The earliest known reference to armies in what today is India are millennia ago in the Vedas and
the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
The British colonized India during the 19th century.
The Army of India was raised under the British Raj in the 19th century by taking the erstwhile
presidency armies, merging them, and bringing them under the Crown.
The British Indian Army fought in both World Wars.
The armed forces succeeded the military of British India following India's independence in 1947.
After World War II, many of the wartime troops were discharged and units disbanded. The reduced
armed forces were partitioned between India and Pakistan.
BIRTH OF AN INDIAN ARMY
India has a maritime history dating back 5,600 years.
Sea lanes between India and neighbouring lands were the usual form of trade for many centuries
During World War I, the force then known as the Royal Indian Marine undertook minesweeping, as
well as supply and support operations for the Allies.
The onset of World War II led to an expansion in numbers of vessels and personnel. The navy was
actively involved in operations during the war around the world.
At the end of the war, the navy underwent rapid, large-scale demobilization of vessels and
personnel. In 1946, Indian sailors started the Royal Indian Navy
A total of 78 ships, 20 shore establishments and 20,000 sailors were involved in the rebellion, which
spread all over India.
After the independence of India on 15 August 1947 and the ensuing partition, remaining personnel
were divided between the newly independent Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan.
When India became a republic on 26 January 1950, the Royal prefix was dropped and the name
Indian Navy was officially adopted. The prefix on her ships was changed to Indian Naval Ship (INS).
BIRTH OF AN INDIAN NAVY
BIRTH OF AN AIR FORCE
The Indian Air Force's History precedes World War Two by eight years.
The IAF was established by on 8 Oct 1932 when its formation was announced in the Gazette
THE ROYAL INDIAN AIR FORCE IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR
During World War II, the IAF played an instrumental role in blocking the advance of
the Japanese army in Burma, where its first air strike was on the Japanese military base in Arakan.
It also carried out strike missions against the Japanese airbases The IAF was mainly involved
in Strike, Close Air Support, Aerial reconnaissance, Bomber Escort and Pathfinding missions
During the war, the IAF went through a phase of steady expansion.
In recognition of the services rendered by the IAF, King George VI conferred the prefix "Royal"
in 1945. Thereafter the IAF was referred to as Royal Indian Air Force.
In 1950, when India became a republic, the prefix was dropped and it reverted to Indian Air
THE 1947 - 48 JAMMU & KASHMIR OPERATIONS
Invasion of Kashmir by Pakistan Army.
Fought immediately after independence after Maharaja Hari Singh
acceded with India.
Indian troops airlifted to Srinagar on 15 Oct 47.
Intense war waged across the state and former comrades found
themselves fighting each other.
War ended with UN sponsored Ceasefire in 1948.
This was the most instrumental action of the war as the troops
saved the city from the invaders.
Apart from the airlifting operations and supplying essential
commodities to the ground troops, the Indian Air Force had no other
major role to play in the conflict.
A Line of Control has since separated Indian-held Kashmir from
LIBERATION OF HYDERABAD (1948)
ARMY After partition of India, Nizam, of Hyderabad refused to accede his
state to the Union of India.
Indian Troops ordered to secure the State on 12 September 1948 by
then deputy-Prime Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel .
Hyderabad secured after 5 days of fighting by Indian Army troops.
Five infantry battalions and one armoured squadron of the Indian
Army were engaged in the operation.
AIRFORCE Backed by squadron of Hawker Tempest aircraft of the Indian Air
State of Hyderabad proclaimed as a part of the Union of India on 17
LIBERATION OF GOA (1961)
Portugal refused to relinquish control of its Indian colonies
of Goa, Daman and Diu after Independence.
Indian Army launched on 12 December 1961 to evict the Portuguese
rulers out of the enclaves of Goa, Diu and Daman
Portuguese General Manuel António Vassalo e Silva surrendered to the
Indian Army & Goa, Daman and Diu joined the Indian Union Terriorities
Even the navy played a strategic importance to the operation.
The first engagement in action of the Indian Navy was against
the Portuguese Navy during the liberation of Goa.
The "war" was over in three days- resulting in the liberation of the
Portuguese enclaves. It also bought in a diplomatic freeze between the two
nations which thawed only in 1974.
Air strikes were carried out during this operation to provide
immediate air support to the armed forces
SINO-INDIAN 1962 WAR
War started with small-scale clashes between the Indian and
Chinese patrols all along disputed McMahon Line
China launched major attack in Arunachal Pradesh on 12 October
War caused by dispute over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh both
claimed China & India.
Although Indian Army fought valiantly it suffered some reverses
because of lack of adequate weapons, ammunition and equipment.
Indian military and civilian leadership failed to organise and co-ordinate
the air assaults efficiently and eventually the Indian Air Force was never
used during the conflict apart from occasional supply missions.
War ended with China making a unilateral withdrawal of its troops in
The 1962 Sino-Indian War was largely fought over the Himalayas and
the Navy had only a defensive role in the war.
INDO PAK 1965 WAR
Second war with Pakistan over Kashmir.
Initiated by Pakistani President Ayub Khan by launching Operation
Gibraltar in August 1965 by large scale infiltration into India
In retaliation, the India's Army launched a major offensive
throughout its border with Pakistan, with Lahore as its prime target.
Major battles with Pakistan fought in Kashmir, Punjab and
War ended with Cease Fire Agreement at Tashkent.
Learning from the experiences of the Sino-Indian war, India
decided to use its air force extensively during the war.
This was the first time the IAF actively engaged an enemy air
force. However, instead of providing close air support to the Indian
Army, the IAF carried out independent raid missions against Pakistani
Air Force (PAF) bases.
During the course of the conflict, the PAF enjoyed qualitative
superiority over the IAF because most of the jets in IAF's fleet were of
World War II-vintage.
Despite this, the IAF was able to prevent the PAF from gaining air
superiority over conflict zones.
Indian Naval activity in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 largely
involved coastal patrols.
During the war, the Pakistani Navy attacked the Indian coastal city of
Dwarka, although there were no military resources in the area.
While this attack was insignificant, India deployed naval resources to
patrol the coast and deter further bombardment.
Following these wars in the 1960s, India resolved to strengthen the
profile and capabilities of its Armed Forces.
INDO PAK 1965 WAR contd...
THE BANGLADESH WAR 1971
War caused by independence movement in East Pakistan, brutal
suppression by Pakistan Army resulting in massive influx of refugees into
Indian states of WB/ Assam in 1971.
In early 1971, India declared its full-support for the Bengali rebels,
known as Mukti Bahini.
War started on 03 Dec 71 with pre-emptive bombing by Pak AF.
India launched major offensive in the East with three Corps in East
Pakistan while remaining on Strategic Defensive in the West.
After the 1965 War, the IAF went through an intense phase of
modernization and consolidation. & was able to measure up to the most
powerful air forces in the world.
The professional standards, capability and flexibility were soon put to
the test in December 1971 when India and Pakistan went to war over
(then) East Pakistan.
The PAF targets were against Indian But the plan failed miserably as
Indians had anticipated such a move and no major losses were suffered.
PAF had qualitative advantage; its Mirage III fighter/bombers could fly
at night, where no IAF fighter had that capability—the only aircraft in IAF
with this capability was (Canberra bomber) by the day fearing loss of
planes. Towards the end of the war, IAF's transport planes dropped leaflets
over Dhaka urging the Pak forces to surrender. As the leaflets floated down,
the morale of the Pakistani troops sunk.
THE BANGLADESH WAR 1971 contd….
War ended with Surrender of Pakistan Army and birth of Bangladesh on 16 Dec 1971 and capture
of 90,000 prisoners.
The dramatic change in the Indian Navy's capabilities and
stance was emphatically demonstrated during the Indo-Pakistani
War of 1971.
Pakistan's lone long-range submarine PNS Ghazi was sunk
following an attack by the destroyer INS Rajput (1942) off the coast
of Visakhapatnam around midnight of 3–4 December 1971.
On 4 December, the Indian Navy successfully
executed Operation Trident, a devastating attack on the Pakistan
Naval Headquarters of Karachi that sank a minesweeper, a
destroyer and an ammunition supply ship. The attack also
irreparably damaged another destroyer and oil storage tanks at the
Karachi port. This was followed by Operation Python on 8
December 1971, further deprecating the Pakistan Navy's
In the end, the Indian naval blockade of Pakistan choked off the
supply of reinforcements to the Pakistani forces, which proved to
be decisive in the overwhelming defeat of Pakistan
KARGIL WAR 1999
Conflict started in mid-1999 by Pakistani paramilitary forces and
Kashmiri insurgents who captured deserted, but strategic, Himalayan
heights in the Kargil district of India.
Indian Army launched attacks to re-capture thee posts fighting
some major battles in Kargil, Batalik and Dras.
Intensive battle strategies were prepared.
AIRFORCE The Indian Air Force is said to have proved the decisive force in
accelerating the end of the conflict.
It successfully provided considerable air-cover for Indian troops
fighting against Pakistani soldiers and also carried out air assaults
against enemy forces in Kashmir.
Most notable were the IAF's Mirage 2000 aircraft & IAF MiG-
21s were used extensively in the Kargil war.
On 11 May 1999, the Indian Air Force was called in to provide
close air support to the Indian Army Kargil conflict with the use of
The IAF strike was code named Operation Safed Sagar.
AIRFORCE On 30 May, the Indian Air Force called into operation the Mirage
2000 which was deemed the best aircraft capable of optimum
performance under the conditions of high-altitude seen in the zone of
Mirage 2000s not only had better defence equipment compared to
the MiGs, but also gave IAF the ability to carry out aerial raids at night.
The MiG-29s were used extensively to provide fighter escort to the
During the 1999 Kargil War, the Western and Eastern fleets were
deployed in the Northern Arabian Sea, as a part of Operation Talwar.
They safeguarded India's maritime assets from a potential
Pakistani naval attack, as also deterred Pakistan from attempting to
block India's sea-trade routes.
By 26 July, the Indian forces had successfully liberated Kargil from Pakistani forces.
KARGIL WAR 1999 contd…….
• Focused on offering cost effective total solutions in the field of manufacturing engineering
• Wide array of activities gives it a unique position in aerospace & defence space
• It has catered for major defence sector companies like the rifle factory in Shapur, heavy vehicles
factory in Avadi, the gun & shell factory ion Cossipur & vehicle factory in Jabalpur
• TAL also manufactures high end security equipments as Armoured steel MPV & other vehicles
• TAL has worked extensively with HAL & other global companies for developing supplying &
assembly jigs for light utility helicopters & indigenously built fighter aircrafts
TAL Manufacturing Systems
• TASL is a owned subsidiary of Tata sons & strategic aerospace & defence arm of the Tata
• TASL group is fast & emerging player in India with established capabilities.
• Company has demonstrated –
– Missile & radar systems & sub systems,
– aerospace & aero structures,
– command & control systems,
– unmanned aerial systems.
• Systems Development in various field operations is a key focus area of TASL group.
TATA Advanced Systems
• TCS is credited with successfully implementing a number of projects for the armed forces, DRDO
& public sector.
• TCS focus in defence is with strategic objective of partnership with Indian defence organizations &
helping them conceptualize , design , build & operate world class it systems & engineering
TATA Consultancy Services
• Tata ELXSI is a design company that blends technology, creativity and engineering to help customers
transform ideas into world-class products and solutions. Tata ELXSI is a listed Company
headquartered in Bangalore.
• Aerospace Solutions: Provides product Design and engineering services for both aerospace OEM’s
and Tier1/ Tier 2 suppliers of commercial and defence Aerospace segments.
• Wireless Communication Solutions for Defence: They have concentrated on adapting civil WiMAX
for defence Applications. Tata ELXSI offers Software Defined Radio (SDR) solutions with WiMAX
waveforms ideal for military, emergency and public safety Applications.
• Security & Surveillance: Turnkey product design and system integration solutions in video
Surveillance and security Space.
• TISL is also leading the Tata group’s initiatives in offset support for Indian defence programmes.
With its 100+ manufacturing associates across India & its co-operation with global experts in
TATA Industrial Services
TATA Power SED
• For close to four decades, Tata Power, through its Strategic Engineering Division (SED), has been a
leading private-sector player in the indigenous design, development, production, integration, supply
and life-cycle support of mission critical Defence Systems of Strategic importance.
• It has its Design Centre in Mumbai and Production facility in Bangalore and is globally recognized for
harnessing its system and Engineering Capabilities.
• Today Tata Power SED provides comprehensive solutions by Embedding Intelligence in sensors and
Weapon Systems and has its core strength in
• Engineering and Packaging of large structural payloads for launch platforms and compact electronic
units for Airborne applications.
• Robust and real time Software for Embedded Applications.
• Rapid Prototyping and Simulation
• Development of advanced algorithms for Platform Servo Control, data processing.
• Thermal Sights and image Intensifier based.
• Associated with defence for 60yrs & has supplied 1 lac vehicles to Indian military & parliamentary
forces so far.
• It manufactures a wide range of defence vehicles'
• Its is strategically making a move from a logistic support provider to being a combat vehicle player.
• Company has ability to mobilize manufacturing capacity with dedicated exclusive infrastructure &
trained manpower to ensure faster delivery of defence vehicles.
• Tata Motors largest automobile company
– Worlds 5th largest truck manufacturer
– Worlds 4th largest bus manufacturer
– Industrial joint venture with fiat in India
– Holds JLR the iconic British brands
• Due to high precision engineering business , the company setup a precision engineering division in
2002 & today take contract business related to automation solution.
• The solution business began because of the need of sophisticated technology, high product
quality & urge for self reliance in automation.
• Supplies components & sub systems to – united technologies corporation, Thales , Textron,
Transdigm Group, Liebherr Aerospace, Lord corporation, , HAL , IAI & ABB
Today Cooperates believe that there are signs that this
government is very keen to grow indigenization. (Make things
The companies are being lured by the prospect of lucrative
returns on their investments as the BJP ( Modi) government has
pledged to make "buy Indian" the default option for future orders.
Huge opportunity for Indian companies to deliver.
Reduction in cut-backs: If products are available locally, there
would be a reduction in the imports and thereby also reduce cut
backs which happen to a tune of billions of dollars.
Foreign Collaboration: With preference given to ‘Made in India’,
a majority of foreign players want to enter the Indian defence
sector through Indian Co. collaboration. This would bring the latest
technologies and thereby improve the quality of the product and
add high efficiency in Indian organizations
Delays: Some companies are also skeptical of the government's
commitment to grow the private market given New Delhi's history of
delays and order cancellations, and the traditionally strong ties
between the military and state-run manufacturers.
Indian industry is renowned for its ability to adapt, yet questions
remain whether the private sector can come up with the solutions
needed to bring armed forces into the 21st century without sufficient
access to world-class foreign technology.
Example: The case of a $10 billion Future Infantry Combat Vehicle
(FICV) programme. Conceived in 2009, the defence ministry invited
three private players and the Ordnance Factory Board, a state entity,
to bid for the 2,600-vehicle contract but suddenly withdrew the letter
of intent in 2012.
Larsen's & Tourbo’s Kattupalli shipyard in south India has yet to
receive any orders for warships or submarines despite being designed
to do just that and despite past government pledges to build at least
two submarines in private yards.
Bureaucracy & corrupt Dealings: Local firms have captured a fraction of the Indian defence market since
it first opened to private participation in 2001. Consecutive governments have still handed orders to state
factories or to foreign giants like Boeing, Lockheed and BAE Systems when they would be locally produced.
Critics of indigenization argue that producing gear - especially in the lumbering state sector - is more
costly than buying from abroad. Such deals can add layers of bureaucracy, increasing risks of corrupt