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1. F2013 Age of Chaucer - Introduction

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Review of Norman and Angevin England leading to the 14th Century. The importance of the wine trade and the role of vintners including Chaucer's ancestors.

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1. F2013 Age of Chaucer - Introduction

  1. 1. England Age of Chaucer John of Gaunt Yersinia pestis Richard II
  2. 2. People (Pilgrims)
  3. 3. Possessions of the English King William the Conqueror 1087
  4. 4. Possessions of the English King Henry I ~1135
  5. 5. Continental Possessions Henry II 1154-1184
  6. 6. Thomas a Becket • Advisor, administrator for Henry II • Archbishop of Canterbury • Assassinated 1170 Reliquary Chasse with Scenes of the Martyrdom 1173-1180 Metropolitan Museum of Art
  7. 7. Richard I English Losses French Gains Losses on the borders of Aquitaine
  8. 8. Loss of territory by John
  9. 9. Scotland: Problems of Succession
  10. 10. Scotland: Wars of Independence 1. Inverurie (1307) 2. Methven (1306) 3. Pass of Brander (1307) 4. Dalry (1306) 5. Dupplin Moor (1332) 6. Stirling Bridge(1297) 7. Bannockburn (1314) 8. Falkirk (1298) 9. Dunbar (1296) 10. Loudon Hill (1307)
  11. 11. Presentations on the Web www.slideshare.net/robehrlich
  12. 12. Edward II – Defeat and Deposition Jennifer Paxton • First (English) Prince of Wales • Scotland continued • French connection • Favoritism and a sordid life and death(?) – Marlowe – Brecht
  13. 13. Strike 1: Gaveston • Gascon • Appointment to a position with control of patronage and hence an object of resentment • Ordinances formalize role and meeting of parliament; banish Gaveston • His return is marked by a trial and execution
  14. 14. Strike 2: Scotland 1314 Defeat at Bannockburn Great famine
  15. 15. Strike 3: The Despensers Isabella and Mortimer • Power given to the Despenser family – Corruption – Rebellion joined by Mortimers • Queen Isabella and her lover, Mortimer – Invasion – Execution of Despenser
  16. 16. Out • Abdication of Edward II in favor of his young son, Edward III • Murder of Edward II at Berkeley Castle
  17. 17. Wine - Vintners tun = 256 gallons
  18. 18. Chaucer Family
  19. 19. Wines • Sweet wine – Spain • Caprike – Cyprus or Capri • Fortified - Portugal • White – Chablis • Bitter (vinegar) • Bordelaise and Haut Pays
  20. 20. Wine Gascon Wine Production 13th C Bordelaise and Haut-Pays
  21. 21. Wine Trade • Gascon Charter (1302) – Safe conduct – Free trade in exchange for a fixed duty • Carta Mercatoria (1303) – Extended to all merchants • Increasing importance of English importers
  22. 22. Wine Producers • Area switches to grapes and wine production • Importer of grain from/through England
  23. 23. Wine Consumers • Royal and noble households – Imported through royal butler – Best wine reserved fro royal table – More than a million bottles for the wedding of Edward II – Wine as gifts and for troops • Lesser households – Problems of adulteration and substitution • Taverns • Maximum prices set
  24. 24. Wine Costs • Producer costs – Weather fluctuations – Labor • Transport – Protection of the fleet • Costs in England – Unloading – Retailer markup – Price controls
  25. 25. Vintner’s Company • People of the same trade – Live in the same area – Attend the same church – Organize into livery companies • 1363 Charter gives it a monopoly on the wine trade with Gascony – Retained in City until 2006 – Right of Swan Upping
  26. 26. Vintner’s Company Feast of Five Kings
  27. 27. Prominent Vintners - Mayors • Henry de Waleys 1273–4, 1281–4, and 1298–9 • Sir Richer Refham (son of vintner) 1310-11 • John de Gisors 1311-13, 1314-15 • Henry Picard 1357 (Feast of Five Kings) • Richard Lyons (corrupt) financier, warden of the mint
  28. 28. London 1300
  29. 29. Vintry Ward
  30. 30. Next Week Edward III • Edward III • Continuing problems in Scotland • War with France • Wool and the Merchant
  31. 31. Wheel of Fortune Holkham Bible 1320-1330 I rule I have ruled I am without a kingdom I shall rule

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