Indo-Pak War of 1947
• On 22nd October 1947, Pakistani army crossed
the border into Kashmir to take over Srinagar.
• Maharaja Hari Singh, the then king of Jammu and
Kashmir, signed the agreement of accession to the
Union of India and thus J&K became a integral
part of India.
• Co-ordination between the army and air force
enabled the troops and equipments to be
transported to the war zone.
• The war continued till January 1st 1949 when a
formal cease fire agreement was signed by the two
• The war resulted in the formation of Pakistan
Occupied Kashmir (POK) and the Line of Control
between the two nations.
• The Nizam of Hyderabad Osman Ali Khan wanted
to join with Pakistan.
• This resulted in mass murder and atrocities on the
Hindu population of Hyderabad state.
• Sardar Vallabhai Patel, the then deputy PM decided
to annex the state of Hyderabad.
•In September 1948, Indian armed forces attacked the
princely state of Hyderabad and annexed it to the
Union of India.
Goa Liberation War
• In 1961, the Indian armed forces attacked and
liberated Goa from the colonial Portuguese rule.
• The war lasted for 36 hours and resulted in victory
for the Indian armed forces.
•This ended 451 years of colonial rule of
Portuguese in India.
• China claimed major portions of Indian territories
• On October 20 1962, China attacked India to
capture the claimed territories.
• The war ended on 20th November 1962 with China
declaring a cease fire.
• It resulted in loss of Indian territory and defeat of
Indian armed forces.
• Thinking India to have become weak after suffering a defeat
by China, Pakistan attacked India on 6th September 1965.
• Operation Gibraltar.
• The purpose was to take over Kashmir.
• The war continued for 5 weeks.
• Its regarded as the biggest tank battles after WWII
• It resulted in the defeat of Pakistan and a cease fire
declaration by the UN
• The Pakistan Army in East Pakistan (now
Bangladesh) was committing atrocities on the Hindu
population in 1971.
• This resulted in increase of refugees coming to India.
• Civil war broke out in East Pakistan and India
wanted a end to the problem.
• The democratically elected government of East
Pakistan requested assistance from India against
• Anticipating Indian intervention in the matter,
Pakistan attacked India on the night of December 4th
• Pakistan air force conducted air raids on Indian air
bases across the western front.
• On the same night the famous battle of Longewala
took place where 120 Indian soldiers stood against
2000 Pakistani soldiers and an entire tank regiment.
• India responded to the attack and counter attacked the
• The war lasted for 2 weeks and resulted in the
formation of Bangladesh with the defeat of
• 3000 Indian soldiers sacrificed their lives for this
• Over 90,000 Pakistani troops taken prisoners.
• Taking advantage of the cold winters, Pakistani
troops began infiltrating Indian territories in Kargil,
Leh and Drass sectors of Kashmir in May 1999.
• They had occupied key locations along the LOC
• The Indian armed forces were swift to react to the
• Operation Vijay was launched by the Indian army
and Operation Safed Sagar by the Indian Air Force to
liberate the Indian territories in northern Kashmir.
• The war lasted till July 1999
• During this time, the Indian armed forces were
successful in freeing the key locations occupied by the
enemy along the Srinagar-Siachin highway.
• The Air force conducted air strikes on enemy positions
and artillery support made it easier for the Indian army
to advance to higher locations.
• The war resulted in defeat and humiliation for
Pakistan. India successfully regained its lost territories
by the sacrifice of 517 soldiers.