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Lesson 1-History Of Britain Part 1 (2003)


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Lesson 1-History Of Britain Part 1 (2003)

  1. 1. History of Britain-Part 1
  2. 2. Pre-feudal society <ul><li>3000 B.C. – The Iberians sail around west coast into Scotland and Scandinavia </li></ul><ul><li>750 B.C. – Gaels (Celts) –Scottish language and culture </li></ul><ul><li>500 B.C. - Britons (Celts)-Welsh culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Britons drove the Gaels to the north (modern Scotland) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100 B.C. – The third group comes from Gaul </li></ul><ul><li>The Celts was one of the first civilized cultures in Great Britain with their knowledge of agriculture and trade. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Romans <ul><li>43 A.D. -410 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Constant revolts </li></ul><ul><li>122 A.D. –built Hadrian’s Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Came to govern and trade, not to settle </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Anglo-Saxons <ul><li>Originally invited to defend against the Picts and Scots (Celts) ‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Celts were defeated and pushed into Wales, Scotland and Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>7 kingdoms fought against each other </li></ul><ul><li>King Alfred united kingdoms against the Danes </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity helped link the kingdoms together </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bead and Beowulf Bede- “Ecclesiastical History of the British People” Beowulf- Considered greatest Old English Poem
  6. 6. Danes (the Vikings) ‏ <ul><li>Many battles between Danes and Anglo-Saxons during the 9 th and 10 th century A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred (Anglo-Saxon King) defeats Guthrum (Dane) and make an agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Danes allowed to rule the north of England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred forced the Danes to accept Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Move towards feudalism and class polarization </li></ul>
  7. 7. Normans and the rise of feudalism <ul><li>William of Normandy arrived in 1066 to claim the throne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Battle of Hastings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established strong monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feudalism established </li></ul><ul><li>What is feudalism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King gives land to nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles must takes oath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a class system with the king at the top. Nobles are below the king, and peasants or serfs are under the noble. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. King John and the “The Great Charter” <ul><li>Henry II-increases power of British crown, class struggle </li></ul><ul><li>1213 A.D.-More class struggle </li></ul><ul><li>1215 A.D. –King John forced to sign the Magna Carta or “The Great Charter” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. King will not exact extra payments from feudal vassals without their consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Laws not to be modified by the arbitrary action of the king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. If the king attempts to free himself from the law, vassals (nobles ) have the right to force the king to obey it by civil war </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Parliament <ul><li>“ All Estates Parliament” (1265) ‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The beginning of Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of King Henry III is checked </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Model Parliament” (1295) ‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry's son, Edward, recognized the need for change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of the “commons” or representation of the middle class </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Decline of Feudalism <ul><li>The 100 Years War </li></ul><ul><li>Economic changes </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Death </li></ul><ul><li>Rising of 1381 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Lollards: against the abuses of the church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poll Tax- started the rising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wat Tyler, led peasants to London </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serfs (lowest class) become free peasants or wage laborers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The War of the Roses (1455-1485) ‏ <ul><li>House of Lancaster and the House of York </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feudal war in which the families fight over power, money, and land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two groups fight against each other and essentially destroy each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens the feudal nobility </li></ul></ul>