3 S2014 Lollards and Religion in Early 15th Century England


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The ideas of Wyclif spread to the Lollards in England. A series of measures are put into place by Archbishop Arundel and Henry IV. Heretics are burnt. Sir John Oldcastle, former associate of Prince Hal in the Glendower campaign is arrested and executed. Chantry chapels and indulgences are ways of dealing with religious ideas of Purgatory in the afterlife and penance in this life.

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  • John Ashton - a "poor priest"John Ashton was one of the "poor priests" who went to preach to the people; he is variously described as a student, a bachelor of arts and a master of arts at Oxford University. Ashton was separately interviewed and forced to respond in Latin because the prelates and friars present feared a response from the public standing around them if their business was conducted in the vulgar tongue . Somewhat craftily Ashton interjected with English phrases and gesticulations nevertheless, which probably influenced the crowd and a decision to admonish him, forbidden to preach and required to return to hear sentence (when the public was not present). This was duly delivered "According to the canonical sanctions have been condemned as savouring of heresy and heretical; and declared to be such: we pronounce and sententially declare to have been and continue to be still, a heretic.”However, this was not the end of matters as Ashton fell foul of Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury (1397) who sat in examination of him in London. On this occasion the public "broke open the door of the conclave and did hinder the archbishop himself " Arundel was reputedly a particularly vicious and unforgiving prosecutor who detested the people of London, and Ashton was sentenced to perpetual prison, wherein he died.
  • Even an orthodox critic like Archbishop Fitzralphinsinuated that the keepers of shrines and pilgrimage sitesmanufactured miracles in order to milk the gullible.30 The opponentsof images sometimes claimed that whatever supernatural effect theyseemed to possess was the result of diabolical connivance, and that thedevil used such things to mislead true believers.31 One Lollard sourceconcluded flatly: "The worschiping of cursid idols is the bikynning,cause, and ende of all iuel."32 The usual Lollard view of images was,however, that they were absolutely impotent and devoid of all real influenceon human or natural events.
  • That the law of continence annexed topriesthood, that in prejudice of women wasfirst ordained, induces sodomy in HolyChurch; but we excuse us by the Bible, forthe suspect decree that says we should notname it. Reason and experience prove thisconclusion. For delicious meats and drinksof men of Holy Church will have needfulpurgation or worse. Experience for theprivy assay of such men is that they like notwomen. The corollary of this conclusion isthat the private religions. beginners of thissin, were most worthy to be annulled butGod, for his might, of privy sin send openvengeance.
  • The eleventh conclusion is shameful for tospeak: that a vow of continence made in ourchurch of women, the which be fickle andimperfect in kind, is cause of bringing in ofmost horrible sin possible to man kind.
  • Palmer The laity should think on "things to avoid, that is, the seven deadly sins; things to fear, that is, the pains of hell; things to believe, found in the creed; things to do, the ten commandments things to hope for, everlasting reward; these are all needed for salvation." In I40I the question of biblical translation could be debated openly, without accusations of heresy being levelled against defenders of the view, and without identifica- tion of the proponents of translation as Wycliffstes. The fact that later in the fifteenth century tracts of undoubted Lollard authorship were written in defence of the same position as that propounded by Ullerston, and that ownership of vernacular scriptures became a piece of primary evidence in cases of suspected Lollardy, should not be interpreted retrospectively.' Just as Wyclif himself put forward many views that originated in orthodox circles, which became outlawed because of their association with his heterodox opinions on topics such as the Eucharist, so many opinions later identified with Lollardy could be questions of neutrality in the early years of the movement.2
  • Fire and Faggot Parliament was an English Parliament held in May 1414 during the reign of Henry V.[1] It was held in Grey Friars Priory in Leicester, and the Speaker was Walter Hungerford. It is named from the main item of business which was a statute – the Suppression of Heresy Act – passed for the suppression of the Lollards,that whoever should read the Scriptures in English (which was then called Wicliffe's Learning) should forfeit land, cattle, goods, and life, and be condemned as heretics to God, enemies to the crown, and traitors to the kingdom; that they should not have the benefit of any sanctuary, though this was a privilege then granted to the most notorious malefactors; and that, if they continued obstinate, or relapsed after pardon, they should first be hanged for treason against the king, and then burned for heresy against God.The decision was inspired by the 1199 decretalVergentis in senium of Pope Innocent III. The Parliament also confirmed Archbishop Arundel's policy of licensing books for publication:no book... be from henceforth read... within our province of Canterbury aforesaid, except the same be first examined by the University of Oxford or Cambridge... and... expressly approved and allowed by us or our successors, and in the name and authority of the university... delivered unto the stationers to be copied out.The king received the rights to “Tonnage and Poundage” for life from this Parliament.
  • Chapels ofease,hadregularservicecsarried out bya permanent priest provided bythe parish rectoror paid forbythelocalinhabitants
  • Maidenhead(Berkshireg)rewupasavillage in thethirteenthcenturyontheboundarybetweentheparishesofBray and Cookham. Between 1263 and 1274,the inhabitantserecteda chapelwithoutthepermissionofeitherclergyman.The bishop of Salisbury forbade the use of the building,and two of his successorsrefusedtorelaxtheban.Notuntil1324didthepeopleofMaidenhead succeedinmakingtermswiththe two incumbents.Whatpressureswere applied,what favourschanged hands, are not known,but an agreementwasmade to reopen the chapel. Stringentconditionswere imposed by the bishop. The people were bound to maintain the fabricof the buildingand pay the chaplain who served there,yettheyhad to surrenderallthe a thirdto the vicar of and two-thirdtso his offerings: Braycolleagueat Cookham. Regular worshipwas allowed, along withthe churching of wives,butinfantshadstillto be taken to the motherchurchesforbaptism and the population had to go there too on six major feastsEveryyearI.n King's Lynn (Norfolk),the parish church of St Margaret owned two dependent chapels in the town: St James and St Nicholas. In 1378, St Nicholas gota papal bullgrantingitpowersofbaptism,marriageand churching, provided these did not infringetherightsof the parish church. The prior of Lynn, the patron of St Margaret's,summoned a meetingatwhichthemayor(JohnBrunham)and seventy-eighbturgessesendorsed a letterofprotesttothepapal court--effectivelbylockingthebull.In 1432,the supportersof St Nicholas,includingseveralmerchants, reopenedtheproject.Theprioragainwithstoodthemandthecasewentto the ofNorwichforarbitration. Brunhamwas now bishop John dead,buthisformidabldeaughterM,argeryKempe,aleadingfigurein local was askedto the outcome.Shereligion, predict prophesied thatStNicholaswouldnot a font'forabushelofnobles' get baptismal and God todefendthe as itturned prayed parishchurch-successfully, it.Thebrokedownand the lost negotiations chapelparty everything. Margery'asutobiographgyleefullnyotedthat'theparishchurchstoodstillinherworshipandherdegreeasshehaddonetwohundredyearbeforeand more
  • t is thought that a succession of holy men took refuge at the rock, living in a small oratory that had been built between its peaks. It is thought one of the earliest holy men to have taken up residence was the hermit Ogrin. Ogrin is said to have given refuge to Tristan and Iseult from Iseult’s husband (and Tristan’s Uncle) King Mark of Cornwall. This story first made its appearance in the 12th Century and there are many versions. In the 15th century, a more elaborate chapel was built over the hermits cell. It was dedicated to St Michael in 1409. It is the ruins of this chapel that now stand stark against the skyline and would appear to spring directly from the very bedrock on which it is built. Constructed from blocks of granite, probably quarried from the surrounding moor, it stands two stories high, the upper room being the chapel itself. Although the west wall has all but disappeared, the east wall survives to almost its full original height as does the arched window, minus it tracery.
  • Although the guild's return of 1388/9 makes no mention of a chapel, it is likely that one had been established by this date and, externally, the chancel preserves fragments of 13th-century fabric. The Masters and Proctors' accounts of Hugh Salford in 1427/8 indicate that extensive work was being carried out at this date (SCLA BRT1/3/38). It is possible that these references relate to the small chapel located on the ground floor of the Guildhall, since they are included with references to the creation of the 'new Parlour' and to 'le stayr' to the new Hall. However, they are more likely to relate to the Chapel itself. They include payments for the creation of new pavements, in both areas of the building, to the plastering of walls, the creation of doors in the belfry, as well as for the carriage of an 'awtyrstone' from Clyfford to Stratford by a carter, at a cost of 10d. This appears to have been designed to supplement an existing altar in the Chapel, for payments were subsequently made for travel expenses incurred in negotiations with the Suffragan at Worcester for the consecration of the Chapel's two altars. Further payments were made for cleaning the altars and for linen cloths, frankincense, wine and wax candles. The accounts of 1427/8 also refer to payments of 4s. to Thomas Payntor and his son, for eight days' labour, 'for his colours and for painting and mending the defects in the Guild Chapel', for red lead, 'vermylon', 'yndebawdyat', white lead, 'zalow', 'oyle and cole' and for 2s. 'for making 24 crosses on the walls of the Chapel within and without' (SCLA BRT1/3/38). Ten years later, in 1437/8, the Chapel was being whitewashed and the stone work being repaired, while the glass of the 'new' window was repaired at a cost of 20d. (SCLA BRT1/3/119). From 1414/15 onwards, the accounts also refer to a 'horascopium' , or clock-tower in the Chapel, for the maintenance of which the keeper, William Carter, was paid 2d. a week (SCLA BRT1/3/28). It is therefore possible that the western tower of the Guild Chapel dates to the early 15th century. This is supported by the fact that the western arch between the nave and tower appears to have been inserted, probably during the reconstruction of the nave in 1496. New bells were also recorded in 1442/3 (SCLA BRT1/3/50) and both the clock and the bell received attention in 1471/2 (SCLA BRT1/3/84).In 1449/50, the Guild appears to have embarked on a major programme of rebuilding the chancel of the Guild Chapel. Initially, payments were recorded for 'raftors' and 'le scafold' (SCLA BRT1/3/55). The following year gifts were received from two of the chaplains for the building of a new chancel (SCLA BRT1/3/56), and further bequests followed in 1451/2, including 20s. from Thomas Snelle of Hodynhille towards building the new chancel onto the Guild Chapel ('ad fabic' nove cancel annex capell Gild' SCLA BRT1/3/58). In 1452/3 there was expenditure on stone from quarries at Warwick, Rownton and Drayton, slate, and on glazing, including a window 'of S. Martin'. 'Frank and sens' (frankincense) was purchased for the consecration in 1452/3 (SCLA BRT1/3/59), but work on the roof and floor tiling continued into 1453/4. This included 5s. 8d. paid to Walter Mason for making a 'bordura' with stones opposite the altar in the chancel (SCLA BRT1/3/60). An undated roll of fine, apparently made during the reign of Henry VI, also refers to 3s. 4d. for paving 'within the Chapelldorre' and a further 3s. 4d. 'payd to the peyntynge of the rofe of the new Chaunsell' (SCLA BRT1/3/73). Further repairs were made in 1494/5, and 1495/6, including the construction of a plastered wall, repairs to the font, the soldering of a candelabrum, and the clock (SCLA BRT1/3/103; BRT1/3/105).In 1469, Hugh Clopton(1440-1496), younger son of the Lord of the manor of Clopton, just outside Stratford-upon-Avon, joined the Guild. Clopton had been apprenticed in 1444 and rose through the ranks of the Mercers' Company, to serve as alderman, sheriff and finally, Lord Mayor of London in 1491/2 (Macdonald 2007, 25; Dictionary of National Biography). Clopton had houses in London and Stratford, including the tenement opposite the site of the Guild Chapel now known as 'New Place', the home of William Shakespeare in the 16th century. In his will, of 1496, Clopton's first major bequest was to the ongoing project of the Guild Chapel:'And where as of late I have bargaynedwthoonDowland, and diverse other masons for the beldyng and setting up of the Chapell of the holy Trinitiewithyn the Towne of Stratford Upon Avon aforesaid And the Towre of a Steple to the same I will that the saide masons sufficiently and ably doo and fynysshe the same with good and true werkmanshipp And they truly to performe the same making the saidewerkesaswise of length and brede and hyght such as by the advise of myne executors' (TNA, PROB/11/11; SCLA ER 1/121).Although this bequest appears to refer primarily to the fabric of the chapel, the will goes on to refer to 'covering and roofing of the same Chapell with glaising and all other fornysshmentes thereunto necessary'.Although Clopton's reference to the Guild Chapel as being dedicated to the Trinity, rather than the Holy Cross, may seem slightly odd, it should be noted that in the Masters and Proctors accounts for 1495/6, the then-Master Richard Buggy described himself as 'Master of the Guild of the Holy Trinity, the Blessed Mary the Virgin and S John the Baptist'. This is a variation of the title not found anywhere else in the guild accounts and suggests that Clopton and other guild members may have been considering a re-dedication of the Guild to the Trinity at this date, which was never realised (SCLA DR624/13(ii); SCLA BRT1/3/105). Clopton's rebuilding appears to have been focused largely on the nave of the Guild Chapel (Figure 1 and Figure 2), which, although largely refaced and restored externally, is consistent with a late 15th-century date. That the work was largely paid for by Clopton is indicated by the fact that although the Masters and Proctors accounts do not survive for the period between 1496-1498, no mention of works to the Chapel is made in the Masters and Proctors accounts of 1498/9, and in 1499/1500 only minor repairs to a door are recorded (SCLA BRT1/3/112).
  • Dropbox\15th Century England\Religion & Lollardy 15th C“ 3. Some Pardoner’s Tale
  • 3 S2014 Lollards and Religion in Early 15th Century England

    1. 1. Religion in Early 15th Century England Battlefield Church, Shrewsbury
    2. 2. Henry IV Dr. Jennifer Paxton
    3. 3. Wales – Lancastrian Penal Code Forbade (1401) • Owning land outside Wales • Fortification • Bearing arms Sycharth Castle Home of Glendower
    4. 4. Wales – Long Term Consequences • Destruction of agricultural land • Prevented integration of Wales • Increased nationalism
    5. 5. Religion in Early 15th Century England Battlefield Church, Shrewsbury
    6. 6. Lollards Henry IV, Part II, Epilogue Quarto (1600)
    7. 7. Two Popes
    8. 8. Heresy in England • 1382 Considered the date when heresy was conceived of as a social problem rather than just an academic one
    9. 9. “Poor Priests” John Aston 1382 Convicted but reconciled 1397 Again tried by Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury Convicted and dies in prison
    10. 10. Thomas Arundel
    11. 11. Images • Condemnation of worship of images in themselves • Wyclif accepted use of images as educational tools • Lollards condemned rich ornamentation – Veneration of Christian images a heathen survival – Images had no power
    12. 12. 1395 Twelve Conclusions 1. Church has strayed by pursuing wealth 2. Current priesthood has strayed from original intentions 3. Law of continence has brought sodomy into the church 4. The sacrament of bread induces all men but a few to idolatry
    13. 13. 5. Exorcisms and hallowings, . . . be the very practice of necromancy rather than of the holy theology 6. Clerics should not hold secular office 7. Special prayers for dead men's souls made in our church, preferring one by name more than another, this is the false ground of alms deeds
    14. 14. 8. Pilgrimages, prayers, and offerings made to blind crosses or roods, and to deaf images of wood or stone, are akin to idolatry 9. Confession gives priests special powers 10. Condemn manslaughter in war and Crusades 11. Vow of continence in women has brought abortion and infanticide 12. Crafts used in the churches are wasteful
    15. 15. 1401 De Heretico Comburendo . . . divers false and perverse people of a certain new sect, . . . do perversely and maliciously in divers places within the said realm, under the color of dissembled holiness, preach and teach these days openly and privily divers new doctrines, and wicked heretical and erroneous opinions contrary to the same faith and blessed determinations of the Holy Church,
    16. 16. The church cannot stop these abuses and with the Commons Parliament, have prayed our sovereign lord the king that his royal highness would vouchsafe in the said Parliament to provide a convenient remedy.
    17. 17. • [No one] shall preach, hold, teach, or instruct openly or privily, or make or write any book contrary to the catholic faith or determination of the Holy Church, . . . , or in any wise hold or exercise schools • [Everyone] having such books . . . shall . . .t deliver or cause to be delivered all such books and writings to the diocesan of the same place within forty days
    18. 18. • Violators shall be arrested and imprisoned until they give up these false doctrines • If they don’t or elapse then they are left to the secular court and sentenced and the authorities . . . before the people in an high place cause to be burnt, that such punishment may strike fear into the minds of others,
    19. 19. 1401 William Sawtrey Declared – would rather venerate a living monarch, or the bodies of the saints, or a confessed and contrite man, than any crucifix; – that priests should preach or teach rather than say canonical services; and that money used for pilgrimages would be better spent on the poor. • Denied reality of transubstantiation • First victim of new law
    20. 20. 1407-9 Constitutions of Arundel 1. No preaching without a license 5. Teachers of the arts and grammar should not teach the sacraments 6. Wyclif’s books not be read unless first examined 7. No English translations of the Scripture 9. No one to question articles of the Church 11. Inquisition to be held at Oxford
    21. 21. Lollard Bills Disendowment bills Requested seizure by the king of wealth from “worldly clerks, bishops, abbots and priors” who do not perform their offices, help the poor, live in penance or work as they should. Rather, they live in ease and “take profits that should come to true men”
    22. 22. Vernacular Teaching Permit and encourage teaching The Creed, the Ten Commandments ,the Lord's Prayer, the names of the deadly sins, the virtues
    23. 23. 1410 John Badby
    24. 24. 1414 Fire and Faggot Parliament Suppression of Heresy Act whoever should read the Scriptures in English should forfeit land, cattle, goods, and life, and be condemned as heretics . . . if they continued obstinate, or relapsed after pardon, they should first be hanged for treason against the king, and then burned for heresy against God. Set up system to examine books
    25. 25. Sir John Oldcastle • Knight from Hereford • Advanced for participation in war against Glendower • Marries (2nd) to Joan Cobham (4th of 5) • Protector of Lollards; correspondence with Hus • First influential layman to be tried • Escape, capture and execution
    26. 26. From John Foxe Book of Martyrs
    27. 27. 1414-15 Council of Constance • Condemn Hus • Condemn Wyclif • Select a Pope
    28. 28. Posthumous Burning of Wyclif Foxe’s Book of Martyrs
    29. 29. 15th Century English View of Purgatory
    30. 30. Chapels • Private chapel or oratory for the owner's immediate household • Chapel of ease served a community distant from the parish church • Pilgrimage chapels
    31. 31. Roles of Chapels • • • • Stops in processions Some at odds with local parish church Separation of social classes Members hire their own chaplains
    32. 32. A Chantry Chapel St. Mary Magdalene's Battlefield, Shrewsbury • 1409 Roger Ive, the rector of Albright Hussey to sing masses for the souls of those killed in the battle • 1410 royal charter as a college of priests to pray for the souls of the king, Richard Hussey, his wife, and for those killed in the battle
    33. 33. St. Michael Roche, Cornwall
    34. 34. Guild Chapel, Stratford on Avon
    35. 35. Indulgences A remission of worldly punishment due to sin, the guilt of which has already been absolved during Confession. • Background • Finances • The Bridport harbor: A pardoner’s tale “Some Pardoners' Tales: The Earliest English Indulgences”Nicholas Vincent Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 12 (2002), pp. 23-58
    36. 36. Next Week Henry V and the resurgence of England on the Continent