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Instructional Materials
Prepared by :-
Taghreed Hawsawi
Supervise By :-
Dr. Nahead Sharkasi
After completing this chapter, the learner will be able to :
1. Identify the three major variables (learner, task,
and med...
After completing this chapter, the learner will be able to :
4- To apply the steps of development process of
learning reso...
Instructional materials are tangible substances and real objects
that provide the audio and/or visual component necessary...
Definition
Instructional materials are the
resources and tools used as
vehicles to help communicate the
information.
OR
Ed...
The purpose of instructional media
To help the nurse educator deliver a message creatively and clearly.
Assist learners ...
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
The teacher must be familiar with media content before a tool is used.
Print and nonprint materials d...
Cont …….
 The instructional materials should reinforce and supplement—not
substitute for— the educator’s teaching efforts...
Cont…..
 The message imparted by instructional materials must be
accurate, valid, authoritative, up-to-date, state-of-the...
CHOOSING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
Learner
L
And
A
Material
M
Task
T
“LAMT”
A useful mnemonic for remembering these variable...
As variables in the learner
are known to influence
learning, it is important to
“know your audience” so as
to choose media...
THE THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF
INSTRUCTIONALMATERIAL
delivery system
content
presentation
(Frantz, 1980) &(Weston & Cransto...
Delivery System
both the physical form of the materials and the hardware used
to present the materials. For instance, a pe...
Delivery System
Note for that ….
The delivery system is independent of the content of the
message.
 The choice of the delivery system is...
Content
The content, or message, is the actual information that is
communicated to the learner,
which might be on of any t...
STEPS OF DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF
LEARNING RESOURCE MATERIALS
Review curriculum
Pin down notes
Enlist possible teaching material
Budgeting
Selection of appropriate idea
Supply needed m...
•On review, make notes on ideas for
teaching materials in order to teach the
skills and knowledge listed in the
curriculum...
Review curriculum
Preliminary step
who the learning resource is for ?
what the learning resource is designed to do ?
how t...
Pin down notes
• Make notes on the basis of :
• the class
• the students
• the level of students.
•Characteristics of the learners
• prior experience/knowledge of
content area
• skill/ competency profile
• range and resp...
Enlist possible teaching material
•Make notes on different kinds
of activities relevant for
learning in or outside of the
...
Budgeting
Selection of appropriate idea
Choose best ideas from list of ideas for class
materials.
Include materials for beginning, m...
Supply of needed material
• For each class material item that have decided to make
• create a list of supplies needed.
• B...
TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS
I. WRITTEN MATERIALS
1. HANDOUTS:
A piece of printed information provided free
of charge, especially to accompany a lectur...
2. LEAFLETS:
A small flat or folded sheet of printed
matter, as an advertisement or notice,
usually intended for free dist...
3. BOOKS:
A written or printed work consisting of
pages glued or sewn together along one
side and bound in covers.
I. WRIT...
4. PAMPHLETS:
A small booklet or leaflet containing
information or arguments about a
single subject
I. WRITTEN MATERIALS
7. INSTRUCTION SHEET:
Instruction sheets are clear and detailed information on
how to do something
I. WRITTEN MATERIALS
Advantage
1- written materials are available to the learner as a reference for
information when the nurse educator is not ...
Disadvantage
1- they are the most abstract form of reality, possibilities for
immediate feedback are limited, and the prop...
COMMERCIALLY PREPARED MATERIALS
• A wealth of commercially prepared brochures,
posters, pamphlets, and patient-focused tex...
COMMERCIALLY PREPARED MATERIALS
Foster (1987) has given 3Ps to be considered while
reviewing commercial materials
• P= Pro...
COMMERCIALLY PREPARED MATERIALS
Advantages:
• Ready availability.
• Less time-consuming
• Cheaper than designing own instr...
COMMERCIALLY PREPARED MATERIALS
Disadvantages:
Issues of cost, accuracy and adequacy of content, and
readability of the ma...
SELD COMPOSED MATERIALS
Educators may choose to
write their own
instructional materials for
several reasons, which
might i...
DEMONSTRATION MATERIAL
illustrations
posters, diagrams, illustrations,
charts, bulletin
boards, flannel boards, flip chart...
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS
• All represent unique ways of communicating
messages to the learner.
• They stimulate the visual ...
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS
• Bring the learner closer to reality and actively
engage him or her in a visual
• Demonstration t...
Advantage
• A quick way to attract attention and get an idea across
• Flexible (especially if made for easy modification)
...
Disadvantage
• Take up a lot of space
• Time-consuming to have prepared, and for that reason tend to be
reused again and a...
AUDIO VISUAL MATERIALS
Audiovisual materials support and enrich the
educational process by stimulating the
learner’s visua...
AUDIO VISUAL MATERIALS
Three issues (Smith, 1987) must be addressed
Technical feasibility:
technical expertise, profession...
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
• Help the nurse educator to deliver a message
creatively and clearly
• Multimedia approach assist learners in gaining
inc...
• Help clarify abstract or complex concepts.
• Add variety to the teaching and learning experiences
(Babcock & Miller, 199...
BARRIERS IN DEVELOPING LEARNING RESOURCE MATERIAL
• Lack of systematic programme planning in large scale
• Low budget allo...
Thanks for you listing
Reference :-
Susan B. Bastable (2003). Nurse as Educator :
Principles of Teaching and Learning for ...
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Instructional material

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Instructional material

  1. 1. Instructional Materials Prepared by :- Taghreed Hawsawi Supervise By :- Dr. Nahead Sharkasi
  2. 2. After completing this chapter, the learner will be able to : 1. Identify the three major variables (learner, task, and media characteristics) to be considered when selecting, developing, and evaluating instructional materials. 2. Cite the three components of instructional materials required to effectively communicate educational messages. 3. Discuss general principles applicable to all types of media.
  3. 3. After completing this chapter, the learner will be able to : 4- To apply the steps of development process of learning resource materials. 5- discuss the importance of learning resource materials in nursing education. 6-Determine the barriers in developing learning resource materials
  4. 4. Instructional materials are tangible substances and real objects that provide the audio and/or visual component necessary for learning. Many of them can be manipulated.  They stimulate a learner’s senses and may have the power to arouse emotions. They help the teacher make sense of abstractions and simplify complex messages . (Babcock & Miller, 1994).
  5. 5. Definition Instructional materials are the resources and tools used as vehicles to help communicate the information. OR Educational resources use to improve student knowledge and abilities and skills to monitor their behavior by information and contribute to their overall development .
  6. 6. The purpose of instructional media To help the nurse educator deliver a message creatively and clearly. Assist learners in gaining & increasing awareness and skills as well as retaining more effectively what they learn Stimulate the learners’ bodily senses, help clarify abstract or complex concepts, add variety to the teaching–learning experience . Reinforce learning, and potentially bring realism to the experience . saving time and energy on the part of both the teacher and the learner .  Research indicates that the use of audiovisual aids does, indeed, facilitate learning
  7. 7. GENERAL PRINCIPLES The teacher must be familiar with media content before a tool is used. Print and nonprint materials do change learner behavior by influencing a gain in cognitive, affective, or psychomotor skills.  No one tool is better than another in enhancing learning. The tools should complement the instructional methods. The choice of media should be consistent with subject content and match the tasks to be learned to assist the learner in accomplishing predetermined behavioral objectives
  8. 8. Cont …….  The instructional materials should reinforce and supplement—not substitute for— the educator’s teaching efforts.  Media should match the available financial resources.  Instructional aids should be appropriate for the physical considerations and the learning environment, such as the size and seating of the audience, space, lighting, and display hardware (delivery mechanisms) available. Media should complement the sensory abilities, developmental stages, and educational level of the intended audience.
  9. 9. Cont…..  The message imparted by instructional materials must be accurate, valid, authoritative, up-to-date, state-of-the-art, appropriate, unbiased, and free of any unintended messages.  The media should contribute meaningfully to the learning situation by adding diversity and additional information.
  10. 10. CHOOSING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS Learner L And A Material M Task T “LAMT” A useful mnemonic for remembering these variables is
  11. 11. As variables in the learner are known to influence learning, it is important to “know your audience” so as to choose media that best suit their needs. You must consider the learners’ perceptual abilities, physical abilities, reading abilities, motivational levels (locus of control), developmental stages, and learning styles. learner: The nurse educator has the opportunity to choose from a wide variety of media, print and nonprint, to enhance methods of instruction. Nonprint media include the full range of audio and visual possibilities. An enormous variety of educational materials is available. The tools selected are the form through which the information will be communicated. No single medium is most effective. Therefore, the educator must be flexible, sometimes combining a multimedia approach. media: Task characteristics are defined by the predetermined behavioral objectives. The task to be accomplished depends on identification of the learning domain and the complexity of behavior required by the task. task:
  12. 12. THE THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTIONALMATERIAL delivery system content presentation (Frantz, 1980) &(Weston & Cranston, 1986),
  13. 13. Delivery System both the physical form of the materials and the hardware used to present the materials. For instance, a person is the delivery system for a lecture. This lecture might be embellished through other delivery systems, such as :-  the use of overhead transparencies or slides. projector Videotapes in conjunction with VCRs A computer programs in conjunction with the computer are other examples. (physical form) (hardware). (physical form) (hardware) (physical form) (hardware)
  14. 14. Delivery System
  15. 15. Note for that …. The delivery system is independent of the content of the message.  The choice of the delivery system is influenced by the size of the intended audience, the pacing or flexibility needed for delivery . The sensory aspects most suitable to the audience.
  16. 16. Content The content, or message, is the actual information that is communicated to the learner, which might be on of any topic from When selecting the media, the nurse educator must consider several aspects: • Is the information presented accurately? • Is the medium chosen appropriate to convey particular content? • Is the readability of the materials appropriate for the audience to accomplish a given task?
  17. 17. STEPS OF DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF LEARNING RESOURCE MATERIALS
  18. 18. Review curriculum Pin down notes Enlist possible teaching material Budgeting Selection of appropriate idea Supply needed material
  19. 19. •On review, make notes on ideas for teaching materials in order to teach the skills and knowledge listed in the curriculum or syllabus. •Create the teaching materials that are relevant to the curriculum or the syllabus to teach.
  20. 20. Review curriculum Preliminary step who the learning resource is for ? what the learning resource is designed to do ? how the learning resource will be used ? where the learning resource will be used ? possible mediums to be used ?
  21. 21. Pin down notes • Make notes on the basis of : • the class • the students • the level of students.
  22. 22. •Characteristics of the learners • prior experience/knowledge of content area • skill/ competency profile • range and response to previous learning experiences • level of education • socio-economic background • age and gender • current work • work culture • cultural and ethnic background • disability or learning support needs • preferred learning styles • motivation for learning • language, literacy and numeracy needs
  23. 23. Enlist possible teaching material •Make notes on different kinds of activities relevant for learning in or outside of the class.
  24. 24. Budgeting
  25. 25. Selection of appropriate idea Choose best ideas from list of ideas for class materials. Include materials for beginning, middle, and ending sections of the curriculum or syllabus. Run careful price checks with the help of internet shopping search engines such as Google Shopping or Price grabber to make sure that the materials choose will fit within budget.
  26. 26. Supply of needed material • For each class material item that have decided to make • create a list of supplies needed. • Buy the supplies if necessary • use appropriate tools such as your computer, printer, a copier, scissors, die-cut machine, laminating machine, and others, to create the materials.
  27. 27. TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
  28. 28. I. WRITTEN MATERIALS 1. HANDOUTS: A piece of printed information provided free of charge, especially to accompany a lecture or advertise something
  29. 29. 2. LEAFLETS: A small flat or folded sheet of printed matter, as an advertisement or notice, usually intended for free distribution I. WRITTEN MATERIALS
  30. 30. 3. BOOKS: A written or printed work consisting of pages glued or sewn together along one side and bound in covers. I. WRITTEN MATERIALS
  31. 31. 4. PAMPHLETS: A small booklet or leaflet containing information or arguments about a single subject I. WRITTEN MATERIALS
  32. 32. 7. INSTRUCTION SHEET: Instruction sheets are clear and detailed information on how to do something I. WRITTEN MATERIALS
  33. 33. Advantage 1- written materials are available to the learner as a reference for information when the nurse educator is not immediately present to answer questions or clarify information. 2- Are widely used at all levels of society, so this type of media is acceptable and familiar to the public. 3- Available through commercial sources and are easily obtainable, usually at relatively low cost, for distribution by educators. 4- They often come in convenient forms, such as pamphlets, which are portable and usually contain concise amounts of information.
  34. 34. Disadvantage 1- they are the most abstract form of reality, possibilities for immediate feedback are limited, and the proper reading level is essential to realize their full usefulness. 2- Learners with low literacy skills or those persons who are visually or cognitively impaired may not be able to take full advantage . 3- individuals with low literacy skills understand less healthcare advice and are less likely to take timely actions to reduce their health risks.
  35. 35. COMMERCIALLY PREPARED MATERIALS • A wealth of commercially prepared brochures, posters, pamphlets, and patient-focused texts is currently available. • Attention must also be paid to the cognitive level at which materials are aimed.
  36. 36. COMMERCIALLY PREPARED MATERIALS Foster (1987) has given 3Ps to be considered while reviewing commercial materials • P= Producer • P= Preview of item  examine the accuracy  appropriateness of content • P= Price  Consistent price of tool  cost consideration is on the basis of how quickly the information will become outdated.
  37. 37. COMMERCIALLY PREPARED MATERIALS Advantages: • Ready availability. • Less time-consuming • Cheaper than designing own instructional materials.
  38. 38. COMMERCIALLY PREPARED MATERIALS Disadvantages: Issues of cost, accuracy and adequacy of content, and readability of the materials Some educational booklets are expensive to purchase and impractical to give in large quantities to learners. The actual usability of commercially prepared instructional materials for particular learners must be evaluated on an individual basis
  39. 39. SELD COMPOSED MATERIALS Educators may choose to write their own instructional materials for several reasons, which might include cost saving or the need to tailor content to specific audiences.
  40. 40. DEMONSTRATION MATERIAL illustrations posters, diagrams, illustrations, charts, bulletin boards, flannel boards, flip charts, chalkboards, photographs, and drawings.
  41. 41. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS • All represent unique ways of communicating messages to the learner. • They stimulate the visual senses but can combine the sense of sight with touch and sometimes even smell and taste. • The educator can choose one or more to complement teaching efforts in reaching predetermined objectives.
  42. 42. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS • Bring the learner closer to reality and actively engage him or her in a visual • Demonstration tools are useful for cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skill development.
  43. 43. Advantage • A quick way to attract attention and get an idea across • Flexible (especially if made for easy modification) • Portable (Many posters can be folded for storage and unfolded for mounting. Some blackboards and bulletin boards are onrollers. • Reusable • Stimulate interest or ideas in the observer • Can change or influence attitudes • Purchasable, and depending on the educator’s budget, many can be made. Figure 12–7 shows an “Aspiration Precautions” sign made by an educator to be displaye for use by nurses
  44. 44. Disadvantage • Take up a lot of space • Time-consuming to have prepared, and for that reason tend to be reused again and again, which increases the risk of their becoming outdated • May be overused—they need to be used as supplements to learning, not as an end in themselves • Unsuitable for large audiences if information is to be viewed simultaneously • Cannot present large amounts of information at one time • Not good for teaching psychomotor skills when movement needs to be demonstrated • Get too cluttered when too much information is placed on them
  45. 45. AUDIO VISUAL MATERIALS Audiovisual materials support and enrich the educational process by stimulating the learner’s visual and auditory senses, They are exceptional aids because many can influence all three domains of learning They increase retention of information It is extremely costly, in terms of time and money
  46. 46. AUDIO VISUAL MATERIALS Three issues (Smith, 1987) must be addressed Technical feasibility: technical expertise, professional and repair service support, equipment fit and replacement Economic feasibility budgetary allowance and justification of cost Social/political acceptability learner’s willingness to use, impersonality of machines, acceptance by institutional administrations
  47. 47. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
  48. 48. • Help the nurse educator to deliver a message creatively and clearly • Multimedia approach assist learners in gaining increased awareness and skills as well as retaining more effectively what they learn (Rankin & Stallings, 2001) • Stimulates the learner’s bodily senses.
  49. 49. • Help clarify abstract or complex concepts. • Add variety to the teaching and learning experiences (Babcock & Miller, 1994) • Reinforcing learning • Potentially bring realism to the experience • Saving time and energy on the part of both the teacher and the learner.
  50. 50. BARRIERS IN DEVELOPING LEARNING RESOURCE MATERIAL • Lack of systematic programme planning in large scale • Low budget allocation • Inadequate training for teachers and facilitators • Selection system of teachers • Community mobilization plans for resource generation at the local level.
  51. 51. Thanks for you listing Reference :- Susan B. Bastable (2003). Nurse as Educator : Principles of Teaching and Learning for Nursing Practice. USA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.. 343- 351.

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