3.Ff2013Kknights and 14th Century Warfare


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The knight in theory and practice in the 14th century as guided by codes of arms and chivalry. just War theory. Chaucer's knight.

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  • Four knights and eight esquires, for one year following the date of this document, Customary wages, or else direct support at court, at the choice of Sir Ralph, which is to say for himself 4s., for each knight 2s., and for each esquire 12 d. per day, [archers, 6d]Fee for the entire year, 100 marks. Half the fee upfront. Hopes to get from court get hay and oats and stabling for forty-five horses, and eight horses for baggage, and wages for their grooms. Also a horse for Sir Ralph Sir Ralph shall be bound to restore to the said Sir Hugh the loss of his said horses, as appraised in the way of the King and Council, if they should be lost in theservice of the said Sir Ralph. Prisoners which may be taken by the aforesaid Hugh, or by his men, the aforesaid Sir Ralph shall have half the profits of their ransom, etc. London, the 16th of March, the year 21 Edward III [1347].Edward III created a number of new peerage titles to honour his war captains and to mark his jubilee year. Ralph was created the 1st Earl of Stafford on 5 March 1350, with an annuity of 1000 marks. He now replaced Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster as the king's lieutenant in Gascony, he committed to serve with 200 men at his expense with the expectation of this being doubled in March 1353 at the king's expense
  • shield blazoned Azure, a Bend Or,On 15 October of this same year Chaucer gave evidence before the high court of chivalry for Sir Richard Scrope against Sir Robert Grosvenor in a controversy over the right to bear certain arms. He testified that he had seen the arms in question borne by Sir Richard and his cousin Sir Henry when he was on military service before the town of Réthel, that it was commonly agreed that these were the Scrope arms, and that once in London while he was walking along Friday Street he saw them displayed outside a house and was surprised to be told that they were not the Scrope arms but those of the Grosvenors. Cornwall was in effect a separate country, "a large land formerly bearing the name of a kingdom.” and hence a different heraldic area.
  • St Thomas Aquinas, the 13th century authority on theology, gave several criteria for a Just War:1- The war must be to "right a wrong"2- The war must be winnable. Fighting hopelessly, even against an evil despot, is not justified. Of course, which struggle is winnable and which is not is something best judged with hindsight.3- The suffering caused, or thought likely to be caused, by the war is going to be less than the suffering caused by leaving whatever evil you are trying to correct, like a despot on the throne, in place. You want to wage the war "efficiently" in terms of human suffering.The third point was oft quoted to justify assassination. In the 14th century, the king was the state. Kill the evil noble and you eliminate his evil rule. If the king or duke was an evil fellow, "killing the tyrant" by any means necessary was considered spiritually superior to waging war and killing thousands of soldiers and civilians. But this ran up against the establishment of class consciousness within the nobility. Seeing themselves as a better sort of people, the nobles found it convenient to treat each other charitably in combat. Thus there was the prevalence of offering quarter and taking ransom instead of the opponents life. Assassination was not unknown, but it was frowned apon. While the theologians might condone one noble killing another, the aristocrats were content to pay ransom and fight again another day.
  • [The story concerns Melibee who is away one day when three enemies break into his house, beat his wife Dame Prudence, and attack his daughter, leaving her for dead. The tale then proceeds as a long debate mainly between Melibee and his wife on what actions to take and how to seek redress from his enemies.] Told by Chaucer after his first story was criticized. A
  • before the close of the Hundred Years War, the soldier came to be seen as a public servant and not as a private individual, such as a mer- chant, carrying out his calling under a special body of law. This shifted the whole basis of the law of arms. Though the law of arms had a universal character, and that character cannot be denied, it could not become the progenitor of the modern law of war until it drove out the private nature of war-making and of the military professionA soldier who could not act except on the command of a sovereign could no longer be re- garded as a knight errant whose vocation was the pursuit of just quarrels. A new order was emerging, in which the soldier was becoming a mere servant of the state. - In this new order of things, the law of arms, which bound soldiers on the personal honour of their knighthood, could have little meaning
  • The law of arms included four main heads: (i) civil claims for ransom and spoils or restitution of property taken contrary to the law of arms -this was a species of property law and might be considered today as a mixture of private and public international law; (2) the enforcement of military discipline in the modern military law sense; (3) matters of honor that were governed by the code of chivalry; and (4) the conduct of soldiers in the war. This last included what today we would call war crimes. Such acts were described in the military courts of the time as acts contra fidem et jus gentium,
  • The measure of acceptance of the law of ransom can be seen in the elaborate and often ingenious devices that were resorted to as a means of avoid- ing the ransom claim. In this sector of the law of arms the lawyers bor- rowed from the feudal law. They transplanted some of the legal con- sequences of the relationship between lord and vassal to that prevailing between captor and captive. The prisoner owed his captor a degree of allegiance. The lord owed him certain obligations, for example not to threaten to take his life and not to maltreat him. Gross disregard of these obligations by the lord would release the captive from his obliga- tions of faith to the lord.
  • TournamentCasket; ivory. Rectangular plaques carved with scenes relating to courtly life and romance; lid: siege of Castle of Love and tournament; front: medieval legend of Aristotle succumbing to charms of Campaspe or Phyllis while Alexander looks on; Fountain of Youth, group of infirm men and women approach fountain in which four youthful figures bath; back: Lancelot attackasket; ivory. Rectangular plaques carved with scenes relating to courtly life and romance; lid: siege of Castle of Love and tournament; front: medieval legend of Aristotle succumbing to charms of Campaspe or Phyllis while Alexander looks on; Fountain of Youth, group of infirm men and women approach fountain in which four youthful figures bath; back: Lancelot attacks phantom lion and crosses Sword-Bridge; Gawain(?) sleeps on magic bed; left end: hunter transfixes unicorn running to seated lady beneath tree; Tristram and Isolde converse beneath tree in which King Mark is concealed; right end: knight greets hooded figure who advances from gateway holding a key, Parceval receiving his talisman.
  • Peter ofCyprus at one point signed a peace treaty with the Emir of Palatye, whowas engaged in hostilities with rival Turkish forces.Prys honor? Award?
  • 3.Ff2013Kknights and 14th Century Warfare

    1. 1. Knights and 14th Century Warfare Chivalry, The Law of War, Reality of War
    2. 2. Battle of Crecy
    3. 3. Knight • Man-at arms • Rank • Sportsman at tournaments • Mercenary
    4. 4. Conduct of War 1066 King and trusted associates 1347 King and barons – Knights – Other men-at-arms – Other military (archers) – Supply lines - money
    5. 5. Financing the Government - 1331 Feudal levies (Crown estates, sheriffs) £21,000 Incidents of Government (fines) 14,700 Taxes (Customs, Church lands) 25,800 Credit 11,100 Borrowed 15%
    6. 6. Financing the Government - 1337 Feudal levies (Crown estates, sheriffs) £10,600 Incidents of Government (loans against future revenues, fines) 32,200 Taxes (Parliamentary grants of wool, Customs, Church lands) 117,600 Credit 98,480 Borrowed 38%
    7. 7. Consequences 1215 Dependence of the King on the barons – Magna Carta 1337 Dependence of the King on Parliament – Rising influence of merchants
    8. 8. Army 1337 Campaign Prince of Wales 13 Bishops and Earls 78 Barons and Bannerets 1066 Knights 4182 other Men-At-Arms >20,000 archers Specialists: tent makers, smiths, carpenters, miners, artillarii, gunnatores
    9. 9. Indenture Sir Ralph, Baron Stafford & Sir Hugh fitz Simon, banneret • Four knights and eight esquires, for one year at customary wages • Upfront fee, horses and supplies • Sir Ralph to get ½ the profits from prisoners
    10. 10. The Knight A knight there was, and he a worthy man, Who, from the moment that he first began To ride about the world, loved chivalry, Truth, honour, freedom and all courtesy.
    11. 11. Chivalry Dr. Jennifer Paxton
    12. 12. Court of Chivalry Scrope v. Grosvenor • 1385 Richard II in Scotland • Two knights – same arms – Grosvenor - his family had these arms since arriving with William the Conqueror – Chaucer testimony • Decisions – 1389 Grosvenor could add silver border – 1390 Richard II overrules – Carminows of Cornwall allowed same arms
    13. 13. Just War Law of Arms
    14. 14. Just War Theory & Chivalry • Augustine • Gratian Decretal (1140) • Aquinas • John of Legnano (1360) Tractatus de bello; Honoré Bouvet (Bonet) (1387) L'Arbre des Batailles(The Tree of Battles); Christine de Pizan (1410) Le livre des fais d'armes et de chevalerie
    15. 15. Aquinas on Just War I. Undertaken by an authority to secure common good II. A just cause; War must right a wrong III. Rightful intention. The suffering thought likely to be caused by the war is less than the suffering caused by leaving the evil you are trying to correct
    16. 16. General Arguments • Crusades are just – Sanctioned by authority – Right an evil against God (heresy) – Recover land belonging to Christians
    17. 17. Chaucer Tale of Melibee If I venge me not of the villainy that men have done to me I advertise and warn them that have done to me that villainy, and all others to do me another villainy. Melibeus But yet it does not follow that every person to whom men have done villainy take vengeance for that belongs only to the judges. Dame Prudence
    18. 18. Rules of war "Item, qe nul soit si hardy de crier havok sur peine davoir la test coupe.” Ordinances of Richard II Reality of War Assume the port of Mars; and at his heels, Leash'd in like hounds, should famine, sword and fire Crouch for employment. Henry V [Antony]And Caesar's spirit, ranging for revenge, With Ate by his side come hot from hell, Shall in these confines with a monarch's voice Cry 'Havoc,' and let slip the dogs of war. Julius Caesar
    19. 19. Law of Arms • Developed during the Hundred years War • Soldier becomes an agent of the government and not a private entrepreneur
    20. 20. Law of Arms I. Civil claims for ransom, spoils or restitution of property taken contrary to the law of arms - mixture of private and public international law II. Enforcement of military discipline III. Matters of honor - code of chivalry IV. Conduct of soldiers in the war. Included what today we would call war crimes
    21. 21. Ransom Cases • Denial by the defendant (the released prisoner) that he had been captured in a "just war.“ • Capture in time of truce or when bearing a safe-conduct • Captor – prisoner relationship
    22. 22. Tournaments • Tourneyers fought without intent to kill and deaths were a matter of regret. • •Captured knights were not to be held prisoner but were released upon their promise to arrange ransom. • •The tournament area contained “recets” within which knights could honorably retire to rest and rearm.
    23. 23. Evolution • Individual and melees involving ~30-40 knights Hastilude (“spear play”) a collective name for mounted martial combat between knights (or squires) that began with lances; Behourd informal event a’ plaisance with no ransoms taken, but prizes often given Round table involved role playing
    24. 24. 14th Century • 1342 the last melee tournament in England • Highly expensive pageantry of nobles and their retinues – Heraldry • Specialized weapons, armor and horses;
    25. 25. Tournament Siege of the Castle of Love
    26. 26. Chaucer’s Knight Full worthy was he in his liege-lord's war, And therein had he ridden (none more far) As well in Christendom as heathenesse, And honoured everywhere for worthiness.
    27. 27. Chaucer’s Knight This ilke worthy knyght hadde been also Somtyme with the lord of Palatye Agayn another hethen in Turkye. And everemoore he hadde a sovereyn prys; And though that he were worthy, he was wys,
    28. 28. Liege-Lords and Battle • Alfonso XI of Castile v. Moors or King of Granada – 1343 Algeciras • Peter of Cyprus v. Turks – 1361 Adelia, Turkey; 1365 Alexandria; 1367 Lyeys • With Teutonic Knights