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1 S2013 England after the Conquest

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Legacy of the Anglo-Saxons. The followup to William the Conqueror's invasion. His supporters. His wife, Matilda. Castle construction.

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1 S2013 England after the Conquest

  1. 1. England After the Conquest
  2. 2. Political EconomicMilitary Cultural
  3. 3. Some Themes (1066-1327)• Problem of succession• Development of Common Law• Distribution of power – King – Nobles – Commoners
  4. 4. Some Themes (1066-1327+)• King vs. Church; England vs. Rome• England vs. France
  5. 5. Legacy – Pre-Conquest England• Tax system – Danegeld, heregeld• Shiring• Cities• Law – Charters in the vernacular• Concentration of land ownership• Agricultural advancements
  6. 6. England 1066Sons of Godwine
  7. 7. William the ConquerorSuccessor to Edward theConfessor
  8. 8. William the Rightful Successor• …above all else the one God to be venerated throughout his entire kingdom; the one Christian faith always to be kept inviolate; peace and security to be maintained between Englishmen and Normans• … I wish and enjoin: that in [cases affecting] lands, as in all other matters, all shall keep and hold the law of King Edward, with the addition of those [amendments] which I have made for the benefit of the English people
  9. 9. Succession
  10. 10. Succession - Different CustomsNormandy A bequest, made formally, in the presence of witnesses, it could not legally be revokedEngland Verba novissima An act made on ones death-bed, in extremis, was taken to supersede previous donations of the same propertyJohn S. Beckerman “Succession in Normandy, 1087, and inEngland, 1066: The Role of Testamentary Custom”Speculum, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Apr., 1972), pp. 258-260
  11. 11. Harold’s Oath
  12. 12. Matilda
  13. 13. Anglo-Norman Empire
  14. 14. FeudalismWhen did feudalism start in Great Britain? a. 873 Alfred the Great b. 1215 John c. 1066 Conquest ✔ d. 1042 Edward the Confessor e. 1776 Revolution in the colonies
  15. 15. FeudalismWhen did feudalism end in Royal territories? a. 2004 b. 1648 Cromwell c. 1215 Magna Carta d. 1560 Henry VIII e. 2008 f. Not yet
  16. 16. Date set for demise of the feudal systemNovember 22, 2002 Scotlands ancient feudal systemof property ownership will be consigned to history injust over two years.The legislation, one of a series ofexecutive bills to reform Scotlands land and propertylaws, is based on a report by the Law Commission thatfollowed the passing of the Abolition of Feudal TenureAct in 2000. both pieces of legislation would come intoforce on November 28, 2004. Sark - 2008
  17. 17. Royal Finances - Feudal• ‘Aids’ – knighthood, marriage, ransom• Relief – Payments on inheritance – Marriage, wardship• Scutage
  18. 18. Royal Finances – Non-feudal• Geld – land based tax• Income from royal demesne – rent – sale of crops and livestock• Tallage – tax imposed upon residents of King’s land, townsmen and Jews
  19. 19. Royal Finances – Judicial• Judicial writs Enforcement• Fines • Foresters• Forest • Sheriffs
  20. 20. Choices for the Anglo-Saxons• Capture – gentile confinement – monastery• Flee – Scotland – Flanders – Scandinavia – Byzantium
  21. 21. Choices for the Anglo-Saxons• Join and cooperate – work as administrators – switch masters – Adopt Norman ways • inter-marry • change names• Rebel
  22. 22. The Norman Occupation Close associates of William 170 Tenants-in-chief 5,000 -10,000 Knights vs. 1-1.5 million English
  23. 23. William’s Supporters Name Ships Manors (£)Robert, Count of Mortain 120 2100Odo, Bishop of Bayeux 100 >3000William, Count of Evreux 80Roger of Montgomery 60 2430William fitz Osbern 60 forfeitHugh, Earl of Chester 60 800Robert, Count of Eu 60 <180Roger of Beaumont 60 <114
  24. 24. Wasting of the Southeast
  25. 25. Fortifying England Castles
  26. 26. Motte and Bailey
  27. 27. Motte and Bailey Castle
  28. 28. 1067• Temporary fortifications – London – tower – Ludgate? –Montfichet – London - Baynard’s Castle• England entrusted to William Fitz Osbern and Bishop Odo when William returns to Normandy
  29. 29. Motte and Bailey: Windsor
  30. 30. Arundel, 1067, 1138
  31. 31. Clifford’s Tower York
  32. 32. Colchester
  33. 33. Chepstow Welsh Border
  34. 34. Expanding Territory Fighting Rebels• Anglo-Saxon holdouts – Danish allies – Norse allies – Welsh allies – Scottish allies• Disgruntled Normans

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