Contents1. Governance to e-Governance2. Implementing e-Governance3. Examples of Good Practice4. Success and failure of e-Government5. Future of e-Governance6. E-Governance and Media
Definition of ITInformation Technology is the method ofconverting data into information basedon computing techniques andcommunicationICTs of course are the Information andCommunication Technologies
Correlation between ICT usage and developmentDEVELOPMENT NEEDS GOOD GOVERNANCE
Governance in the Colonial age• Governments were created to servecolonial power based on mercantile andindustrial-age economies.• Based on command and control modelfor the enterprise.• Bureaucracies operated vertically ratherthan across government.• Rules and procedures based on ‘mis-trust’ and ‘checks’ were added to layersof staff.
Post Independence – Developing Country Governmentas Panacea• Establish a foundation of law• Act as an agent for development• Give employment• Attempt to produce everything frombread to bulbs to bombs• Be a social reformer
Agenda for 21st Century• Investing in basic social services andinfrastructure & Protect the environment• Economic & and export competitiveness• Lower quantity of government to higherquality of governance• 24/7 working - Flexitime for employees• Education and e-literacy• Digital services to citizens• Digital democracy
Definition of e-Government by WorldBank• E-Government refers to the– Use of information technologies– That have the ability to transform relations withcitizens, businesses, and other arms ofgovernment .– These technologies can serve better delivery ofgovernment services to citizens.‘E-governance lies at the heart of two global shifts: theinformation revolution and the governance revolution’(Richard Heeks, 1999)
E-Governance : A DefinitionElectronic Governance is theapplication of ICT Technologies tothe processes of Governmentfunctioning to bring aboutSimpleMoralAccountableResponsive andTransparent Governance.
E-Government to e-Governance– E-Government is the application of InformationTechnology to the processes of Governmentfunctioning.• digital information and online transaction services to citizens– E-governance implies a new definition andconcept of public governance. It represents aparadigm shift to the new information age.• Involves promotion of ICT technologies and e-commerce, andadopting of these technologies in open and transparentsystems over the Internet for– government business,– citizen interaction and engagement & most important,– for development.
Components Of E-Governance• Technological Component• Social Component• Cultural Component• Political Component• Psychological Component• Service Component
RATIONALE FOR E-GOVERNANCE• Democracy and good governanceimperatives• Traditional decision making and servicedelivery at question• Depleting public resources/funding• Introducing e-Government to attractprivate IT investment
What is the ROI ?• In the context of Governance, ROI or Return onInvestment cannot be mere economic or commercial‘returns’.• Such ‘return’ therefore needs to be seen fromperspective of ‘objectives’ or ‘goals’ of e-Government• e-Government is a means to accomplish broadersocial goals, goals that move beyond mere efficiencyof government processes to that of overall reformand development.
1. Creating a better businessenvironmentPolicies to help create a business-friendly environment to attractinvestment2. Customers online, not in line. The effective delivery of public goodsand services to citizens accompaniedby quick response government.3. Strengthening goodgovernance and broadeningpublic participation.Empowering citizens by promotingtransparency and accountability ingovernment for citizens to be moreactively involved in the policy anddecision-making processes ofgovernment.4. Improving the quality of lifefor poor and disadvantagedEmpowering the poor anddisadvantaged through theirparticipation in the political process,as well as delivering much-neededpublic goods and services.Goals or Objectives of e-Governance
Issues for Governments• Is good governance a priority?• Who will pay for E-Governance?• Are sufficient skills available?• How to convince employees to accept thechange?
Searching for a workable businessmodelEssentially three options or basic businessmodels presently in operation:• Govt. initiated and funded computerisationand e-governance projects• NGO or private sector sponsored projects– Experimental models– Franchises etc.• Joint initiatives between government andprivate organisations– BOO and BOLT/BOOT models
Marketing models from UK e-Government• Models developed by private sector emulated bypublic sector thru out-sourcing• Virtually all eight B2C models being used– virtual storefronts,– marketplace aggregator,– information broker,– on-line service provider,– transaction broker,– electronic clearinghouses,– auction and tendering,– digital product delivery and– content provider
Ingredients of successCommon Belief60% Technology25% Process Re-engg15% Change Management0% LuckReality15% Technology35% Process Re-engg45% Change Mgt.5% Luck
Implementing e-governance• Decide WHAT you want to do– Key issues and concerns to be addressed– Critical applications with high impact• Identify WHO are your key customers– Government agencies/employees– Citizens– Businesses• Determine HOW you want to do it– Deploy supporting computing/network infrastructure– Establish standards for consistent implementation– Evolve/automate government processes– Devise appropriate policies and legal framework• Start Simple, Grow Fast
Some Key Initiatives• Customs and Excise (Government of India)• Indian Railways (Government of India)• Postal Department (Government of India)• Passport / Visa (Government of India)• CARD – Registration Project (StateGovernment of Andhra Pradesh)• LOKMITRA (State Government of HimachalPradesh)
The new face of Government ..(TWINS Service Centre, Hyderabad, India)from ‘in-line’ to ‘on-line’
6/21/2013Indian Railways (Government of India)
6/21/2013Customs and Excise (Government ofIndia)
ICT/eGov Initiatives and DevelopmentThe argument is that ICTs (especially e-Government) can help in the achievement ofthe Millennium Development Goals (2015)through three basic processes:• enhancing livelihoods,• improved efficiency in the delivery of services,• and allowing local stakeholders a voice in the planningprocess.DIGITAL INCLUSION IS THEREFORE A NECESSITY“Information and CommunicationTechnology for Development (ICT4D)”
promises“If there be one promise of the digital agethat has remained belied, it is that of thepotential of ICTs as a tool for povertyreduction.”Elaborate concepts, claims and predictions relating toe-Commerce and the digital economy were made inthe late 90s that may not hold good in today’sreality.
eGovernment experience• Ground level research/data is beginning toshow that the results of most nationalstrategy efforts to date have beendisappointing.• A study by the World Bank (2009) whichexamined e-Government initiatives acrossdeveloping countries has come to theunfortunate conclusion that 35% of all suchinitiatives in the last few years have beentotal failures and 50% have been partialfailures
eGovernment success• A Gartner study (2010) mentions that over 60% ofthe e-Government initiatives across the world fail.There are other studies to suggest that only 15% ofthe e-Government projects are successful.• The e-government bellwether- the United States –also gives bad news. Office of Management andBudget (OMB), which oversees federal informationtechnology (IT) investments, and federal agencies"have identified approximately 227 IT projects —totalling at least $10.4 billion in expenditures forfiscal year 2008—as being poorly planned (on theManagement Watch List), poorly performing (on theHigh Risk List with performance shortfalls), or both.
Success and Failure in e-GovernmentProjects: Opinion PollClassification PercentageSuccess 15%-Partial Failure 60%+Total Failure 25%+Source: Poll in September 2002 of members of the eGovernment for DevelopmentInformation Exchange, who have relevant e-government expertise, quoted in article byProf Richard Heeks, 2003
Potential costs of e-government failure1. Direct Financial Costs.2. Indirect Financial Costs. Human resource cost.3. Opportunity Costs. The better ways in which thatmoney could have been spent4. Political Costs.5. Beneficiary Costs. The loss of benefits that asuccessful e-government project would have brought.6. Future Costs. An e-government failure increases thebarriers for future e-government projects.Main issue is TRUST:citizen’s trust towards government has declineddramatically over the past thirty years
what works better1. ICT consumption: the use of technology inapplications like e-commerce and e-government.2. ICT production: the creation of hardware,software and other components of the ICTinfrastructure.( Prof. Heeks, 2005)•developmental gains from investing in ICTproduction are greater than for investment in ICTconsumption.•Put simply, development or promotional agenciesand governments with money to spend would betteruse it to incubate new IT firms rather than to create aservice delivery Web site.
Essential Ingredients of e-Governancee-Governance has two parts:– The ‘governance’ on ‘e’.– The usage of ‘e’ in GovernanceThe ‘E’ in both e-governance and e-government is theinfrastructure that enables and supports the networking ofthe public policy development.
Issues under Indian Law affectingbusiness over InternetBroadly there are three categories of issues :• Legal issues covering the transfer of goods & services• The recognition of contracts drawn up throughelectronic means and documents in electronic format• The legal recognition of electronic invoice, electronicsignature and electronic certification authorities• Electronic fund transfer and electronic cash/money• Legal issues that directly impact business / transaction ofNetwork / Internet• Taxation• Trade & tariff• Consumer protection• Jurisdiction and dispute settlement
Information Technology Act, 2000 & 2008• Electronic contracts & digital signatures legally valid• Security procedure for electronic records and digitalsignature• Appointment of Certifying Authorities• Certifying authorities licensed to issue digitalsignature certificates• Various types of computer crimes defined andstringent penalties provided under the Act• Appointment of Adjudicating Officer for holdinginquiries under the Act
E-government 2.0• Investing in Web capabilities, and embracing userparticipation• Move to a governance model in which e-governmentinitiatives are owned by “line of business” executivesand supported by a dedicated, cross-functional team.• Develop capabilities in critical areas such as marketing,usability, Web analytics, and customer insights.• Get citizens, businesses, and other agencies involved incontributing or creating applications and content.• Using Web 2.0 tools (Cloud Computing, SocialNetworks). Use of Web 2.0-based approaches enablesgovernments, in theory at least, to mobilize citizens tobecome active participants in the operationalachievement of governance
conclusion•E-Governance in itself will not provokeadherence to better governance but it cancertainly support such development.•E-Governance cannot be an alternative togood governance and empowerment. Itrather must be used to deliver this..
E-Governance and Media:Media as a Service• Publicizing e-Governance Initiatives• Promoting e-Governance Initiatives inMedia services• Improving governance in Media• Initiating citizen engagement throughICTs in Media• Increasing e-Governance adoptionthrough Social media• Guidelines for Social Media in e-Governance