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e-governance

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e-governance

  1. 1. Designing and Implementing e-Government Strategy Deepak Bhatia
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>E-government – brief introduction </li></ul><ul><li>E-government strategy – components </li></ul><ul><li>Case study – e-Bharat </li></ul><ul><li>What does all of this mean for the World Bank </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why e-government? “ Everyone else is doing it, so its probably important and useful” “ Its hype” “ We don’t want to fall behind all others” “ We think it will provide faster, more convenient government services” “ We think it will reduce costs for individuals and businesses to deal with government” ” We think it will reduce costs for government (reduced data entry costs, lower error rates)” “ We think it will improve democratic process” ” To reduce corruption and fight poverty” ” We need to reach out to a broader part of population” ” We think it’s a tool for transformation of public administration from bureaucracy to service provider”
  4. 4. So what is E-Government? <ul><li>E-government is very simply about applying information and communication technology to all aspects of a government’s business where it makes sense to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the achievement of policy and program outcomes </li></ul>
  5. 5. So why an E-Government strategy? <ul><li>To pursue real economic development goals not just “technology push” </li></ul><ul><li>To create the right policy and institutional frameworks from the start. </li></ul><ul><li>To maximize effectiveness of ICT initiatives within Government. </li></ul><ul><li>To manage the increasing costs of I&IT in government </li></ul><ul><li>To generate savings by applying I&IT in backend processes or other programmatic areas </li></ul><ul><li>To map path from pilot experiments to sustainable, scalable systems </li></ul><ul><li>To design technology architecture (infrastructure, data, standards) for the public sector </li></ul><ul><li>To integrate organizational silos and deliver citizen services through common channels. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is an e-government strategy? <ul><li>Conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Business case </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Process </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of results </li></ul>
  7. 7. Leadership Policy & Institutional Reform Conceptual Framework for E-Government Strategy Goals Dimensions Outputs <ul><li>E-Governance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal Framework, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT Policies - Standards </li></ul></ul>Client-Oriented Service Applications Back-End Government Applications Connectivity & Data Processing infrastructure Financing Institutional Infrastructure for Service Delivery Human Resource Dev. Technology ECONOMY SERVICE EFFICIENCY TRANSPA-RENCY
  8. 8. Making a business case for E-Government Strategy <ul><li>a. Defining worthwhile goals </li></ul><ul><li>b. Demonstrating financial feasibility and sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>d. Developing incentive scheme </li></ul>
  9. 9. Business Case: Goals <ul><li>To extend the reach of government services </li></ul><ul><li>To promote equal access to government services </li></ul><ul><li>To increase constituency satisfaction with government services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in particular: to reduce transaction costs for citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey of citizens in Ontario indicated that citizens want – timeliness of response and right outcome (right information or completed transaction) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To reduce government costs </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Incremental investment financing – Justified by public goods nature of outputs or market failures related to infrastructure-type investments. For example, it is clear that there will be no competition for providing training to public servants unless the government pays. The same about the CSC infrastructure; unless government is willing to provide some seed capital and selective operational subsidies the private sector will not deploy the centers needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost sharing with business _ through PPPs based on real user fees or shadow transaction fees. </li></ul><ul><li>Redirection of line ministry HRD and ITC budgets . </li></ul><ul><li>Savings accrued over time from BPR, automation and outsourcing of client interface. Important to note that in initial stages costs to government may not be reduced (multiple channels, significant uptake) </li></ul>Business Case: Financial Feasibility
  11. 11. <ul><li>Individuals : skills upgrading, professional development, increased autonomy, international exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Departments : Increased budgetary control, organizational visibility, economic rewards, e.g. share of profits/savings, etc. </li></ul>Business Case: Incentives
  12. 12. E-Government Strategy: Process (1) <ul><li>Define vision and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Set up high level leadership task force </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure consistency with economic development priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Assess status quo and </li></ul><ul><li>Secure political support </li></ul><ul><li>Establish stakeholder participation mechanisms (including demand) </li></ul>
  13. 13. E-Government Strategy: Process (2) <ul><li>Put in place e-govt. management framework </li></ul><ul><li>Assess priority needs for government services </li></ul><ul><li>Secure funding </li></ul><ul><li>Establish partnerships with private sector, where feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Design technical, data sharing, and service delivery infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize projects (BPR first) </li></ul>
  14. 14. E-Government Strategy: Process (3) <ul><li>Develop time-bound implementation plan </li></ul><ul><li>Secure stakeholder buy-in of implementation plan </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation the strategy in phases </li></ul><ul><li>Measure and publicize progress </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate results and make course corrections. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Output Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in connectivity and data processing capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-government management framework in place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy and regulatory framework in place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical reach of government services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training imparted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business processes reengineered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Government systems operating at service standards </li></ul></ul>E-Govt. Strategy: Measurement of results Note – illustrative examples – there are other measures of capabilitiy
  16. 16. <ul><li>Impact Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Constituency satisfaction with government services (opinion surveys, citizen report cards) </li></ul><ul><li>Access by the poor and rural population </li></ul><ul><li>Client orientation in public service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data sharing across information systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transparency of government organization to service recipients </li></ul></ul>Business Case: Measurement of results
  17. 17. Example of e-government strategy NEGP - E-Bharat under preparation
  18. 18. <ul><li>NEGP’s goal is the provision of improved, more convenient government services countrywide through on-line delivery at local service centers. </li></ul><ul><li>NEGP is fully recognized as key part of national development plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves central and all state governments. Will be led centrally and implemented locally. </li></ul><ul><li>Will be implemented over an 8-year period (FY2006-2013) at a cost of roughly USD 4 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>To be supported by proposed USD 1 billion Bank project in two phases </li></ul>Example: NEGP - India’s e-Government strategy
  19. 19. India’s NEGP : Scope of Outputs <ul><li>E-Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Treasuries </li></ul><ul><li>National ID </li></ul><ul><li>National GIS for planning </li></ul>Other <ul><li>EDI (customs & foreigh trade) </li></ul><ul><li>E-BIZ </li></ul><ul><li>E-Procurement </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Excise </li></ul><ul><li>Company affairs </li></ul>Services to Business (G2B) <ul><li>Common Services Centres: Single-window public service delivery points eventually reaching all the 600,000 villages in India </li></ul><ul><li>State Wide Area Network SWAN: fiber optic connectivity up to block level </li></ul><ul><li>Countrywide State Data Centers </li></ul><ul><li>All India Portal </li></ul><ul><li>National E-Governance Gateway </li></ul><ul><li>Land records </li></ul><ul><li>Property registration </li></ul><ul><li>Road transport </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>Panchayats </li></ul><ul><li>Police </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Food Distribution & other welfare programs </li></ul><ul><li>Income Tax </li></ul><ul><li>Passport, visa and immigration </li></ul><ul><li>E-Posts </li></ul>Services to Citizens (G2C) Integrated State Central
  20. 20. India’s NEGP: Criteria for selection of MMPs <ul><ul><li>Measurably improved citizen/business service delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership by line ministry/ state department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable BPR & change management plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions can be rolled out in 2-4 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasis on poor & rural communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of PPP solutions </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. India’s NEGP: Funding Sources <ul><li>Existing ministry budgets (3% national guideline for IT) </li></ul><ul><li>Existing State funds </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Central Assistance (ACA) from the central government to the states. </li></ul><ul><li>External financing from the Bank and other donors, with harmonized administration procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Private financing through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) </li></ul><ul><li>User charges </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>To setup ICT- enabled CSCs in villages to deliver multiple services to the villagers </li></ul><ul><li>To deliver all possible G2C services through these CSCs </li></ul><ul><li>To promote public-private-partnerships (PPP) in ownership and operation of CSCs </li></ul><ul><li>To provide government subsidies calibrated to financial sustainability of CSCs </li></ul>India’s NEGP: Strategy for CSC Infrastructure
  23. 23. India’s NEGP: Strategy for Capacity Building <ul><li>Provide expert TA on project management and procurement </li></ul><ul><li>Support BPR plans of implementing departments </li></ul><ul><li>Finance extensive training program </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture stakeholder/domain networks </li></ul>
  24. 24. Levels of Capacity Needs- at State Level
  25. 25. Program Management Overall Governance Structure- at National level (proposed) Cabinet/ CCEA Project Committees Project Owners (Central Line Ministries / State Government) Sub-Program Committees Apex Committee Expenditure Finance Committee National e-Governance Advisory Board (Chairman MCIT) Project Approval Programme Monitoring NEGAP Strategy Setting Working Group (Chairman Secy DIT) Program Management Unit DIT Programme Secretariat
  26. 26. Proposed Institutional Framework – at State level State eGov Council (CM) State Apex Committee (CS) Departmental Committee SeMT DIT DeMT State Government
  27. 27. Sourcing Capacities - Options <ul><li>Bid Process Management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul>Project Management 50% 50% (domain) <ul><li>Conceptualization </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul>Project Development DeMT 50-70% 30-50% (tech + domain) <ul><li>Monitoring Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Interagency Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Management </li></ul>Program Management 25% 75% <ul><li>eGov Roadmap </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritization </li></ul><ul><li>Frameworks/ Guidelines </li></ul>Program Development Apex Committee SeMT 50% 50% <ul><li>Policy Formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Commitment </li></ul>Leadership & Vision Council Source of Capacity Within Govt. Outside Task Role
  28. 28. <ul><li>Implications for the World Bank </li></ul>
  29. 29. But is our client interested? <ul><li>Strategic intent of a Government is signaled by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formally expressed interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active planning: documents are available and have been discussed internally; ICT deployment is a part of PRSPs; e-readiness assessment done e.g. through an Infodev grant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established government agency for ICT development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy implementation already started </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Bank ICT Assistance Strategy <ul><li>Assistance must be country-specific depending on government commitment and country e-readiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Given high risk of ICT investments, a careful implementation strategy is a must </li></ul><ul><li>For laggard countries, target ‘low hanging fruit’ projects with high visibility, quick impact and easy implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>For more advanced countries—i.e. have already implemented pilots-- the Bank can help in scaling up those systems that best fit within the CAS </li></ul>
  31. 31. In the Bank , all types of public sector projects, have e-Gov in them Improve administration structure and processes, civil service performance, public expenditure management de-concentration , revenue collection and accountability mechanisms. E-Gov??? Really??? <ul><ul><li>Health Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional Reform and Capacity Building Projects </li></ul></ul>Enhance efficiency of the Government’s decision-making process for public procurement and Documentation flow. Trade facilitation and market access Lay groundwork for effective health sector policy making & monitoring <ul><ul><li>Administration Capacity Building Projects </li></ul></ul>Supports improving the legal & regulatory framework for public financial management and new Integrated IFMIS Civil Service Reform and Modernization
  32. 32. Why is this important for the Bank? <ul><li>Conservatively more than 50% of our projects involve significant investments in ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Most ICT project components involve e-Government initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Several countries envisioning comprehensive projects: e-Lanka, India’s e-Bharat, e-Vietnam, e-Ghana, e-Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Several regions working on an ICT strategy (SAR, EAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of our clients are investing in this area anyway, it is better the Bank has a strategy to manage that investment and get better/wider impact from it </li></ul>
  33. 33. Who provides this support? <ul><li>ISG – e-government practice – applications, e-government strategies </li></ul><ul><li>GICT – telecom, policy, infrastructure, e-agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Legal - legal frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>WBI – client training, distance learning </li></ul><ul><li>Regional units – AFTQK, ECSPE </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors – for domain knowledge especially PREM </li></ul>
  34. 34. Closing thoughts <ul><li>A country’s e-government strategy will need to be calibrated to the country's situation in terms of </li></ul><ul><li>PC & Internet penetration, (adequate technological infrastructure) </li></ul><ul><li>software development capabilities available locally, </li></ul><ul><li>literacy levels (both conventional & IT), </li></ul><ul><li>economic level (ability to pay), </li></ul><ul><li>Legal framework </li></ul><ul><li>languages prevalent, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>preparedness and commitment of political, administrative and technical leadership. </li></ul>
  35. 35. And Finally <ul><li>E-Govt is a multi year commitment. Even if technology can be rapidly implemented organizational change takes time and use patterns change even more slowly. </li></ul><ul><li>E-Government offers tremendous opportunities for improving service delivery, efficiency and transparency in government </li></ul><ul><li>High risk of e-government projects require careful design </li></ul><ul><li>Client countries increasingly require this type of assistance from the World Bank  </li></ul><ul><li>Finally – while e-Govt is important it is a means to an end, and not an end in and of itself (its about the ‘g’ and not the ‘e’) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Credits – Contributors and Reviewers <ul><li>Government of India - DIT </li></ul><ul><li>Åke Grönlund </li></ul><ul><li>Elisabet Rosengren </li></ul><ul><li>Seda Pahlavooni </li></ul><ul><li>Subhash Bhatnagar </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Dutz </li></ul><ul><li>Tenzin Dolma Norbhu </li></ul><ul><li>Joan McCalla </li></ul><ul><li>Eduardo Talero </li></ul>Contributors Reviewers
  37. 37. E-Government: Lessons of experience <ul><li>E-Government cannot perform as a substitute for governance reform </li></ul><ul><li>E-Government must address the rural urban divide </li></ul><ul><li>Manage expectations: e-government is not a magic bullet </li></ul><ul><li>Translating promises to benefits involves difficult organizational changes. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no “one size fits all” strategy: the context needs to be understood </li></ul><ul><li>Balance top direction and bottom up initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid large failures; deliver early results </li></ul>
  38. 38. E-Government: Lessons of experience <ul><li>Identify priority interventions that are capable of exploring a country’s competitive advantage, delivering cross-cutting positive impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Promote partnerships between government, private sector, civil society and donors </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid technology focus: ensure complementary investment; skills, organizational innovation and incentives are crucial for making technology work </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize training and capacity building </li></ul>
  39. 39. Country Experiences: UK <ul><li>Focus on improving government services for citizens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priority on ‘high impact’ areas -  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take-up of services must be the key driver of investment and the key performance indicator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create competitive pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open up electronic delivery of government services to the private and voluntary sectors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not make exclusive contracts for front-end delivery Ð avoid private sector monopolies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let electronic delivery compete with traditional delivery inside government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the Internet the backbone to ESD, but allow multiple entry routes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reward innovation, accept some failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get going quickly, and keep learning from mistakes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set ambitious goals, informed by citizen preferences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with prototypes that can be built quickly and tested. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quickly scale up successful prototypes for launch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be ruthless in weeding out unsuccessful government e-venture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Push for efficiency savings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wherever possible ESD should substitute rather than complement traditional delivery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the trade-off between trust and income (e.g. advertising) for each service. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Country Experiences - Australia <ul><li>Agency e-government programs are more likely to be successful when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive-level support has been obtained from the CEO and senior agency staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency staff are committed to the broader concepts of e-government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition exists that people wish to deal with government through a variety of channels, and service delivery strategies are tailored accordingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential awareness is heightened by promoting availability of online programs to people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation and authentication issues have been resolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence has been raised through electronic signatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models for effective inter-agency collaboration have been built and proven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Momentum is maintained through better integration of enterprise, work, information, application and technology architectures with and among agencies </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Country Experiences - Canada <ul><li>Canada regularly surveys citizens and businesses about their attitudes and needs--more so than any other country. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada also actively markets its E-government services. It advertises on TV and radio, ad in airline magazines and newspapers to get citizens to use its portal </li></ul><ul><li>Canada, like many nations, has a national CIO, given the necessary muscle to drive standards and create a common E-government offering </li></ul>
  42. 42. Country Experiences - Singapore <ul><li>To pull down silos, you need a big stick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision of &quot;many agencies, one government&quot; became mantra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ministry of Finance was sole authority in approving funding for e-government projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IDA managed central IT and telecom infrastructure and defined national policy, standards and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All e-services followed same security, electronic payment and data exchange mechanisms, by regulatory and policy mandate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While Internet technology was an enabler, people made it happen, through strong e-leadership  Deputy prime minister launched the plan in 2000 &quot;to be a leading e-government to better serve the nation in the digital economy.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. New Zealand e-Government Architecture
  44. 44. Sri Lanka e-Government Architecture
  45. 45. India e-Government Architecture
  46. 46. Australia e-Government Architecture

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