal: Solution is made from microservices, services and monolith-supplied functionalities • Microservices, services and monolith-supplied functionalities are accessible via APIs • Each API follows common design and implementation guidelines – For example, everything is versionable • http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.com/search/label/%23microservice 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 48 Platform-enabled agile solutions: use of microservices
  47. 47. Universal components (tools) of the digital platform 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 49 Common digital platform and agile solutions (1) • Reference data management • Master data management • Operational data management • Analytical data management • Event management • Information and knowledge management • Document and content management • Records management • Business process management • Business rules management • Software factory • Service and microservice management • IoT management (following ISO/IEC 30141:2018 - IoT RA) • Security management • UX management • API management How to standardise? 1. Define necessary capabilities 2. Define APIs to access these capabilities 3. Choose 2-3 products for each tool (low, medium, large) 4. Negotiate one master contract Process management API management Security management IoT management Analytics & reporting Universal Event management Software factory Data persistence
  48. 48. City components of the digital platform 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 50 Common digital platform and agile solutions (2) • Governance • Management • Operations • Geomatics • Census • Registers • Urban info • Finance • Procurement • Legal • Media • PMO • ICT • KM How to standardise? 1. Analyse a city’s components 2. Define necessary capabilities 3. Define processes, data, rules, etc. 4. Decompose into services and microservices 5. Establish common design and implementation guidelines 6. Implement as MVP for a first client 7. Improve and enrich with each solution from this domain CityProcurement Finance Legal PMO ICT Geomatics Census Governance Management Operations Process management API management Security management IoT management Analytics & reporting Universal Event management Software factory Data persistence
  49. 49. Zone components of the digital platform 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 51 Common digital platform and agile solutions (3) • Facilities & buildings management • Energy management • Water management • Waste management • Public safety and security management • Environment (nature) management • Transportation management • Healthcare management • Education management • Social events management • Economic development management • Culture & entertainment management How to standardise? 1. Analyse a domain 2. Define necessary capabilities 3. Define processes, data, rules, etc. 4. Decompose into services and microservices 5. Establish common design and implementation guidelines 6. Implement as MVP for a first client 7. Improve and enrich with each solution from this domain CityProcurement Finance Legal PMO ICT Geomatics Census Governance Management Operations Water Waste Energy Zones Public safety Environment Tourism Culture Transport Process management API management Security management IoT management Analytics & reporting Universal Event management Software factory Data persistence
  50. 50. Digital solutions 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 52 Common digital platform and agile solutions (4) Various depending on the analysis of domains Solution α Solution β CityProcurement Finance Legal PMO ICT Geomatics Census Governance Management Operations Water Waste Energy Zones Public safety Environment Tourism Culture Transport Process management API management Security management IoT management Analytics & reporting Universal Event management Software factory Data persistence
  51. 51. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 53 From a problem to the solution ? Problem ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Architectural and technological governance Architecture & design Coherent ecosystem ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Common platform ! Solution Already available Already available
  52. 52. 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 54 Thus we will embrace the digital age: software-defined enterprises https://bpm.com/bpm-today/blogs/1292-post-platform-enterprise-pattern-faster-and-cheaper-inter-enterprise-ecosystem-business
  53. 53. • Digital and smart are two sides of the same coin • Synergy between uniformity and diversity is mandatory • Enterprise architecture has everything that is necessary for a successful digital transformation • For the broader digital transformation effort a common approach is needed • Must know how value is delivered through all the processes • Large-scale repeatable systems (e.g. Smart Cities, Digital Healthcare, etc.) need standards – not hard standards, but standards with a transparent, clear and open ecosystem for any potential participant 2018-11-28 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 55 Conclusions
  54. 54. • E-mail: alexandre.samarine@gmail.com • Mobile: +41 76 573 40 61 Building large-scale digital repeatable systems 56 Questions? 2018-11-28

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