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CONSTRUCT VALIDITY LESSON PLAN
Step 1: 10 minutes
o Break students into groups and distribute group worksheets (direct students to introduce selves to
group members)
o Describe basic task:
 students will be creating “mini” tests of depression (as they define it) and proposing
research studies to determine if their tests actually do a good job in measuring depression
o Additional directions
 Take individual notes so that you have the information (you will be handing in the group
worksheet) – accommodations for the “recorder”
 Be sure everyone reads their definition out loud
 Your group definition does not have to be “the perfect” definition, given time limit
 You will have about 10 minutes to complete this step
Step 2: 10 minutes
o Instruct groups to finish definitions and begin writing items
o Items should related to their definitions/essential characteristics of a depressed person
o Review likert scale anchors
o Remind them to spend about 10 minutes to complete step
Step 3: 30 to 40 minutes
o Instruct groups to finish writing items and begin to propose research studies to determine if their
tests actually measures depression
o Remind them:
 Unlimited resources – funding, people from a variety of settings (e.g. clinics, university,
whatever), ages, diagnoses, etc.
 Think about your definitions of depression, what you know about depression as you think
about what results you might expect
o Monitor groups progress; if groups seem to be going well, let them continue
o If groups struggling, off track call groups attention
 Pick some examples to review
Step 4: 15 minutes
o Call for groups attention and provide instructions for final method
o Distribute additional measures
o Think about how you might use these tests to provide evidence of the ability of your test to
measure depression well
 Hint: think about the statistical methods we have covered in class to this point
Step 5: 10 minutes
o After all groups have completed the task, if time, discuss some of the definitions and methods
o Have group members describe as worksheets are displayed on visualizer
o Save 5 minutes at end (if possible) for writing exercise:
 What was the most difficult part of this exercise?
 What was the most important thing you learned from today’s lesson?
 What is still confusing?
PREDICTED STUDENT RESPONSES
Students will work in small groups to develop a paper and pencil test of depression and determine ways
to evaluate the construct validity of their test.
Major steps in the lesson:
1. Students read their individual definitions of depression and use these to develop a group definition.
 Expect students to share their definitions and combine or integrate ideas into a group definition.
 Definitions may not be sophisticated or comprehensive given the short time period (10 Minutes).
 Do students recognize they have invented a “construct?”
2. Based on their definition, each group creates test items to measure the characteristics of depression
 Students develop Likert scale items. May be challenging to form good questions in this format.
3. The group proposes research studies to determine the validity of their test
 This is the most difficult part of the lesson. Students need to examine the logic of construct
validity studies in order to propose an appropriate study.
 Students will need to connect their prior understanding of validity studies to their test of
depression.
 Anticipate that some groups will not understand the logic behind the validity studies. The
instructor will monitor groups and intervene if they are struggling. May address the entire class
to explain some of the sticking points.
4. The instructor gives the groups some additional tests (measures) and instructs them to decide how
they could use the tests to determine whether their test of depression is valid.
 Students will need to apply prior knowledge of statistical methods and recognize the extent to
which scores on the measures would be related to one another—depending upon whether the
tests measure or do not measure depression.
5. Class discussion to review some of the groups’ tests and methods use to determine validity and, time
permitting, individual writing exercise
 The instructor uses the end of class to help consolidate students’ understanding of construct
validity and the logic of validity studies.
 Students reflect on their own understanding at the end of class—what they got, didn’t get,
what’s confusing.
While there are many formats for a lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements,
typically in this order:
 Title of the lesson
 Time required to complete the lesson
 List of required materials
 List of objectives, which may be behavioral objectives (what the student can do at lesson completion)
or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at lesson completion)
 The set (or lead-in, or bridge-in) that focuses students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these include
showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewingprevious lessons
 An instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up the lesson, including the
teacher's instructional input and, where appropriate, guided practice by students to consolidate ne w skills
and ideas
 Independent practice that allows students to extend skills or knowledge on their own
 A summary, where the teacher wraps up the discussion and answers questions
 An evaluation component, a test for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set of
questions to answer or a set of instructions to follow
 A risk assessment where the lesson's risks and the steps taken to minimize them are documented.
 Analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself —such as what worked, what needs
improving
 A continuity component reviews and reflects on content from the previous lesson[3]
Herbartian Approach: John Fedrick Herbert (1776-1841)
1. Preparation/Instruction: It pertain to preparing and motivating children to the lesson content by linking it to
the previous knowledge of the student, by arousing curiosity of the children and by making an appeal to their
senses. This prepare the child's mind to receive new knowledge. "To know where the pupils are and where
they should try to be are the two essentials of good teaching" lesson may be started in the following manner:
a. Two or three interesting but relevant questions b. Showing a picture/s, a chart or a model c. A situation
Statement of Aim: Announcement of the statement of the lesson in a clear, concise, like this "Today, we shall
study the..."
2. Presentation/Development: The actual lesson commence here. This step should involve a good deal of
activity on the part of the students. The teacher will take the aid of various devices, e.g., questions,
illustrations, explanation, expositions, demonstration and sensory aids, etc. Information and knowledge can
be given, explained, revealed or suggested. The following principles should be in mind. a. Principle of
selection and division: This subject matter should be divided into different sections. The teacher should also
decide as to how much he is to tell and how much the pupils are to find out for themselves. b.Principle of
successive sequence: The teacher should ensure that the succeeding as well as preceding knowledge is
clear to the students. c. Principle of absorption and integration: In the end separation of the parts must be
followed by the combination for the understanding of the whole.
3. Association comparison: It is always desirable that new ideas or knowledge be associated to daily life
situation by citing suitable examples any by drawing comparison with the related concepts. This steps is
important when we are establishing principles or generalizing definitions.
4. Generalizing: This concepts is concerned with the systematizing of the knowledge learn. Comparison and
contrast lead to generalization. An effort to be made that students draw the conclusions themselves. It should
result in student's own thinking, reflection and experience.
5. Application: It requires a good deal of mental activity to think and apply the principles learn to new
situations. Knowledge when it is put to use and verified becomes clear and a part of mental make-up.
6. Recapitulation: Last step of the lesson plan, the teacher tries to ascertain whether the students have
understood or grasped the subject matter or not. This is used for assessing/evaluating the effectiveness of the
lesson by asking students questions on the contents of the lesson or short objectives types test to the class/to
label the unlabelled sketch etc.
A well-developed lesson plan[edit]
A well-developed lesson plan reflects the interests and needs of students. It incorporates best practices for
the educational field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher'sphilosophy of education, which is what the
teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students.[4]
Secondary English program lesson plans, for example, usually center around four topics. They are literary
theme, elements of language and composition, literary history, andliterary genre. A broad, thematic lesson
plan is preferable, because it allows a teacher to create various research, writing, speaking, and reading
assignments. It helps an instructor teach different literature genres and incorporate videotapes, films,
and television programs. Also, it facilitates teaching literature and English together.[4]
Similarly, historylesson
plans focus on content (historical accuracy and background information), analytic thinking, scaffolding, and
the practicality of lesson structure and meeting of educational goals.[5]
School requirements and a teacher's
personal tastes, in that order, determine the exact requirements for a lesson plan.
Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan, but cover an entire unit of work, which may span
several days or weeks. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require individual lesson plans. The unit
plan may include specific objectives and timelines, but lesson plans can be more fluid as they adapt to
student needs and learning styles.
Unit Planning is the proper selection of learning activities which presents a complete picture. Unit planning is
a systematic arrangement of subject matter. Samford "A unit plan is one which involves a series of learning
experiences that are linked to achieve the aims composed by methodology and contents". Dictionary of
Education:"A unit is an organization of various activities, experiences and types of learning around a central
problem or purpose developed cooperatively by a group of pupils under a teacher leadership involving
planning, execution of plans and evaluation of results".
Criteria of a good Unit Plan
1. Needs, capabilities, interest of the learner should be considered. 2. Prepared on the sound psychological
knowledge of the learner. 3. Provide a new learning experience; systematic but flexible. 4. Sustain the
attention of the learner till the end. 5. Related to social and Physical environment of the learner. 6.
Development of learner's personality.
It is important to note that lesson planning is a thinking process, not the filling in of a lesson plan template.
Lesson plan envisaged s a blue print, guide map for action, a comprehensive chart of classroom teaching-
learning activities, an elastic but systematic approach for the teaching of concepts, skills and attitudes.

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Construct Validity Lesson

  • 1. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY LESSON PLAN Step 1: 10 minutes o Break students into groups and distribute group worksheets (direct students to introduce selves to group members) o Describe basic task:  students will be creating “mini” tests of depression (as they define it) and proposing research studies to determine if their tests actually do a good job in measuring depression o Additional directions  Take individual notes so that you have the information (you will be handing in the group worksheet) – accommodations for the “recorder”  Be sure everyone reads their definition out loud  Your group definition does not have to be “the perfect” definition, given time limit  You will have about 10 minutes to complete this step Step 2: 10 minutes o Instruct groups to finish definitions and begin writing items o Items should related to their definitions/essential characteristics of a depressed person o Review likert scale anchors o Remind them to spend about 10 minutes to complete step Step 3: 30 to 40 minutes o Instruct groups to finish writing items and begin to propose research studies to determine if their tests actually measures depression o Remind them:  Unlimited resources – funding, people from a variety of settings (e.g. clinics, university, whatever), ages, diagnoses, etc.  Think about your definitions of depression, what you know about depression as you think about what results you might expect o Monitor groups progress; if groups seem to be going well, let them continue o If groups struggling, off track call groups attention  Pick some examples to review Step 4: 15 minutes o Call for groups attention and provide instructions for final method o Distribute additional measures o Think about how you might use these tests to provide evidence of the ability of your test to measure depression well  Hint: think about the statistical methods we have covered in class to this point Step 5: 10 minutes o After all groups have completed the task, if time, discuss some of the definitions and methods o Have group members describe as worksheets are displayed on visualizer o Save 5 minutes at end (if possible) for writing exercise:  What was the most difficult part of this exercise?  What was the most important thing you learned from today’s lesson?  What is still confusing?
  • 2. PREDICTED STUDENT RESPONSES Students will work in small groups to develop a paper and pencil test of depression and determine ways to evaluate the construct validity of their test. Major steps in the lesson: 1. Students read their individual definitions of depression and use these to develop a group definition.  Expect students to share their definitions and combine or integrate ideas into a group definition.  Definitions may not be sophisticated or comprehensive given the short time period (10 Minutes).  Do students recognize they have invented a “construct?” 2. Based on their definition, each group creates test items to measure the characteristics of depression  Students develop Likert scale items. May be challenging to form good questions in this format. 3. The group proposes research studies to determine the validity of their test  This is the most difficult part of the lesson. Students need to examine the logic of construct validity studies in order to propose an appropriate study.  Students will need to connect their prior understanding of validity studies to their test of depression.  Anticipate that some groups will not understand the logic behind the validity studies. The instructor will monitor groups and intervene if they are struggling. May address the entire class to explain some of the sticking points. 4. The instructor gives the groups some additional tests (measures) and instructs them to decide how they could use the tests to determine whether their test of depression is valid.  Students will need to apply prior knowledge of statistical methods and recognize the extent to which scores on the measures would be related to one another—depending upon whether the tests measure or do not measure depression. 5. Class discussion to review some of the groups’ tests and methods use to determine validity and, time permitting, individual writing exercise  The instructor uses the end of class to help consolidate students’ understanding of construct validity and the logic of validity studies.  Students reflect on their own understanding at the end of class—what they got, didn’t get, what’s confusing. While there are many formats for a lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements, typically in this order:  Title of the lesson  Time required to complete the lesson  List of required materials  List of objectives, which may be behavioral objectives (what the student can do at lesson completion) or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at lesson completion)  The set (or lead-in, or bridge-in) that focuses students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewingprevious lessons
  • 3.  An instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up the lesson, including the teacher's instructional input and, where appropriate, guided practice by students to consolidate ne w skills and ideas  Independent practice that allows students to extend skills or knowledge on their own  A summary, where the teacher wraps up the discussion and answers questions  An evaluation component, a test for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set of questions to answer or a set of instructions to follow  A risk assessment where the lesson's risks and the steps taken to minimize them are documented.  Analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself —such as what worked, what needs improving  A continuity component reviews and reflects on content from the previous lesson[3] Herbartian Approach: John Fedrick Herbert (1776-1841) 1. Preparation/Instruction: It pertain to preparing and motivating children to the lesson content by linking it to the previous knowledge of the student, by arousing curiosity of the children and by making an appeal to their senses. This prepare the child's mind to receive new knowledge. "To know where the pupils are and where they should try to be are the two essentials of good teaching" lesson may be started in the following manner: a. Two or three interesting but relevant questions b. Showing a picture/s, a chart or a model c. A situation Statement of Aim: Announcement of the statement of the lesson in a clear, concise, like this "Today, we shall study the..." 2. Presentation/Development: The actual lesson commence here. This step should involve a good deal of activity on the part of the students. The teacher will take the aid of various devices, e.g., questions, illustrations, explanation, expositions, demonstration and sensory aids, etc. Information and knowledge can be given, explained, revealed or suggested. The following principles should be in mind. a. Principle of selection and division: This subject matter should be divided into different sections. The teacher should also decide as to how much he is to tell and how much the pupils are to find out for themselves. b.Principle of successive sequence: The teacher should ensure that the succeeding as well as preceding knowledge is clear to the students. c. Principle of absorption and integration: In the end separation of the parts must be followed by the combination for the understanding of the whole. 3. Association comparison: It is always desirable that new ideas or knowledge be associated to daily life situation by citing suitable examples any by drawing comparison with the related concepts. This steps is important when we are establishing principles or generalizing definitions. 4. Generalizing: This concepts is concerned with the systematizing of the knowledge learn. Comparison and contrast lead to generalization. An effort to be made that students draw the conclusions themselves. It should result in student's own thinking, reflection and experience. 5. Application: It requires a good deal of mental activity to think and apply the principles learn to new situations. Knowledge when it is put to use and verified becomes clear and a part of mental make-up. 6. Recapitulation: Last step of the lesson plan, the teacher tries to ascertain whether the students have understood or grasped the subject matter or not. This is used for assessing/evaluating the effectiveness of the
  • 4. lesson by asking students questions on the contents of the lesson or short objectives types test to the class/to label the unlabelled sketch etc. A well-developed lesson plan[edit] A well-developed lesson plan reflects the interests and needs of students. It incorporates best practices for the educational field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher'sphilosophy of education, which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students.[4] Secondary English program lesson plans, for example, usually center around four topics. They are literary theme, elements of language and composition, literary history, andliterary genre. A broad, thematic lesson plan is preferable, because it allows a teacher to create various research, writing, speaking, and reading assignments. It helps an instructor teach different literature genres and incorporate videotapes, films, and television programs. Also, it facilitates teaching literature and English together.[4] Similarly, historylesson plans focus on content (historical accuracy and background information), analytic thinking, scaffolding, and the practicality of lesson structure and meeting of educational goals.[5] School requirements and a teacher's personal tastes, in that order, determine the exact requirements for a lesson plan. Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan, but cover an entire unit of work, which may span several days or weeks. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require individual lesson plans. The unit plan may include specific objectives and timelines, but lesson plans can be more fluid as they adapt to student needs and learning styles. Unit Planning is the proper selection of learning activities which presents a complete picture. Unit planning is a systematic arrangement of subject matter. Samford "A unit plan is one which involves a series of learning experiences that are linked to achieve the aims composed by methodology and contents". Dictionary of Education:"A unit is an organization of various activities, experiences and types of learning around a central problem or purpose developed cooperatively by a group of pupils under a teacher leadership involving planning, execution of plans and evaluation of results". Criteria of a good Unit Plan 1. Needs, capabilities, interest of the learner should be considered. 2. Prepared on the sound psychological knowledge of the learner. 3. Provide a new learning experience; systematic but flexible. 4. Sustain the attention of the learner till the end. 5. Related to social and Physical environment of the learner. 6. Development of learner's personality. It is important to note that lesson planning is a thinking process, not the filling in of a lesson plan template. Lesson plan envisaged s a blue print, guide map for action, a comprehensive chart of classroom teaching- learning activities, an elastic but systematic approach for the teaching of concepts, skills and attitudes.