Support through presentation of a papal banner. Support questioned by Morton
Accord of Winchester signed 1072 by William the Conqueror & his wife. This elevated Canterbury over York as to whose archbishop would be the highest primate in England. The large Xs are the 'signatures' of William & Matilda, the one under theirs is Lanfranc's, and the other bishops' are under his.Lanfranc'asrgumenhtadcarriedtheday,thecourtthendefinedtheterms ofthesettlementt:hethreedisputedborderseesofWorcesterD,orchestera,nd LichfieldwereplacedunderthejurisdictionofCanterburya,ndThomaspro- fessedobedienceinwritingtoLanfrancandhissuccessors,althoughwithoutmentioningthewordprimacyorbindinghisownsuccessorsto CanterburyS.2o", Lanfranc'mseansofgainingapositionsuperiortootherarchbishophsadbeen successful, even if such means were "ruthless . . . and, on the whole, unac- ceptablePope Alexander through Archdeacon Hildebrand refused to formally accept the primacy.
Venison includes wild boarVert green components of habitat and for revenue timber.
2 S2013 Domesday and forests
William‟s Realm• Church• Forest• Field• Domesday Book
Papal Support for the Conquest?• Harold broke a sacred oath• Expectation that William – Would grant England as a fief to the Pope X – Would pay Peter‟s Pence to the Pope ✔ – Would replace Stigand ✔
William and the PopesAlexander II ((1061-1073)Gregory VII (1073-1086) (formerly Archdeacon Hildebrand)• Attendance at Rome• Authority of Rouen• Fealty – St. Peter‟s Pence
William and the Popes1070 Penitence laid on those who had fought1070 Papal legates recognize William:Stigand replaced by Lanfranc1072 Accord at Winchester establishesprimacy of Canterbury1080 William refuses aid in Pope‟s dispute w.Henry IV of Germany
Royal Forests• Afforestation• 1079 New Forest• 2006 New Forest National Park
Royal ForestsForis – [L] outdoors oroutside• Outside the Common LawPreserve• Hunting• Revenue source from „vert‟ and „venison‟• Revenue source from fines
Forest LawFallow Deer Red Deer Roe Deer Wild Boar
DefinitionWhat is the Forest of the King, and what the reason of thisname?M. The forest of the king is the safe dwelling-place of wildbeasts; not of every kind, but of the kinds that live in woodsD. Is there a forest of the king in each county?M. No; but only in the wooded ones, where the wild beasts canhave their lairs and ripe nourishment: nor does it matter to whomthe woods belong, whether to the king, or to the nobles of thekingdom, the wild beasts can none the less run aroundeverywhere free and unharmed. Dialogue of the Exchequer, 1179http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/excheq.asp
Evolution of Forest Law• Cnut- “…everyone is to avoid trespassing on my hunting, whenever I wish to have it preserved, on pain of full fine.”• William – “He made many deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight.”
Other Aspects of Forest Law• Limitation on – gathering acorns by humans or swine – enclosures – cutting trees for timber, firewood or for agricultural land – rights of warren - hunting small game• Independent of land possession
Questions and AnswersWhat is the manor called? Who held it in the time ofKing Edward? Who holds it now? How many hides?WDEHAM [Woodham (Walter)], which was heldby Leveva as a manor and as 7 hides, is held ofR[alf] by Pointel.How many ploughs on the demesne?Then as now 3 ploughs on the demesne. Then 4ploughs belonging to the men ; now 1
Questions and AnswersHow many men? How many villeins? How manycottars? How many slaves? How many freemen? Howmany socmen?Then 12 villeins ; now 6. Then as now (semper) 4bordars. Then 6 serfs ; now 4.How much wood? How much meadow? How muchpasture? How many mills? How many fish ponds? Howmuch has been added or taken away?(There are) 24 acres of meadow, (with) wood(land)for 500 swine. Then 1 mill ; now 2.
Questions and AnswersHow much, taken together, was it worth and how muchnow? How much each freeman or socman had or has?Then 2 beasts (animalia) and 7 swine, (and) 37sheep ; now 8 beasts, 21 swine, 6 asses, 130 sheep,(and) 13 hives of bees. It was then worth 8 pounds ;and when received, 40 shillings (₤2); it is now worth7 pounds.All this at three dates, to wit, in the time of KingEdward and when King William gave it and as it is now.And if it is possible for more to be had than is had.
Domesday Land UseArable 35%Pasture / Meadow 25%Woodland 15%Other 25%
Land Ownership – Domesday Highest level % of land owned King and family 17% Bishops and abbots 26% Tenants-in-chief 54%
T e na nts O th e rHierarchy - Fle m is hSubtenants B re to n E n g lis h N o rm a n
O th e r Classes S la v e s 10% 5%Class Land V ille in s (acres) F re e P e a sa n ts 40% 15%Villein 30Bordar 5Cottar <1 C o tta rs a n d B o rd a rs 30%
Significance of the Domesday Book• Public accountability is the hallmark of modern democratic governance• All property holders to render a count of what they possessed.• Census … a foundation of the royal governance• In the early twelfth century this evolved into a highly centralized administrative kingship that was ruled through centralized auditing and semi- annual account-giving.Mark Bovens Utrecht School of Governance
Significance (2) This accounting was instrumental in carrying forward the idea that there is a link between population and resources.Thomas Dietz, Sociology and Anthropology, George Mason University; Eugene A. Rosa, Sociology, Washington State University “Rethinking the Environmental Impacts of Population, Affluence and Technology” Human Ecology Review, Summer/Autumn, 1, 1994
Errors and omissions• Clerical• Rounding• Estimation in terms of subjective measures• Omit towns
Domesday book after 1086• Copies made – Abbreviato• Kept under lock and key (3 locks) until 1600The book is very ancient and hard to be read,and who so findeth anything must pay for thecopy of every line 4d. . . (A reader in 1589)
„Second‟ Domesday book?• The hundred rolls of 1279-80• Owners of Land 1872–3• Valuation Office Survey 1909–15• The National Farm Survey, 1941-1943