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10. S2014 Books and Literature


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From manuscript to print and the impact of the print revolution. What was being published included many translations for an expanded English reading audience.

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10. S2014 Books and Literature

  1. 1. 15th Century Reading, Writing Publication
  2. 2. Education: Path to the Top 1387 William Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester – Winchester College (open 1394) – New College, Oxford (open 1386)
  3. 3. Winchester College
  4. 4. Winchester College Chapel
  5. 5. Path to the Top • Henry VI – 1440 Eton College (The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor) – education to 70 poor boys – 1441 King's College, Cambridge – Linked in 1443
  6. 6. Eton College Chapel
  7. 7. Wall Paintings, Eton College Chapel (1479-87; whitewashed 1560; restored 1923)
  8. 8. Writers Followers of Chaucer • John Gower (1330-1408) • Thomas Hoccleve (1368-1426) • John Lydgate of Bury (c. 1370 – c. 1451)
  9. 9. Gower — Poetry Mirroir de l'Omme (French) Vox Clamantis (Latin) – State of England Confessio Amantis (English) – Morality approached through tales of immorality
  10. 10. Hoccleve — Poems • Moral and religious poetry • Regiment of Princes or De Regimine Principum – Written for Henry V
  11. 11. Lydgate — Poems 1412 The Troy Book for Prince Henry ~1420 Siege of Thebes Translations from French for Warwick, Salisbury and Alice Chaucer Poems for illustrations or pageants 1431 The Fall of Princes for Duke Humphrey
  12. 12. Writers Translators • William Caxton Adaptation of French Tales • Thomas Malory Drama • Mystery plays (York), morality plays (Castle of Perseverance, Everyman) • Medwall
  13. 13. Sir Thomas Malory Le Morte Darthur, composed in Newgate Prison, London between March 1469 and March 1470, perhaps suspected of supporting Warwick against Edward IV Malory earlier charged with extortion, theft, rape, cattle rustling, robbery of the local abbey, and deer stealing and enormous damage to property The hoole booke of kyng Arthur & of his noble knyghtes of the rounde table,
  14. 14. Libraries: Oxford 1320’s Beginning of Bishop Cobham Library 1444 Begin library to house ~280 books from Humphrey of Gloucester (finish 1488) 1598 Begin Bodleian after Reformation purge
  15. 15. Libraries: Oxford 1379 New College (William of Wyckham): 246 volumes 1439 All Souls College (Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury): 370 volumes 1458 Magdalen College (William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester): 800 volumes by 1480s 1814 Library of Congress (Jefferson): 6,487
  16. 16. Libraries: Cambridge 1440: 122 volumes, only one by a Roman, Lucan 1473: 330 volumes including Ovid, the younger Seneca, Cicero, Josephus, and Petrarch
  17. 17. Chained Libraries • Bequests specify books be chained • 1412 Oxford forbids talking in the library Hereford
  18. 18. 1439 Oxford Library - Fines “for the better custody of the said books every of them shall be priced appreciably beyond the true value, which value every one taking one of the books on loan shall, if he lose it, be bound to pay to the chest”
  19. 19. Pecia system Originally devised at the University of Bologna • Master edits, corrects, and submits text to a stationer • Stationer copies from it an exemplar in peciae (individual sections) • Submits it to the University for approval and pricing • Stationer rents peciae to students • Students make their own copies
  20. 20. Pecia system features in Paris • Text is written in double columns and is also heavily abbreviated • Little decoration: chapter headings, initials, and paragraph marks in red and blue inks; main text in black ink. • Pecia mark: letter ‘p’ or the complete word
  21. 21. Manuscript with pecia mark
  22. 22. Publication Industry • Parchment makers: Guild at York • Scribes • Illuminators and rubricators • Binders (and repairers) • Stationers – sales
  23. 23. Money and Books • Used as security for loans • Typical payments Scribe: 1s/3000 words ~3000 words/day Illumination/rubrication: from 6d for a text to over £20 for an elaborate service book Binder: 3s 3d per volume Parchment: ~ ½ the cost of the book De Civitate Dei £1 to £2
  24. 24. Media • Switch from wool to linen underwear • Waste from linen production • Rag paper (Spain  Italy  France) • 1490 First paper mill in England
  25. 25. Book Ownership This boke is myne, Eleanor Worcester An I yt lose, and yow yt fynd I pray yow hartely to be so kynd That yow wel take a letil payne To se my boke is brothe home agayne Duchess of Worcester, 1440
  26. 26. John Paston’s Books Often several works bound together King Arthur Translation of Christine de Pizan’s Othea (stories based on Greek and Roman mythology) Two copies of The Parliament of Birds Life of St. Christopher Two books of Cicero (one w. illegible print) Books on knighthood and his own arms
  27. 27. Women and Books • Because of their exclusion from scholarship and clerical life, women had an even greater need for the mental and spiritual nourishment offered by books than men did. • They were the primary teachers of the next generation. • They played an important role in development of vernacular literature because of lack of Latin.
  28. 28. Gutenberg Type Letter carved into hard metal punch. Pressed into copper and a mold made. Type cast in lead Ink lamp black and linseed oil, as well as walnut oil, turpentine oil, pine resin, cinnabar and other substances. Press Based on wine or paper press
  29. 29. Spread of Printing 1455 J. Gutenberg , 42-line Bible, Mainz. c.1460 J. Mentelin, started printing in Strassburg. c.1465 Printing in Cologne. 1470 Printing in Paris. 1476 Printing in England (Westminster).
  30. 30. William Caxton (1416-91) ~ 1430 Apprenticed to Mercers’ Company • Involved with the Merchant Adventurers' Company, an association of merchants involved in the import–export trade. 1465 Governor for English in Bruges 1471 In Cologne
  31. 31. William Caxton Merchant, Translator, Publisher, Printer
  32. 32. Caxton • Translation of Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye from French to English • Association with Burgundian court for manuscripts or financial support • 1472 Co-publisher with Veldener of Bartholomaeus Anglicus's De proprietatibus rerum
  33. 33. Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy “ordered him to finish the translation and to improve his style,”
  34. 34. Print Shop From the Danse macabre [Lyons: Mathias Huss], 18 Feb. 1499 [/1500?]. The British Library IB.41735
  35. 35. Caxton presents a book to Margaret of Burgundy Preface, Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye
  36. 36. Caxton Publications in Bruges 1473 Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye 1474 The Game and Playe of the Chesse Publications in French After 1476 Les Fais et Prouesses du noble et vaillant chevalier Jason Possibly printed by Colard Mansion
  37. 37. 1478 Game of Chess 1483
  38. 38. 1475 Caxton in England • Westminster The Canterbury Tales • 1477 Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres, first dated book • Published and printed 18 of his own translations from the French • Published and printed 68 works, often with prologues and epilogues • Printed 10 works • Published some works printed abroad and printed documents and indulgences
  39. 39. 1st edition, Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales. William Caxton ~1377 British Library
  40. 40. Clerk The Canterbury Tales 1483, 2nd edition
  41. 41. Caxton 1485 Malory Morte Darthur Smudge of a mirrored I from Caxton’s page with wet ink
  42. 42. Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres “Anthony Rivers presenting his own book to Edward IV”
  43. 43. Chronicles of England • Smaller type • Straight line endings • Printed in signatures • Rubrications hand- done to aid reader
  44. 44. Lyme Missal 1487 Guillaume Maynyal Printed for Caxton
  45. 45. Caxton’s Publications • 68% English – No competition • 28% Latin (~1/3 are single sheet) – Competition from books printed abroad • 4% French • 106 works; at least 28 his own translations • 528 extant copies; 128 fragments
  46. 46. Changing Language • Caxton noted that some had complained he: “could not be understood by the common people, and they wished me to use old and homely terms in my translations” • But “certainly the language now used is very different from that which was used and spoken when I was born.” • “therefore, as a compromise, I have translated this book into an English which is neither too coarse nor too refined, but using phrases which are understandable, God willing”
  47. 47. Language “Loo what should a man in these days now write [...] certainly it is hard to please every man because of diversity & change of language. For in these days every man that is any reputation in his country will utter his communication and matters in such manners & termes that few men shall understand then”
  48. 48. Caxton Patronage - York Dedicate History of Jason to Edward, Prince of Wales, briefly Edward V) 1483 Part of the edition of the Legenda aurea for William FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel 1484 Translation of the Ordre of Chyvalry or Knyghthode dedicated to Richard III
  49. 49. Caxton Patronage - Tudor 1489 Translate & print a romance Blanchardyn and Eglantine for Margaret of Beaufort 1489 Christine de Pisan’s Faits d’armes et de chevalerie for Henry VII 1490 Printing the statutes enacted by the first three Parliaments of Henry VII (in English)
  50. 50. Blank indulgence filled in: Simon Mountford & wife, 1480
  51. 51. Punctuation Inconsistently used Paragraph mark (¶) Punctus (.) long pause Virgile (/) short pause Colon (:) syntactic pause
  52. 52. Other Publishers • John Lettou (fl. 1475-83, Lithuania?) • William de Machlinia, (fl. 1482-90, Brabant) • Richard Pynson (1449, Normandy−1529) • William Paques, appointed King’s printer, 1504 • Wynken de Worde (d. 1535), successor to Caxton
  53. 53. Wynken de Worde 1490s Reprints of Caxton 1496 First use of English paper Treatise of Love, translation of French devotional tracts; Chastising of God's Children, a guide for a woman religious by her spiritual adviser Scala perfectionis, verse in rhyme royal stanzas Moved press from Westminster to London ~1100 editions of religious, popular and educational books; English poetry
  54. 54. Malory Le Morte d’Arthur, Wynken de Worde, 1498
  55. 55. Pynson 1495 Hecra Terence 1506 King’s printer 1518 First copyright 1521 Assertio septem sacramentorum, opposition to Martin Luther omposed in part by Henry VIII • Pagination, Roman type, two colors, catchwords 18th century woodcut from unknown artist Metal block device
  56. 56. English Publishing Status in the 15th Century
  57. 57. English Language Books
  58. 58. Book Production – Manuscripts and Printed [Printed Books 1501-50 ~2.8 million] Buringh, Eltjo, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden. "Charting the “Rise of the West”: Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, a long-term Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries." The Journal of Economic History 69.02 (2009): 409-445.
  59. 59. Per capita annual manuscript production (per million) (15th century) British Isles 485 France 920 Italy 1675 Netherlands 2150 Belgium 5721
  60. 60. Per capita consumption of printed books (per million) (1454-1500) British Isles 485 France 920 Italy 1675 Netherlands 2150 Belgium 5721
  61. 61. Books and Education • John Stanbridge Parvula – grammar for 1st and 2nd forms ~26 printings from 1496-1539 • Stanbridge Vulgaria 1508+ – Latin words and phrases for ordinary life • Os, faces, mentum – Latin vocabulary: editions in Antwerp, Paris, Rouen and London • Stanbridge Sum, es, fui 1509+ – Grammar and exercises
  62. 62. Peruula John Stanhope How to Learn Latin
  63. 63. The Fox and the Grapes The Fox and the Cat Caxton, The Fables of Aesop, 1484
  64. 64. Instruction outside of school for boys and girls Touch not with meat salt in the cellar, Lest folk appoint you with uncunningness Dress it apart, upon a clean trencher Force not your mouth too full for wantonness Lean not upon the table, for that is rude And if I shall to you plainly say, Over the table you shall not spit convey Caxton - The Boke of Curtesye - 1477 Of Her that Eat the Eele and Plumed [plucked] her Pye [Magpie] I shall tell to you an example of the fate of women that eat the good morsels behind their husbands’ *back+. Caxton - The Knight in the Tower, 1483
  65. 65. Books that parents are warned about (“open mans slaughter and bold bawdry”) Pynson Guy of Warwick – An adventure tale ~1500
  66. 66. Meeting a Need of Readers: Spectaculum Vlissengen, Netherlands London
  67. 67. Consequences of the early press • Foster a national identity as more people became aware of foreign ideas in translated works • Increase in mass communications • Literacy acquires status
  68. 68. Consequences - Language • Spelling was loose but became more and more fixed in printing while spoken English changed more rapidly • Movement toward a nationwide standard based on the language of the London region
  69. 69. Political/Economic Consequences • Statutes available in full and abridged forms • European cities with printing presses by 1500 had higher growth rates from 1500-1600 – They were more likely to become Protestant