AP EUROPEAN UNITS 1&2 REVIEW         Middle Ages
Agriculture and the Feudal System•   Less attacks in country=more security•   Horse collar brings about more animal power•...
Three Field System• Peasant village is divided into three parts:  – 1st field: sown with one crop (ex: wheat)  – 2nd field...
Feudalism• Political and social government system that is  based on the granting of land in return for loyalty,  military ...
Feudalism Breakdown• Fief: land granted• Vassal: one who received the land and fights  for his lord when the situation ari...
The Normans in England• Conquered by Duke of Normandy,  William the Conqueror in 1066 at  Battle of Hastings  – Served as ...
The Manor and Serfs• Manor: estate of a lord• Serfs were “bound to the soil”• While lords provided protection  and adminis...
The Rise of Towns and Commerce• No great commercial centers or merchant  class• Early traders are Jews because Judaism  of...
Towns (cont.)• Trade puts > money in circulation• Great migration from country cities• Local governments wished to govern...
Corporate Liberties• Built walls for defense• Economic solidarity  – Locally grown and sold to prevent competition  – Tari...
Guilds• Masters supervised affairs of  specific trade• Women worked in clothing  guilds• Apprenticeship Journeyman  Mast...
Towns and Decline of Serfdom• Lords offered freer terms to entice peasants to  settle on new land• Peasants obtain persona...
Changes in Monarchial Rule• Hereditary• Rule by executive orders• Main pillar of government is assertion of legal  jurisdi...
Taxation• Kings needed money for govt.  machinery/war• Magna Carta in England 1215  – English lords joined by reps from   ...
Origins of Parliament• Kings hold great talks with chief retainers  – Spanish: Cortes  – Germany: Diets  – France: Estates...
The Three Estates• Parliament represents “estates of the realm”  – Clergy: first and highest class  – Landed/Noble: second...
England’s Parliament• Two houses: Lords and Commons   – Lords: great prelates and lay magnates   – House of Commons: lesse...
Early Middle Ages Timeline• 410 AD-Visigoths sack Rome and Roman  Empire deteriorates  – Byzantine Empire is left• 476 AD-...
Timeline (cont.)• 732 AD-Battle of Tours  – Franks repel Muslim invasion  – Dark Ages (400-1000); period of    recovery/st...
Timeline (cont.)• 800 AD-Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy  Roman Emperor and King of the Franks  – Marks beginning of the...
Timeline (cont.)• 1000’s- Agricultural Revolution  – Increased productivity through the use of:     • Iron plow     • 3 fi...
Timeline (cont.)• 1054 AD-Great Schism: split in the Eastern  Orthodox and Catholic Churches  – Unite to fight for the Hol...
Timeline (cont.)• 1066 AD-Normans capture England with  leadership of William the Conqueror  – French chivalric code  – Do...
Timeline (cont.)• 1095 AD- Pope Urban II calls for a “great  crusade”  – 1st Crusade: led by Peter the Hermit     • Leader...
Timeline (cont.)• Effects of Crusades  – Increased wealth and power of Church and papacy  – Expanded trade routes and new ...
European Civilization in 1300• Separate institutions of church and state• Economic institutions, long distance trade,  jud...
Scholasticism• Intellectual movement of the late 13th and  14th centuries• Based on work of Thomas Aquinas’ Summa  Theolog...
Scholasticism (cont.)• And reasoning about faith was a form of  weakness• Developed in medieval universities  – These star...
Thomas Aquinas• Summa Theologica• Influenced by Aristotelian empirialism• 5 ways in which God’s existence can be proved  –...
Medieval Church and Papacy• The Church in Crisis  – Clergy is only literate class  – Christian beliefs merged with pagan m...
Medieval Church and Papacy (cont.)• 962 AD-Holy Roman Empire proclaimed  – Preserve and extend the Christian faith  – Puri...
Innocent III• Feudal overlord in realms of England, Aragon,  and Portugal• Struggled to repress heresy• 1215-calls for a g...
Theology• Study of religion• Anslem wrote treatise called Cur Deus Homo  (Why Did God Become Man?)  – Reason supported fai...
Disasters of the 14th Century• Babylonian Captivity-keeping French popes in  France and benefitting the French kings• Pope...
Babylonian Captivity• Move to Avignon  – Roman partisan families battling for influence    deposed Pope Boniface VIII  – F...
Critics of Babylonian Captivity• Marsiglio of Padua  – “Defensor Pacis”  – 1st to write for a separation of church and sta...
Papacy Restored to Rome• Great Western Schism-two popes   – Rome & Avignon   – Rise of concillar movement• Babylonian Capt...
The Great Schism• Papal revenues rose and new papal taxes  implemented• Complaints of extravagance and worldliness of  pap...
100 Years War• Fought over English area in Northern France• England vs. France• Powers of Parliament expand as kings need ...
Happenings• Black Death (1356)• Peasants Revolt (1381)• War of the Roses-upper class war in England  between opposing nobl...
The Upheaval in Western Christendom• Authority of papacy and Roman Catholic  church questioned• Less regard for Christian ...
The Black Death•   ½ of all of Europe died•   First struck in 1348•   Disrupted marriage and family life•   Trade exchange...
Revolts and Repression• Worker’s rebel as upper class tries to control  wages  – Wat Tyler’s Rebellion  – Jaqueries• Royal...
Troubles of the Medieval Church• Centralized in papacy• Weakened by believing in exists for benefit of  clergy• Papacy bec...
Lollards and Hussites• Lollards-those who held unsettling ideas  about Church• Thoughts of poor expressed by Jon Wyatt  – ...
The Concillar Movement• 1409-church council met at Pisa   – Both reigning popes deposed and due election of     another   ...
Church Corruption and Indulgences•   Church corrupted by $$$•   Simony-buy or sell a church office•   Churchmen living wit...
Middle Ages Questions1. What important institutions began in the mid-  12th century?
1. Universities
Middle Ages Questions2. During which war was Joan of Arc alive?
2. Hundred Years War
Middle Ages Questions3. During which century did the Church first seek  to increase its control over heretics?
13th century
Middle Ages Questions• What was between the English nobility began  in the 1400s?
War of the Roses
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Ap european units 1&2 review middle ages

  1. 1. AP EUROPEAN UNITS 1&2 REVIEW Middle Ages
  2. 2. Agriculture and the Feudal System• Less attacks in country=more security• Horse collar brings about more animal power• New inventions + Christian clergy= serfdom replacing slavery• Medieval Christians did NOT enslave each other• Communications improved and there was less isolation
  3. 3. Three Field System• Peasant village is divided into three parts: – 1st field: sown with one crop (ex: wheat) – 2nd field: sown with another crop (ex: barley) – 3rd field: left to lie fallow• Fields were rotated each year• 2/3 of land came into annual use• Increase in supply of food
  4. 4. Feudalism• Political and social government system that is based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, etc.• Charlemagne’s death brings about the power of “counts”• There was no central ruler who could take charge and repel invaders, so defense became localized• Lords protected vassal and assured justice and tenure of land – Ended disputes
  5. 5. Feudalism Breakdown• Fief: land granted• Vassal: one who received the land and fights for his lord when the situation arises• Lord: one who grants the land and protects the vassals KING-provide $$ and knights NOBELS-provide 900’s AD protection& military service KNIGHTS-provide food and service PEASANTS/SERFS
  6. 6. The Normans in England• Conquered by Duke of Normandy, William the Conqueror in 1066 at Battle of Hastings – Served as King of England and France for a while• King had considerable power-more civil peace and security• Brought feudalism, Norse influence, and French language to England• Early form of constitutional government BATTLE OF HASTINGS
  7. 7. The Manor and Serfs• Manor: estate of a lord• Serfs were “bound to the soil”• While lords provided protection and administration of justice, serfs worked the land• No money in feudalism, because there was no $$$ in circulation
  8. 8. The Rise of Towns and Commerce• No great commercial centers or merchant class• Early traders are Jews because Judaism offered communication among different Mediterranean cultures• Venice founded in 570-brought Eastern goods up the Adriatic Sea
  9. 9. Towns (cont.)• Trade puts > money in circulation• Great migration from country cities• Local governments wished to govern themselves• Towns were largest and closest @ trade routes• Many towns became imperial free cities within the HRE• More intensive town prevents political unification
  10. 10. Corporate Liberties• Built walls for defense• Economic solidarity – Locally grown and sold to prevent competition – Tariffs/tolls; coined own money• No individual rights – Didn’t want individual rights; wanted to band together• Ex: Italy and Germany
  11. 11. Guilds• Masters supervised affairs of specific trade• Women worked in clothing guilds• Apprenticeship Journeyman Master• Improper to work for monetary gain
  12. 12. Towns and Decline of Serfdom• Lords offered freer terms to entice peasants to settle on new land• Peasants obtain personal freedom from their own lands in return for payments• Serfdom disappears by 15th century
  13. 13. Changes in Monarchial Rule• Hereditary• Rule by executive orders• Main pillar of government is assertion of legal jurisdiction and military might
  14. 14. Taxation• Kings needed money for govt. machinery/war• Magna Carta in England 1215 – English lords joined by reps from London required King John to confirm and guarantee historic liberties
  15. 15. Origins of Parliament• Kings hold great talks with chief retainers – Spanish: Cortes – Germany: Diets – France: Estates General – British Isles: Parliament• Called as meansof publicizing/strengthening royal rule
  16. 16. The Three Estates• Parliament represents “estates of the realm” – Clergy: first and highest class – Landed/Noble: second in rank – Burghers: lowliest
  17. 17. England’s Parliament• Two houses: Lords and Commons – Lords: great prelates and lay magnates – House of Commons: lesser landholders• England was small and jealousy rare
  18. 18. Early Middle Ages Timeline• 410 AD-Visigoths sack Rome and Roman Empire deteriorates – Byzantine Empire is left• 476 AD-End of the Roman Empire • Emperor Romulus Augustus deposed by Goths
  19. 19. Timeline (cont.)• 732 AD-Battle of Tours – Franks repel Muslim invasion – Dark Ages (400-1000); period of recovery/stagnation – Christianity is official religion – Muslims have N. Africa and move up Iberian Peninsula
  20. 20. Timeline (cont.)• 800 AD-Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks – Marks beginning of the rise of power of the popes – Church + state – Amassed largest empire since the fall of the Roman Empire
  21. 21. Timeline (cont.)• 1000’s- Agricultural Revolution – Increased productivity through the use of: • Iron plow • 3 field system • Horse collar
  22. 22. Timeline (cont.)• 1054 AD-Great Schism: split in the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches – Unite to fight for the Holy Land
  23. 23. Timeline (cont.)• 1066 AD-Normans capture England with leadership of William the Conqueror – French chivalric code – Domesday Book (survey of land/property) – Old Vikings
  24. 24. Timeline (cont.)• 1095 AD- Pope Urban II calls for a “great crusade” – 1st Crusade: led by Peter the Hermit • Leaders take up call • Successful in taking back the Holy Land – 3rd Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted vs. Saladin • Christians are allowed passage for pilgrimages by Saladin • Holy Land is not gained back
  25. 25. Timeline (cont.)• Effects of Crusades – Increased wealth and power of Church and papacy – Expanded trade routes and new markets – Breakdown of feudal aristocracy because nobles are dying off – Intellectual development-resurgence of Eastern learning – Voyages of Discovery
  26. 26. European Civilization in 1300• Separate institutions of church and state• Economic institutions, long distance trade, judicial councils, universities• Enduring faith in Christianity
  27. 27. Scholasticism• Intellectual movement of the late 13th and 14th centuries• Based on work of Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologica – Wrote over 80 works assimilating ancient knowledge with Medieval Christianity• Marriage of faith and reason
  28. 28. Scholasticism (cont.)• And reasoning about faith was a form of weakness• Developed in medieval universities – These started as educational guilds – 1st University: Bologna, Italy
  29. 29. Thomas Aquinas• Summa Theologica• Influenced by Aristotelian empirialism• 5 ways in which God’s existence can be proved – First mover – Efficient causes – Necessity – Graduation – Living for salvation
  30. 30. Medieval Church and Papacy• The Church in Crisis – Clergy is only literate class – Christian beliefs merged with pagan mysticism – Rome is something legendary and far away – Pope had no influence
  31. 31. Medieval Church and Papacy (cont.)• 962 AD-Holy Roman Empire proclaimed – Preserve and extend the Christian faith – Purify monastic life and set higher standards for papacy – Refused to accept any authority except Rome• 1022-bishops recognize emperor as feudal head but look to Rome for spiritual authority
  32. 32. Innocent III• Feudal overlord in realms of England, Aragon, and Portugal• Struggled to repress heresy• 1215-calls for a great church council – Keeping clergy away from worldly temptations – Regularize the belief in supernatural – Sacraments are channel of God’s saving grace
  33. 33. Theology• Study of religion• Anslem wrote treatise called Cur Deus Homo (Why Did God Become Man?) – Reason supported faith• Abelard wrote Sic es No (Yes or No?) – Inconsistent statements made by St. Augustine and others – Apply logic, show truth, make faith consistent
  34. 34. Disasters of the 14th Century• Babylonian Captivity-keeping French popes in France and benefitting the French kings• Pope’s political position – Ruler of papal states – Needed to maintain armies to hold position – Often threatened by Germanic, French, and Italian city states ROMAN CATHOLIC HEIRARCHY POPES PRIESTS/MONKS BISHOPS/ABBOTS ARCHBISHOPS CARDINALS
  35. 35. Babylonian Captivity• Move to Avignon – Roman partisan families battling for influence deposed Pope Boniface VIII – French influence elects Clement V as Pope • Decides to reside in Avignon
  36. 36. Critics of Babylonian Captivity• Marsiglio of Padua – “Defensor Pacis” – 1st to write for a separation of church and state• William of Ockham – “Ockham’s Razor” – Accused Pope John XXII of heresay
  37. 37. Papacy Restored to Rome• Great Western Schism-two popes – Rome & Avignon – Rise of concillar movement• Babylonian Captivity ends in 1378 and papacy is restored to Rome only
  38. 38. The Great Schism• Papal revenues rose and new papal taxes implemented• Complaints of extravagance and worldliness of papacy
  39. 39. 100 Years War• Fought over English area in Northern France• England vs. France• Powers of Parliament expand as kings need more $$$• Battle of Crecy: emergence of longbow/cavalry• Battle of Agincourt: win for Henry V• Battle of Orleans: Joan of Arc – Burned at stake for heresy and witchcraft
  40. 40. Happenings• Black Death (1356)• Peasants Revolt (1381)• War of the Roses-upper class war in England between opposing noble factions
  41. 41. The Upheaval in Western Christendom• Authority of papacy and Roman Catholic church questioned• Less regard for Christian values
  42. 42. The Black Death• ½ of all of Europe died• First struck in 1348• Disrupted marriage and family life• Trade exchange was disrupted• Deaths  famine
  43. 43. Revolts and Repression• Worker’s rebel as upper class tries to control wages – Wat Tyler’s Rebellion – Jaqueries• Royalty spending more money • Inflation and higher prices • New taxes • “Golden Age” of medieval parliaments
  44. 44. Troubles of the Medieval Church• Centralized in papacy• Weakened by believing in exists for benefit of clergy• Papacy becomes corrupt• Unwilling to reform
  45. 45. Lollards and Hussites• Lollards-those who held unsettling ideas about Church• Thoughts of poor expressed by Jon Wyatt – True church could do w/o elaborate possessions – Ordinary people can attain salvation through reading the Bible• Hussite Wars ravage Europe in 15th century • Hussite vs. Germans• Thoughts of poor expressed by Jon Wyatt
  46. 46. The Concillar Movement• 1409-church council met at Pisa – Both reigning popes deposed and due election of another – First two refused to resign• 1414-council met at Constance w/ 3 goals • End threefold schism (all three withdrew and Martin V elected) • Extradite heresy • Reform church• Unity of church restored
  47. 47. Church Corruption and Indulgences• Church corrupted by $$$• Simony-buy or sell a church office• Churchmen living with mistresses• 1300-Pope Boniface gave encourage of sale of indulgences
  48. 48. Middle Ages Questions1. What important institutions began in the mid- 12th century?
  49. 49. 1. Universities
  50. 50. Middle Ages Questions2. During which war was Joan of Arc alive?
  51. 51. 2. Hundred Years War
  52. 52. Middle Ages Questions3. During which century did the Church first seek to increase its control over heretics?
  53. 53. 13th century
  54. 54. Middle Ages Questions• What was between the English nobility began in the 1400s?
  55. 55. War of the Roses

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