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TOO4TO MODULE
Climate Change and Sustainability
Part 1: Background and history of climate change
2
Part 1 Contents
1) Natural versus
anthropogenic climate
change
1) Greenhouse gases
emissions by sector and
ways of reducing emissions
1) Milestones in the evolution of
international climate policy
3
Photo by Margot RICHARD on Unsplash
Natural versus Anthropogenic Climate Change
4
Climate Change
• Climate change is any change occurring to
the planet's climate either permanently or
lasting for long periods of time.
• It is the cumulative total of two related
sources: anthropogenic climate change and
natural climate change.
Video on Causes and Effects of Climate Change
5
Source: Energy Education
Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash
Natural versus Anthropogenic Climate Change
• Anthropogenic climate change is defined by the human impact
on Earth's climate while natural climate change are the natural
climate cycles that have been and continue to occur
throughout Earth's history.
Read more:
• Climate change – natural cycle vs anthropogenic
• How We Know Today's Climate Change Is Not Natural
6
Source: Energy Education
Natural Climate Change
The major factors contributing to Earth’s
natural climate change are mainly determined
by:
• the Axial tilt (Earth's orbit around the sun),
• the output of energy from the sun,
• the ocean’s natural cooling and warming cycles,
• the constant variability in volcanic activity,
• another factor to consider - the glacial advances
and retreats that occur throughout Earth’s
history.
7
Source: Energy Education
Photo
by
Markus
Spiske
on
Unsplash
Anthropogenic Climate Change
• Human activities have contributed substantially to climate
change through:
• Greenhouse Gas Emissions
• Concentrations of the key greenhouse gases have all increased since the
Industrial Revolution due to human activities.
• Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations are now more
abundant in the earth’s atmosphere than any time in the last 800,000 years.
• Reflectivity or Absorption of the Sun’s Energy
• Activities such as agriculture, road construction, and deforestation can change
the reflectivity of the earth's surface, leading to local warming or cooling.
• This effect is observed in heat islands, which are urban centers that are warmer
than the surrounding, less populated areas.
8
Source: Causes of Climate Change
Greenhouse Gases Emissions by Sector and
Ways of Reducing Emissions
9
Greenhouse Gases Emissions (1/2)
• In the period 2010-2018, global GHG
(Greenhouse Gases) emissions were the highest
in human history in 2018, reaching 58 GtCO2eq.
• The largest share of global emissions in 2018
came from the energy systems sector (34%; 20
GtCO2eq), followed by industry (24%; 14
GtCO2eq), AFOLU* (21%; 12 GtCO2eq),
transport (14%; 8.3 GtCO2eq) and the operation
of buildings (6%; 3.3 Gt CO2eq).
10
Source and more: A review of trends and drivers of greenhouse gas emissions by sector from 1990 to 2018
Photo
by
Chris
LeBoutillier
on
Unsplash
*Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use
Global Greenhouse Gases Emissions (2/2)
11
Source and more: A review of trends and drivers of
greenhouse gas emissions by sector from 1990 to
2018
Total U.S. Greenhouse Gases Emissions in 2020
12
Total Emissions in 2020 = 5,981 Million Metric Tons of CO2 equivalent. Percentages
may not add up to 100% due to independent rounding.
Source and more: Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
The primary sources of greenhouse gas emissions in
the United States are:
• Transportation - 27% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions
• Electricity production - 25% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions
• Industry - 24% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions
• Commercial and Residential -13% of 2020 greenhouse gas
emissions
• Agriculture - 11% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions
• Land Use and Forestry - 13% of 2020 greenhouse gas
emissions
Ways of reducing emissions in sectors
13
Electric Power
Production
• Increased efficiency
of fossil-fired power
plants and fuel
switching
• Renewable energy
• Increased end-use
energy efficiency
• Nuclear energy
• Carbon capture and
sequestration
(CCS)
Transportation
• Fuel switching
• Improving fuel
efficiency with
advanced design,
materials, and
technologies
• Improving
operating
practices
• Reducing travel
demand
Industry
• Energy efficiency
• Fuel switching
• Recycling
• Training and
awareness
Homes and
Businesses
• Design of homes
and commercial
buildings
• Wastewater
treatment
• Waste
management
• Air conditioning
and refrigeration
Agriculture
• Land and crop
management
• Livestock
management
• Manure
management
Source and more: Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Milestones in the evolution of international climate
policy
14
Key dates in global climate change negotiations
1972-1990
15
Date Event
1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment takes place - This is the UN's first major conference on
international environmental issues and marks a turning point in the development of international environmental
politics.
1979 World Climate Conference takes place in Geneva 1979 - This is one of the first major international meetings on
climate change. Essentially a scientific conference, it is attended by scientists from a wide range of disciplines. It
leads to the establishment of the World Climate Programme.
1987 The Montreal Protocol is adopted - The protocol restricts the use of chemicals that can damage the ozone layer.
1988 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is set up - The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, providing the world with a clear
scientific view on the current state of knowledge regarding climate change and its potential environmental and socio-
economic impacts.
1990 The IPCC produces its first assessment report - In its first assessment report the IPCC concludes that humanity's
emissions are adding to the atmosphere's natural component of greenhouse gases. The report therefore plays a
decisive role in paving the way for the creation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC).
Source and more: A guide to climate change negotiations
Key dates in global climate change negotiations
1990-1997
16
Date Event
1992
May
Convention on Climate Change is adopted - The text of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
is adopted at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. This is the key international treaty to reduce global
warming and help cope with the consequences of climate change. For the first time binding gas emissions reduction
targets are set for industrialised countries.
1992 Earth Summit in Rio
Governments are invited to sign the Convention on Climate Change at the Earth Summit in Rio.
1994 The UNFCCC enters into force
1995 COP1 takes place in Berlin
Parties agree that commitments in the Convention are "inadequate" for meeting Convention objectives. They establish
a process for negotiating stronger commitments for developed countries, thus laying the groundwork for the Kyoto
Protocol.
1997 The Kyoto Protocol is adopted - The Kyoto Protocol is the world's first greenhouse gas emissions reduction treaty. The
Protocol legally binds developed countries to emission reduction targets - an average of 5% by the period 2008-2012
with wide variations on targets for individual countries.
Source and more: A guide to climate change negotiations
Key dates in global climate change negotiations
2001-2011
17
Date Event
2001 The Marrakesh Accords
The Marrakesh Accords are adopted at COP7, detailing the rules for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, setting
up new funding and planning instruments for adaptation, and establishing a technology transfer framework to support
developing countries in addressing climate change
2005
Jan.
The EU's Emissions Trading System is launched
The European Union Emissions Trading System, the world's first and largest emissions trading scheme, is launched
as a major pillar of EU climate policy.
2007 The IPCC’s fourth assessment report is released
The report represents the largest and most detailed summary of the climate change situation ever undertaken, created
with the help of a large number of contributors, both scientists and governmental representatives. The headline
findings of the report were: "warming of the climate system is unequivocal" and "most of the observed increase in
global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic
greenhouse gas concentrations."
2011 COP17 takes place in Durban
In Durban, governments clearly commit to a new universal climate change agreement by 2015 for the period beyond
2020, where all will play their part to the best of their ability and all will be able to reap the benefits together.
Source and more: A guide to climate change negotiations
Key dates in global climate change negotiations
2015-2019
18
Date Event
2015 Paris Agreement is adopted
The Paris Agreement on fighting climate change is the first-ever universal, legally binding global climate deal. The
objective of the agreement is to maintain the increase in global temperatures well below two degrees Celsius above
pre-industrial levels, whilst making efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement aims to ensure global
greenhouse gas emissions peak as soon as possible, and to balance emissions and removals of greenhouse gases in
the second half of this century. Furthermore, the agreement addresses the adaptation to climate change, financial and
other support for developing countries, technology transfer and capacity building, as well as losses and damage.
2016
11.04
Paris Agreement enters into force
2018 UN IPCC releases its 1.5° special report
The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) releases a report investigating the impact of a
1.5°C rise in temperature (above pre-industrial levels). It concludes that emissions will have to be reduced more than
scientists originally estimated.
2019 European Parliament declares climate emergency in Europe and globally.
Source and more: A guide to climate change negotiations
Key dates in global climate change negotiations
2019-2022
19
Date Event
2019 The Green Deal - The European Commission presents the Green Deal. Using the European Climate Law, it aims to
make Europe climate neutral by 2050.
2019 EU to become climate neutral by 2050 - EU leaders agree to make the EU climate neutral by 2050 during a
European Council meeting in Brussels.
2020 European Climate Law: Parliament adopts its position - The European Parliament approves its negotiating
position on the Climate Law proposing that the EU and all member states reach climate neutrality by 2050. It also sets
a more ambitious 2030 emissions reduction target of 60%.
2019 European Parliament declares climate emergency in Europe and globally.
2021 COP26 takes place in Glasgow - During the COP26, countries agreed to the goal of climate neutrality; increased
funding for vulnerable developing countries; and less money for new fossil fuel projects. They did not reach a common
response to phasing out the use of coal.
2022 COP27 takes place in Sharm el-Sheikh - Countries agreed to create a loss and damage fund to help vulnerable
countries hit by climate disasters. However, despite slow progress on phasing out fossil fuels and moving towards the
Paris Agreement’s 1.5 degree Celsius limit, no new measures were agreed.
Source and more: A guide to climate change negotiations
The future of climate change
What three degrees of global warming looks like
20
The future of climate change
Watch the video for more details about the consequences of three degrees of global warming. Link to the video
21
Prolonged draughts
Rising sea levels, storm surges and flooding
Extreme heat and wet-bulb temperatures
Sources of photos: 1) Photo by Dikaseva on Unsplash 2) Photo by Jeremy Bishop on Unsplash 3) Photo by Josh Calabrese on Unsplash
RESOURCES
• Video on the consequences of three degrees of global warming
• Video on Causes and Effects of Climate Change
• Energy Education
• Climate change – natural cycle vs anthropogenic
• How We Know Today's Climate Change Is Not Natural
• Causes of Climate Change
• A review of trends and drivers of greenhouse gas emissions by sector from 1990 to 2018
• Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
• A guide to climate change negotiations
22

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TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 1

  • 1.
  • 2. TOO4TO MODULE Climate Change and Sustainability Part 1: Background and history of climate change 2
  • 3. Part 1 Contents 1) Natural versus anthropogenic climate change 1) Greenhouse gases emissions by sector and ways of reducing emissions 1) Milestones in the evolution of international climate policy 3 Photo by Margot RICHARD on Unsplash
  • 4. Natural versus Anthropogenic Climate Change 4
  • 5. Climate Change • Climate change is any change occurring to the planet's climate either permanently or lasting for long periods of time. • It is the cumulative total of two related sources: anthropogenic climate change and natural climate change. Video on Causes and Effects of Climate Change 5 Source: Energy Education Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash
  • 6. Natural versus Anthropogenic Climate Change • Anthropogenic climate change is defined by the human impact on Earth's climate while natural climate change are the natural climate cycles that have been and continue to occur throughout Earth's history. Read more: • Climate change – natural cycle vs anthropogenic • How We Know Today's Climate Change Is Not Natural 6 Source: Energy Education
  • 7. Natural Climate Change The major factors contributing to Earth’s natural climate change are mainly determined by: • the Axial tilt (Earth's orbit around the sun), • the output of energy from the sun, • the ocean’s natural cooling and warming cycles, • the constant variability in volcanic activity, • another factor to consider - the glacial advances and retreats that occur throughout Earth’s history. 7 Source: Energy Education Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash
  • 8. Anthropogenic Climate Change • Human activities have contributed substantially to climate change through: • Greenhouse Gas Emissions • Concentrations of the key greenhouse gases have all increased since the Industrial Revolution due to human activities. • Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations are now more abundant in the earth’s atmosphere than any time in the last 800,000 years. • Reflectivity or Absorption of the Sun’s Energy • Activities such as agriculture, road construction, and deforestation can change the reflectivity of the earth's surface, leading to local warming or cooling. • This effect is observed in heat islands, which are urban centers that are warmer than the surrounding, less populated areas. 8 Source: Causes of Climate Change
  • 9. Greenhouse Gases Emissions by Sector and Ways of Reducing Emissions 9
  • 10. Greenhouse Gases Emissions (1/2) • In the period 2010-2018, global GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions were the highest in human history in 2018, reaching 58 GtCO2eq. • The largest share of global emissions in 2018 came from the energy systems sector (34%; 20 GtCO2eq), followed by industry (24%; 14 GtCO2eq), AFOLU* (21%; 12 GtCO2eq), transport (14%; 8.3 GtCO2eq) and the operation of buildings (6%; 3.3 Gt CO2eq). 10 Source and more: A review of trends and drivers of greenhouse gas emissions by sector from 1990 to 2018 Photo by Chris LeBoutillier on Unsplash *Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use
  • 11. Global Greenhouse Gases Emissions (2/2) 11 Source and more: A review of trends and drivers of greenhouse gas emissions by sector from 1990 to 2018
  • 12. Total U.S. Greenhouse Gases Emissions in 2020 12 Total Emissions in 2020 = 5,981 Million Metric Tons of CO2 equivalent. Percentages may not add up to 100% due to independent rounding. Source and more: Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions The primary sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are: • Transportation - 27% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions • Electricity production - 25% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions • Industry - 24% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions • Commercial and Residential -13% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions • Agriculture - 11% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions • Land Use and Forestry - 13% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions
  • 13. Ways of reducing emissions in sectors 13 Electric Power Production • Increased efficiency of fossil-fired power plants and fuel switching • Renewable energy • Increased end-use energy efficiency • Nuclear energy • Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) Transportation • Fuel switching • Improving fuel efficiency with advanced design, materials, and technologies • Improving operating practices • Reducing travel demand Industry • Energy efficiency • Fuel switching • Recycling • Training and awareness Homes and Businesses • Design of homes and commercial buildings • Wastewater treatment • Waste management • Air conditioning and refrigeration Agriculture • Land and crop management • Livestock management • Manure management Source and more: Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  • 14. Milestones in the evolution of international climate policy 14
  • 15. Key dates in global climate change negotiations 1972-1990 15 Date Event 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment takes place - This is the UN's first major conference on international environmental issues and marks a turning point in the development of international environmental politics. 1979 World Climate Conference takes place in Geneva 1979 - This is one of the first major international meetings on climate change. Essentially a scientific conference, it is attended by scientists from a wide range of disciplines. It leads to the establishment of the World Climate Programme. 1987 The Montreal Protocol is adopted - The protocol restricts the use of chemicals that can damage the ozone layer. 1988 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is set up - The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, providing the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge regarding climate change and its potential environmental and socio- economic impacts. 1990 The IPCC produces its first assessment report - In its first assessment report the IPCC concludes that humanity's emissions are adding to the atmosphere's natural component of greenhouse gases. The report therefore plays a decisive role in paving the way for the creation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Source and more: A guide to climate change negotiations
  • 16. Key dates in global climate change negotiations 1990-1997 16 Date Event 1992 May Convention on Climate Change is adopted - The text of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is adopted at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. This is the key international treaty to reduce global warming and help cope with the consequences of climate change. For the first time binding gas emissions reduction targets are set for industrialised countries. 1992 Earth Summit in Rio Governments are invited to sign the Convention on Climate Change at the Earth Summit in Rio. 1994 The UNFCCC enters into force 1995 COP1 takes place in Berlin Parties agree that commitments in the Convention are "inadequate" for meeting Convention objectives. They establish a process for negotiating stronger commitments for developed countries, thus laying the groundwork for the Kyoto Protocol. 1997 The Kyoto Protocol is adopted - The Kyoto Protocol is the world's first greenhouse gas emissions reduction treaty. The Protocol legally binds developed countries to emission reduction targets - an average of 5% by the period 2008-2012 with wide variations on targets for individual countries. Source and more: A guide to climate change negotiations
  • 17. Key dates in global climate change negotiations 2001-2011 17 Date Event 2001 The Marrakesh Accords The Marrakesh Accords are adopted at COP7, detailing the rules for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, setting up new funding and planning instruments for adaptation, and establishing a technology transfer framework to support developing countries in addressing climate change 2005 Jan. The EU's Emissions Trading System is launched The European Union Emissions Trading System, the world's first and largest emissions trading scheme, is launched as a major pillar of EU climate policy. 2007 The IPCC’s fourth assessment report is released The report represents the largest and most detailed summary of the climate change situation ever undertaken, created with the help of a large number of contributors, both scientists and governmental representatives. The headline findings of the report were: "warming of the climate system is unequivocal" and "most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations." 2011 COP17 takes place in Durban In Durban, governments clearly commit to a new universal climate change agreement by 2015 for the period beyond 2020, where all will play their part to the best of their ability and all will be able to reap the benefits together. Source and more: A guide to climate change negotiations
  • 18. Key dates in global climate change negotiations 2015-2019 18 Date Event 2015 Paris Agreement is adopted The Paris Agreement on fighting climate change is the first-ever universal, legally binding global climate deal. The objective of the agreement is to maintain the increase in global temperatures well below two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, whilst making efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement aims to ensure global greenhouse gas emissions peak as soon as possible, and to balance emissions and removals of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century. Furthermore, the agreement addresses the adaptation to climate change, financial and other support for developing countries, technology transfer and capacity building, as well as losses and damage. 2016 11.04 Paris Agreement enters into force 2018 UN IPCC releases its 1.5° special report The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) releases a report investigating the impact of a 1.5°C rise in temperature (above pre-industrial levels). It concludes that emissions will have to be reduced more than scientists originally estimated. 2019 European Parliament declares climate emergency in Europe and globally. Source and more: A guide to climate change negotiations
  • 19. Key dates in global climate change negotiations 2019-2022 19 Date Event 2019 The Green Deal - The European Commission presents the Green Deal. Using the European Climate Law, it aims to make Europe climate neutral by 2050. 2019 EU to become climate neutral by 2050 - EU leaders agree to make the EU climate neutral by 2050 during a European Council meeting in Brussels. 2020 European Climate Law: Parliament adopts its position - The European Parliament approves its negotiating position on the Climate Law proposing that the EU and all member states reach climate neutrality by 2050. It also sets a more ambitious 2030 emissions reduction target of 60%. 2019 European Parliament declares climate emergency in Europe and globally. 2021 COP26 takes place in Glasgow - During the COP26, countries agreed to the goal of climate neutrality; increased funding for vulnerable developing countries; and less money for new fossil fuel projects. They did not reach a common response to phasing out the use of coal. 2022 COP27 takes place in Sharm el-Sheikh - Countries agreed to create a loss and damage fund to help vulnerable countries hit by climate disasters. However, despite slow progress on phasing out fossil fuels and moving towards the Paris Agreement’s 1.5 degree Celsius limit, no new measures were agreed. Source and more: A guide to climate change negotiations
  • 20. The future of climate change What three degrees of global warming looks like 20
  • 21. The future of climate change Watch the video for more details about the consequences of three degrees of global warming. Link to the video 21 Prolonged draughts Rising sea levels, storm surges and flooding Extreme heat and wet-bulb temperatures Sources of photos: 1) Photo by Dikaseva on Unsplash 2) Photo by Jeremy Bishop on Unsplash 3) Photo by Josh Calabrese on Unsplash
  • 22. RESOURCES • Video on the consequences of three degrees of global warming • Video on Causes and Effects of Climate Change • Energy Education • Climate change – natural cycle vs anthropogenic • How We Know Today's Climate Change Is Not Natural • Causes of Climate Change • A review of trends and drivers of greenhouse gas emissions by sector from 1990 to 2018 • Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions • A guide to climate change negotiations 22