1. F2013 Age of Chaucer - Introduction


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Review of Norman and Angevin England leading to the 14th Century. The importance of the wine trade and the role of vintners including Chaucer's ancestors.

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  • Source http://www2.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/sc/chaucer/12franklin.htmWife of bath, knight, miller/franklin, prioress, clerk of Oxford
  • Between 1171 and 1177 the monks at Christchurch cathedral in Canterbury, England, recorded hundreds of stories attesting to the miracle working properties of the remains of Thomas, their former Archbishop. Thomas's blood, dutifully gathered by those who were present at the scene of his murder on the night of December 29, 1170, proved to have especially strong thaumaturgical properties, accounting for the hundreds of pilgrim's ampullae that display his features. In fact, it was the potency of Thomas's blood that led to his canonization by Pope Alexander III on February 21, 1173.Although Thomas's initial resting place in the crypt of the cathedral appeased the first few pilgrims that visited his tomb, it quickly became apparent that this space was insufficient to meet the needs of all those who wished to "see" his remains. When a fire broke out in the choir on September 5, 1174, the need to rebuild became associated with the need to address Thomas's growing cult.The final design, begun by William of Sens and completed by William the Englishman, introduced the Trinity chapel, located in the far eastern end of the apse, which culminates in the famous Corona, an axial space that once housed a shrine containing the crown of Thomas' severed head. Richly gilded and decorated with precious jewels, including the Regale of France, a large ruby donated by Louis VII in 1179, this shrine was the climax of the pilgrim's experience.
  • William the Lion brother of Malcolm IV and grandson of David I who was son of Malcolm III (defeater of MacBeth). A revolt led to his capture and with the Treaty of Falaise he swore fealty to Henry II.
  • Underlined battles of Bruce with other Scots
  • Andrew may have been a tavern keeper. Robert moved to London and was an apprentice of a John le Chaucer. John was involved in a street brawl following a series of attacks by two groups. The result of the brawl was a mortal injury. He left property to Robert perhapos with the condition that he assume the name and also take care of his daughters. Robert married Mary the widow of a pepperer.John Heyron the younger, with this John de Dowgate and with Stephen de Abingdon, was riding on the feast of the Translation of St Thomas, 1301, a day savouring of pilgrimage, on the Canterbury road through Sittingbourne and Ten- ham, when neighbouring villagers tried to take Heyron's dog, perhaps for illicit hunting, since it is described as leporarius. When the party reached Tenham two leaders among the peasants dragged Heyron from his horse, holding him whilst it was killed by their reeve, and assaulting Stephen de Abingdon also. Heyron, Abingdon, and John de Dowgate all sued the villagers for damages in the King's Bench at York, suing out their writs in the Michaelnas term of 1301. Their son The lad, John, had been abducted in Cordwainer Street Ward by his paternal aunt, Agnes de Westhall, by night in December, 1324, from the custody of his mother and her third husband Richard Chaucer,'0 that is in all probability from their home at tenement B in Watling Street The objective was to marry him to her daughter Joan to secure inheritance.
  • Overturned previous restrictions on aliens living in the country for an extended period and selling retail. The struggle with the Gascon merchant vintners culminated in the grant to them by the crown of the so-called Gascon Charter in 1302 This allowed the Gascons safe conduct throughout the kin's realm, permitted them to trade wholesale, and allowed them to dwell where they wished and to keep their own hostels. Moreover, on the arrival of the new vintage, all existing wine stocks were to be tested by juries and any which had deteriorated were to be destroyed. The king also released the Gascons from the recta prise; and in exchange they agreed to the payment of a new duty of 2s. on every tun of wine (256 gallons) which they imported (Lloyd, 1982). Five months later in 1303 these privileges were extended to the whole alien community.The CartaMercatoria, meaning 'the charter of the merchants', was a 1303 charter granted by Edward I to foreign merchants in England. It guaranteed them freedom to trade, protection under the law, and exemption from tolls on bridges, roads and cities. It also guaranteed no increase in the duty rates they paid.The charter was revoked by Edward II, owing to complaints by English mechants. In practice however, foreign merchants retained most of their rights.by the 15th century so much of the Duchy's lands had gone over to viticulture that its population was no longer capable of supporting itself with foodstuffs, and was forced to rely on the importation of grain and dairy products from England (Crawford, 1977, p. 16). The growing interdependence of Gascony and England had fundamental consequences for the wine trade and the personnel involved in it. Primarily, it succeeded in securing a constant supply of wine which stabilised the mechanisms of trade, and improved its potential and actual capability to generate wealth and investment. The impetus and leadership in the encouragement and maintenance of this investment was largely the remit of the merchants centred on London.
  • he Vintners' first charter (15th July, 1363) was in fact a grant of monopoly for trade with Gascony. It gave far-reaching powers, including duties of search throughout England and the right to buy herrings and cloths to sell to the Gascons.The wine trade was of immense importance to the medieval economy - between 1446 and 1448, wine made up nearly one-third of England's entire import trade. Since their first charter in 1363, it was the Vintners who presided over this trade. The Vintners' Company was placed eleventh out of the Twelve Great Livery Companies in the order of precedence of 1515.Swan Upping is an annual ceremonial and practical activity in Britain in which mute swans on the River Thames are rounded up, caught, marked, and then released.Traditionally, the Monarch of the United Kingdom retains the right to ownership of all unmarked mute swans in open water, but only exercises ownership on certain stretches of the River Thames and its surrounding tributaries. This dates from the 12th century, during which time swans were a common food source for royalty. Swan Upping is a means of establishing a swan census and today also serves to check the health of swans. Under a Royal Charter of the 15th century, theVintners' Company and the Dyers' Company, two Livery Companies of the City of London, are entitled to share in the Sovereign's ownership. They conduct the census through a process of ringing the swan's feet, but the swans are no longer eaten
  • The painting of the Feast of the Five Kings is a smaller replica by Albert Chevallier Taylor of his mural in the Royal Exchange. It was presented to the Company by Henry Dexter Truscott (Master 1922-3).It depicts the famous occasion in the fourteenth century when the Vintners are said to have entertained the kings of England, Scotland, Denmark, France and Cyprus. This event, when the Vintners out-classed all other Livery companies, has been preserved for six centuries in the Company's toast -"The Vintners' Company may it flourish root and branch forever with five and the Master”.
  • The queen is in the centre of the wheel. The four figures of a king round the wheel are grasping, wearing, losing, and without a crown, referring to their ascent and descent. The fallen king drops his sceptre. The falling and fallen kings are bearded; an allusion to the ages of man. Image taken from Holkham Bible Picture Book. Originally published/produced in England, circa 1320-1330.at thetop ofthe wheel sits a young king holding a sceptrein his right hand, and, in his left hand, ascroll boldly inscribedRegno (i rule).18 to theright a kingwith grey hair and beard plungesdownhead-first,hissceptre and crownfallingaway from him. he holds a scroll on whichis written, upside-down like the figure, Regnavi (i have ruled). across the bottom of thepage a barefoot, grey-haired, bearded man isstretched out and looks up at Fortune. he hasreachedthenadirofhisfortunes, andholds a scrollinscribedSum sine regno (iamwithout akingdom). Finallywesee a youthful beardlessmanascendingwiththeturningwheel,whostretches up to grasp a crownwithhislefthand,while holding a scrollwithhisright. thescroll bearstheinscriptionRegnabo (ishallrule). t
  • 1. F2013 Age of Chaucer - Introduction

    1. 1. England Age of Chaucer John of Gaunt Yersinia pestis Richard II
    2. 2. People (Pilgrims)
    3. 3. Possessions of the English King William the Conqueror 1087
    4. 4. Possessions of the English King Henry I ~1135
    5. 5. Continental Possessions Henry II 1154-1184
    6. 6. Thomas a Becket • Advisor, administrator for Henry II • Archbishop of Canterbury • Assassinated 1170 Reliquary Chasse with Scenes of the Martyrdom 1173-1180 Metropolitan Museum of Art
    7. 7. Richard I English Losses French Gains Losses on the borders of Aquitaine
    8. 8. Loss of territory by John
    9. 9. Scotland: Problems of Succession
    10. 10. Scotland: Wars of Independence 1. Inverurie (1307) 2. Methven (1306) 3. Pass of Brander (1307) 4. Dalry (1306) 5. Dupplin Moor (1332) 6. Stirling Bridge(1297) 7. Bannockburn (1314) 8. Falkirk (1298) 9. Dunbar (1296) 10. Loudon Hill (1307)
    11. 11. Presentations on the Web www.slideshare.net/robehrlich
    12. 12. Edward II – Defeat and Deposition Jennifer Paxton • First (English) Prince of Wales • Scotland continued • French connection • Favoritism and a sordid life and death(?) – Marlowe – Brecht
    13. 13. Strike 1: Gaveston • Gascon • Appointment to a position with control of patronage and hence an object of resentment • Ordinances formalize role and meeting of parliament; banish Gaveston • His return is marked by a trial and execution
    14. 14. Strike 2: Scotland 1314 Defeat at Bannockburn Great famine
    15. 15. Strike 3: The Despensers Isabella and Mortimer • Power given to the Despenser family – Corruption – Rebellion joined by Mortimers • Queen Isabella and her lover, Mortimer – Invasion – Execution of Despenser
    16. 16. Out • Abdication of Edward II in favor of his young son, Edward III • Murder of Edward II at Berkeley Castle
    17. 17. Wine - Vintners tun = 256 gallons
    18. 18. Chaucer Family
    19. 19. Wines • Sweet wine – Spain • Caprike – Cyprus or Capri • Fortified - Portugal • White – Chablis • Bitter (vinegar) • Bordelaise and Haut Pays
    20. 20. Wine Gascon Wine Production 13th C Bordelaise and Haut-Pays
    21. 21. Wine Trade • Gascon Charter (1302) – Safe conduct – Free trade in exchange for a fixed duty • Carta Mercatoria (1303) – Extended to all merchants • Increasing importance of English importers
    22. 22. Wine Producers • Area switches to grapes and wine production • Importer of grain from/through England
    23. 23. Wine Consumers • Royal and noble households – Imported through royal butler – Best wine reserved fro royal table – More than a million bottles for the wedding of Edward II – Wine as gifts and for troops • Lesser households – Problems of adulteration and substitution • Taverns • Maximum prices set
    24. 24. Wine Costs • Producer costs – Weather fluctuations – Labor • Transport – Protection of the fleet • Costs in England – Unloading – Retailer markup – Price controls
    25. 25. Vintner’s Company • People of the same trade – Live in the same area – Attend the same church – Organize into livery companies • 1363 Charter gives it a monopoly on the wine trade with Gascony – Retained in City until 2006 – Right of Swan Upping
    26. 26. Vintner’s Company Feast of Five Kings
    27. 27. Prominent Vintners - Mayors • Henry de Waleys 1273–4, 1281–4, and 1298–9 • Sir Richer Refham (son of vintner) 1310-11 • John de Gisors 1311-13, 1314-15 • Henry Picard 1357 (Feast of Five Kings) • Richard Lyons (corrupt) financier, warden of the mint
    28. 28. London 1300
    29. 29. Vintry Ward
    30. 30. Next Week Edward III • Edward III • Continuing problems in Scotland • War with France • Wool and the Merchant
    31. 31. Wheel of Fortune Holkham Bible 1320-1330 I rule I have ruled I am without a kingdom I shall rule