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12. F2012 England before the Conquest


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Aethelred - a comparison between him and Alfred in their dealings with Danish invaders

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12. F2012 England before the Conquest

  1. 1. England Before the Conquest Æthelred
  2. 2. Æthelred – Alfred Compared Alfred ÆthelredPaying Payment to buy time to Payments at increasingVikings build up defenses rate (gafol, Danegeld)Efficacy Peace over 15 years Temporary respitesDefenses Burhs as garrisoned Existing burhs now forts commercial centers Stone walls added New burhs at South Cadbury, Old Sarum, and CissburyFyrds Rotating standing army Ad hoc army
  3. 3. Æthelred – Alfred Compared Alfred ÆthelredArmy Shortage of armor Large stock of coats of mailNavy Start navy but it is Start navy but betrayed ineffective by WulfnothDealing Forced to contribute Forced to contributewith the hostages as well as geld supplies as well as geldenemySupport Support of nobles Lack of support by many nobles
  4. 4. Æthelred – Alfred Compared Alfred ÆthelredEnemy force 2,000-3,000 5,000-10,000 organized troopsArea defended Wessex EnglandGovernmental Not yet organized OrganizedstructureChroniclers Contemporary texts Retrospective texts after in A-S Chronicle defeat in A-S ChronicleContext Millenialism
  5. 5. Æthelred – Alfred Compared Alfred ÆthelredPersonality Intellectual approach Subject to rage to kingshipcounselors English and Untrustworthy military Continental clergy leadersLaw New law code based Several law codes on precedents dealing with regional variationsCulture Fostered education Period of continuing and church building excellence in fine arts, education and scholarship
  6. 6. ReferencesSimon Keynes (1986). ―A Tale of Two Kings: Alfred the Greatand Æthelred the Unready‖. Transactions of the RoyalHistorical Society, 36, pp 195-217 [Not as bad as later writerspainted him]Leonard Neidorf ―II Æthelred and the Politics of The Battle ofMaldon” Journal of English and Germanic Philology—October 2012, pp 451-473Richard Abels English Logistics and military administration,871-1066: The Impact of the Viking Wars
  7. 7. England-Danish, Anglo-Saxon, Norman? Canute Edward the Confessor Harold II
  8. 8. Danish Invasion Preparations? Aggersborg Trelleborg
  9. 9. Viking Ring Forts
  10. 10. 1014 Attack on London? ‖Fact or Folklore: The Viking Attack on London Bridge,‖ London Archaeologist, Spring 2004, 328-333
  11. 11. King Cnut (England and Denmark)• 1019 His brother, Harold, dies: Cnut now King of Denmark• Commissions Wulfstan to produce new law code• c. 1025 Thorkell dies, Ulf, Cnut’s brother-in-law made regent for Harthacnut in Denmark• 1035 Harthacnut, King of Denmark
  12. 12. Succession Crisis• Cnut dies 12 November 1035• Harold Harefoot – Earl Leofric Mercia – Earl Siward Northumbria – northern thanes – London fleet• Harthacanute – Earl Godwine of Mercia
  13. 13. Godwine• His father may have been Wulfnoth, an Anglo-Saxon turned viking and nephew of Streona• 1018 Appears as ealdorman on charters• 1022? travels with Cnut to Denmark• Married to sister-in-law of Cnut
  14. 14. Reign of Harold I• Emma given Winchester• Later driven to Bruges in 1037 1037 Harold tortures Alfred Godwine embraces Alfred
  15. 15. Reign of Harthacanute• 1040 Harold dies, buried at Westminster• 1041 Edward returns to England• 1042 Harthacanute dies at a wedding feast
  16. 16. Succession• Danish Claimants – Harold of Denmark, died 1043 – Swein of Denmark –preoccupied with own kingdom• Norwegian Claimant – Magnus –purportedly in pact with Harthacnute• Edward – Welcomed by Harthacanute – Championed by Godwine, Leofric and Siward
  17. 17. Coronations of Edward and Edith
  18. 18. Edward the King• Opted out of Norway-Denmark conflict• 1050 Dismisses Navy• 1051 Abolishes heregeld• 1051 Robert of Jumieges, Archbishop of Canterbury• Administrative apparatus entrusted to others
  19. 19. Norman Influences
  20. 20. Edward the Confessor
  21. 21. Godwine• Appointment of Stigand to Winchester in 1047; Canterbury in 1052• 1051 The Dover fracas• 1051 ‘Get thee to a nunnery’• Dies 1053
  22. 22. Godwinesons• Harold, Earl of Wessex• 1055 Tostig, Earl of North• 1057 Gyrth, Earl of East Anglia• 1057 Leofwine, Earl of E. Midlands• 1058 Leofric dies• Aelfgar banished; returns• 1062 Aelfgar dies
  23. 23. Earl Harold• 1058 Leofric dies• m. Ealdgyth, daughter of Aelfgar Harold, son of Godwine kneels before King Edward
  24. 24. Westminster Abbey
  25. 25. Westminster Abbey
  26. 26. Jumièges
  27. 27. Death of EdwardEdith HaroldI commend this woman and all thekingdom to your protection
  28. 28. England 1066