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Climate change-induced economic impacts on tourism destinations:

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Climate change-induced economic impacts on tourism destinations: the case of Australia

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Climate change-induced economic impacts on tourism destinations:

  1. 1. Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 449–473
  2. 2. Figure 1. Case study destinations within Australian continent. Source: http://www.australia.com
  3. 3. Tourism in Australia • $68 billion to GDP • 853,000 = 8.3% Total employment [directly & indirectly] • 70% Domestic & 25% International= Regional & Rural • 2.6% Tourists arrivals increase p/a • 6.2% Outbound tourism increase p/a • 74% Domestic tourism • The 200o Sydney Olympics Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 451 Source: http://www.australia.com
  4. 4. Climate change + Tourism • ¾ of its CO2 - tourism transport sector • 4.95% of Global emissions Climate • Affect the demand of tourism • Determinates the suitability of locations • Directly affects the environmental resources for tourism Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 452 Source: http://www.australia.com
  5. 5. Economic Model Development  The Garnaut Review  CGE [Computable General Equilibrium] economics  IO [input – output] = Net effects in the economy  TERM* [The Enormous Regional Model] &  The STCRC [Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Center] *Includes: industries, household sector, government, investment & overseas export. Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 453
  6. 6. Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 454
  7. 7. Figure 3. Domestic Sourcing Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 455
  8. 8. Figure 5. Simulation procedure. Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 457
  9. 9. Simulation Results  Percentage change as an annual average growth figure &  Percentage point change deviation from benchmarks Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 461
  10. 10. Figure 7. Movements of real average wages (average annual percentage). Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 462
  11. 11. Figure 8. Compositional changes of national GDP components (average annual percentage). Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 462
  12. 12. Figure 9. GDPandGRP projections of tourism and non-tourism regions 2005–2020 (average p.a.%). Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 463
  13. 13. Figure 10. Comparison of climate change impacts and its induced tourism impacts on regions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 464
  14. 14. Figure 11. Net GRP impact of the induced tourism reduction for 2005–2020 (percentage point deviation). Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 465
  15. 15. Consequences  Tourism demand reductions  Job losses  Lower wage incomes [or increasing inequality]  Further costs on the society Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 467
  16. 16. What can help?  Domestic tourism  Awareness of the government  Policies to facilitate the transition  Investment in climate change adaptation Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18, No. 3, April 2010, 467

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