5.Technology and Laws of Warfare in the Age of Chaucer

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Changes in the technology of warfare with emphasis on the reign of Edward III.

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5.Technology and Laws of Warfare in the Age of Chaucer

  1. 1. Changing Technology of Warfare Arundel, 1067, 1138
  2. 2. Caernafon 1283
  3. 3. Caernafon Plan
  4. 4. Thirlwell 1350
  5. 5. Conwy Bastide Town
  6. 6. Components of the Army • • • • • • • Men-at-arms Heavy cavalry 2s/day Sergeants 1s/day Hobelars Initially Irish Light cavalry 6d/day Mounted archers Longbowmen Crossbowmen Infantry
  7. 7. Weaponry • Increased use of infantry • Use of archers – longbow – Mounted archers • “Warwolf” largest medieval trebuchet (catapult) • Use of incendiaries?
  8. 8. Model of ‘Warwolf’
  9. 9. Choose Your Weapons Cross Bow (balistarii) • "cocked“ with little effort • Wait for target • Can use cover Defensive situations Self bow (sagitarii) • Requires considerable strength • Mobility • Higher firing rate Offensive situations
  10. 10. Oliver Jessup, Archaeology data service Armor (mail) piercing arrowheads M10 is the most common in military contexts
  11. 11. Wedding Present for Edward III
  12. 12. New Technology • Possible use of gunpowder in Scotland wars • Gascony campaign of 1337 – 2.45% of the expenditures were on sulfur and saltpeter
  13. 13. New Warfare • • • • 1355-1356 Grand Chevauchée (Black Prince) 1356 Battle of Poitiers; Capture of French King 1358 Jacquerie 1360 Peace of Bretigny – Unemployed knights
  14. 14. The Squire • With him there was his son, a youthful squire, • A lover and a lusty bachelor, • With locks well curled, as if they'd laid in press. • Some twenty years of age he was, I guess. • In stature he was of an average length, • Wondrously active, aye, and great of strength.
  15. 15. The Squire Ellesmere Chaucer
  16. 16. The Squire - Chevauchée • He'd ridden sometime with the cavalry [And he hadde been somtyme in chyvachie] • In Flanders, in Artois, and Picardy, • And borne him well within that little space • In hope to win thereby his lady's grace.
  17. 17. Chevauchée and Spoils of War • 1355-1356 Grand Chevauchée (Black Prince) • Common soldiers and civilians considered without worth • 1385 King of Portugal kills prisoners at Aljubarotta. Froissart notes it as a disaster 'because that day they killed good prisoners from whom they could have had 400,000 francs’ • 1390 Gloucester objects to peace citing 'poor knights and squires and archers of England whose comforts and station in society depend upon war‘ Froissart
  18. 18. 235r Captivity of John the Good
  19. 19. Defeat of the Jacquerie
  20. 20. 1367 Battle of Nájera
  21. 21. The Squire • • • • • • • Prinked out he was, as if he were a mead, All full of fresh-cut flowers white and red. Singing he was, or fluting, all the day; He was as fresh as is the month of May. Short was his gown, with sleeves long and wide. Well could be sit on horse, and fairly ride. He could make songs and words thereto indite,
  22. 22. The Squire • Joust, and dance too, as well as sketch and write. • So hot he loved that, while night told her tale, • He slept no more than does a nightingale. • Courteous he, and humble, willing and able, • And carved before his father at the table.
  23. 23. Black Prince

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