The Climate is Changing From Cape Town to Durban and BeyondAdvancing Tourism’s Response to Climate ChangeHilton Trollip Responsible Tourism LaunchEnergy and Climate Change 29 September 2011City of Cape Town
The Inter‐Governmental Panel on Climate ChangeWarming of the globalclimate system is“unequivocal”.Climate change nowfirmly entrenched inthe global agenda.Critical negotiations fora greenhouse gasemissions frameworkcontinue in Durban inNovember 2011 duringCOP 17.
South Africa ranks in the top 20 for greenhouse gas emissions,contributing 8% to global emissions, and is responsible for 42% of emissions on the African continent
In Cape Town we face a triple challenge: A high carbon footprint – per capita carbon emissions on par with London, New York and Beijing. Poor energy security – highly dependent on electricity from coal power stations nearly 2000 km away. Vulnerability to the impacts of climate change – a sprawling city dependent on private vehicles where the poor generally live far from opportunities.
Cape Town Carbon Emissions in a Global Context (per capita)8 7.1 6.97 6.4 6.18 São Paulo (2003)6 Delhi (2000) Rio de Janeiro (1998)5 4.8 Barcelona (1996) 4 Mexico City (2000)4 3.6 Stokholm (2005) 3.4 Tokyo (1998)3 London (2006) Cape Town (metro,2 2004) Beijing (1998) New York City (2005)10 1 Cape Town Source: Urban Areas Carbon and Climate Governance Patricia Romero Lankao
Carbon Emissions per sector in Cape Town, 2007 Transport 27% Residential 29%Local Government 1% Industrial 15% Commercial 28%
Why should we be concerned aboutclimate change in Cape Town?Within the next 25 years there is a85% probability of 60,9 km2(2% of metro area) being covered bysea for a short period.Sea-level rise could induce tourismlosses of R20 billion over 25 years.“The sovereign risk of sea-level rise for the City ofCape Town is significant and will increase in thenext 25 years regardless of reductions ingreenhouse gas”. City sea-level rise risk study 2008
City’s 2008 adaptation study - potential storm event damageand infrastructure at risk for 2.5, 4.5 and 6 meter rise in sea levels
City’s 2008 adaptation study– inundation at 10m level
Why be concerned about Tourism andClimate Change • Tourism is a vector of climate change accounts for approx 5% of global carbon dioxide emissions. • Tourists will quickly switch their choice of destination when the results of climate change impact on their enjoyment. • The tourism sector depends heavily on a natural and cultural heritage. • Careful management of climate related impacts would be essential in order to safeguard positive destination image in the long term.
The tourism sector is highlyclimate sensitive as climate definesthe length and quality of tourismseasons, affects tourism operations,and influences environmentalconditions that both attract and detervisitors.Africa is one of the tourism regionsthought to be most at risk.Climate change adaptation willensure that individuals, communitiesand nations continue to receive thebenefits of tourism.A CHANGING CLIMATE WILL HAVECONSIDERABLE IMPACTS ON TOURISM
The Davos Declaration on Climate Change and Tourism An International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism was held in Davos, Switzerland in 2007.The Davos Declaration included firm recommendationsa clear commitment for action.Four key areas were agreed upon: Mitigate transport and accommodation emissions Adapt tourism businesses and destinations Apply existing and new efficient technologies Secure financial resources to assist poorer regions and countries.
Tourism & climate change: a 2-way relationship Determinant of tourist decision‐making Weather is an intrinsic component of the travel experience and influences tourist spending and holiday satisfaction. Changing and more extreme weather patterns Difficulty in tourism planning and operations Natural disasters Harms infrastructure, natural/cultural heritage & host communities Climate-induced changes in general health conditions Visitor safety and insurance practices Gradual sea level rise and more regular ‘sea storm/surge’ events Threat to coastal destinations/marine sites, biodiversity, wildlife Altered hydrological cycle Destinations in arid and drought prone areas (water availability) and flood prone areas Food security problems Difficulty in tourism planning and operations
Tourism identified in Climate Change Response White Paper South Africa has developed a White Paper on Climate Change Response. The Paper identifies tourism as a sector that contributes to and will be affected by Climate Change. Recommends that tourism develop an Action Plan to address the adaptation and mitigation issues raised in the Paper. A Tourism & Climate Change Task Team comprising of government, business, NGOs and academia was established in December 2010 to assist with the development of a National Tourism and Climate Change Action Plan.
National Tourism and Climate Change Action PlanA Draft Tourism and Climate Change Action Plan has been developed.The aim of the Action Plan is to ensure that the tourism sector respondseffectively to the challenge of climate change.The Action Plan seeks to achieve the following outcomes: Adaptation: Improved understanding of the vulnerabilities of tourism to the physical impacts of climate change in order to build resilience and adaptive capacity of the industry. Mitigation: Reduced tourism related greenhouse gas emissions. Awareness: A fully informed tourism industry through consistent and effective industry outreach and communications. Coordination: A nationally consistent, inclusive and cooperative approach to implementation.The actions in the plan will be delivered overthe next three years (2012 – 2014).
COP 17 in DurbanThe United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts totackle climate change.The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the "supreme body”The 17th COP in Durban from 28 November to 9 December 2011.192 countries. A primary focus is to secure a global climate agreementbecause the Kyoto Protocol’s commitment period will end in 2012.SA Exhibition Pavilion to showcase responsible tourism practices andproducts.Climate Smart Cape Town will also have a Pavilion and will be good fortourism to be included.
“Those who react astutely and nimbly to theimperatives of the low-carbon transition willprosper, while those who seek to hold back thetides, or pretend that the tides aren’t even there,will look back in sorrow.Countries and cities that sink their treasure nowinto a dirty coal infrastructure, high-carbonproduction methods and development which isnot energy efficient are not only jeopardizing thehealth of the planet, they are jeopardizing theirown economic future.” Adapted from Tod Stern, US Climate Action Symposium, March 2009.