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Television Broadcasting System
1
KAUSIK DAS.(ET12BT0215)
Student at Kaziranga University
SUBMITTED BY:
Contents
Introduction
Types of Studios
Production Control Room
Production area
Editing
Master Switching Room
Earth ...
Introduction
• Part of the DD India
• The largest television network in the world.
• Power of 10KW covering range of 89-12...
STUDIO
4
1) MAIN STUDIO
• Dimension of 22x16.5 metres.
• Fully digitalized with four cameras setup.
• Equipped with different light...
Three main lights:
• Key Light: It is hard light about 1KW of power. Used
as main source of power.
• Fill Light: It’s cool...
Microphone
7
Classification on construction basis:
8
Carbon Microphone Crystal Microphone
2)1)
Ribbon Microphone
3)
Condenser Microphone
4)
Dynamic microphone
5)
9
10
Main Studio
Studio camera:
• Lens Block
• CCD Block
• Electronic Block
*CCD and EB are collectively known as camera head.
All the capt...
2) CB STUDIO:
• Dimension of 9.2x6 metres.
• Fully digitalized with two cameras setup
• Progams include discusion or ancho...
13
CB Studio
Production control Room(PCR)
1
?
• Activities in this area are:-
 Minor editing.
 Direction to the production crew by the producer.
 Management of feed ...
Production Control Room of DDK-Guwahati
16
Components of PCR
PCR is house with :
1) Vision Mixer.
2) Audio Mixer.
3) Camera Control Unit(CCU).
4) Character Generator...
Camera control unit(CCU) :
This unit includes :
1) Focus.
2) Zoom-in/out.
3) Beam focus.
4) Contrast.
5) Brightness.
 A c...
Video tape recorder :
It contain :1) Analog and digital processor
servo system.
2) Microprocessor.
3) Memory etc.
Here a...
20
PRODUCTION AREA
Production Area:
• Area where the actual production decision is made and
the show is created. This area includes the space...
Advantages of large programmable monitors:
• Compact
• Light
• Consume little power
Audio Area:
It includes:
• Audio mixin...
23
Audio Control
24
EDITING
EDITING
Two types of Editing:-
1) LINEAR EDITING(non-computerized)
2) NON-LINEAR EDITING(computerized)
25
LINEAR EDITING
It is basically a mechanical process that employs
the use to perform the edit functions are:-
• Camcorders
...
This editing technique is performs in linear steps, one cut at a time (or a series of
program cuts) to its conclusion.
 ...
NON-LINEAR EDITING:
 Carried out on a computer with editing software.
 Gathering into the software, then cut, copy and p...
Some of the editing software available and used in DDK, Guwahati are:
 Leitch- velocity DPS & Velocity HD (version 8 and ...
30
MASTER SWITCHING ROOM
31
Master Switching Room(MSR)
 It is used for transmission media.
 Room where all different sources from the
outside stu...
32
EARTH STATION
33
Earth Station
GROUND STATIONS
34
 It is the terrestrial base of the system.
Located either on the surface of the earth,
or within Earth’s atmosphere.
...
35
WHAT IS AN EARTH STATION?
UPLINK STATION
RECEIVE CENTRE
DOWNLINK FREQ: 6725MHzUPLINK FREQ: 6333MHz
 Earth station involves the two terms which are basically the important parameters of the
communication i.e., UPLINK & DO...
37
Major Components of Digital Earth Stations
Some Major components are:-
 PDA(Parabolic Dish Antenna)
 Up converter
 M...
38
TRANSMITTER
TRANSMITTER
• In DDK-Guwahati VHF Solid State
NEC(Japan) TV transmitter is used.
• It is a digital transmitter.
• Power ra...
40
EARTH
STATION
TANSMITTER/RECEIVER
SATELLITE
DTH
RECEIVER
TV
UPLINKING
DOWNLINKING
THE PROCESS OF TRANSMISSION
41
Picture I...
OUTSIDE BROADCASTING
This is shooting progrms outside the studios. It can be live or recorded
programs. It involves two sy...
43
OB Van
Thank You
44
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complete presentation on "In plant TV broadcasting(Transmission and studio) at Doordarshan Kendra,Guwahati

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  1. 1. Television Broadcasting System 1 KAUSIK DAS.(ET12BT0215) Student at Kaziranga University SUBMITTED BY:
  2. 2. Contents Introduction Types of Studios Production Control Room Production area Editing Master Switching Room Earth Station Transmitter Outside broadcasting 2
  3. 3. Introduction • Part of the DD India • The largest television network in the world. • Power of 10KW covering range of 89-120 kms. • Better facilities for recording and transmission . • Separate studio for recording of north-east program. • Computerized earth station for networking. • Earth station is utilized for up-linking the Guwahati Doordarshan program to entire country through INSAT-4B. 3
  4. 4. STUDIO 4
  5. 5. 1) MAIN STUDIO • Dimension of 22x16.5 metres. • Fully digitalized with four cameras setup. • Equipped with different lights and microphones. • Mainly used for all major recordings. • Acoustic treatment. 5
  6. 6. Three main lights: • Key Light: It is hard light about 1KW of power. Used as main source of power. • Fill Light: It’s cool light about 500W, used to remove object formed due to key light. • Back Light: It’s hard light used to remove the back shadow and separate the object form background which gives a 3D picture. [Ratio 3:2:1 for monochrome and 3:2:2 for color] 6
  7. 7. Microphone 7
  8. 8. Classification on construction basis: 8 Carbon Microphone Crystal Microphone 2)1)
  9. 9. Ribbon Microphone 3) Condenser Microphone 4) Dynamic microphone 5) 9
  10. 10. 10 Main Studio
  11. 11. Studio camera: • Lens Block • CCD Block • Electronic Block *CCD and EB are collectively known as camera head. All the captured signals are transferred to and from the base station using a multiple core-Triax cable. 11
  12. 12. 2) CB STUDIO: • Dimension of 9.2x6 metres. • Fully digitalized with two cameras setup • Progams include discusion or anchoring are generated • Teleprompter. 12
  13. 13. 13 CB Studio
  14. 14. Production control Room(PCR) 1 ?
  15. 15. • Activities in this area are:-  Minor editing.  Direction to the production crew by the producer.  Management of feed during a live program.  Monitoring of output/off air signal. Production Control Room 15
  16. 16. Production Control Room of DDK-Guwahati 16
  17. 17. Components of PCR PCR is house with : 1) Vision Mixer. 2) Audio Mixer. 3) Camera Control Unit(CCU). 4) Character Generator . 5) Tape Recorder. Vision Mixer(video mixer) Audio Mixer(Mixing desk) 17
  18. 18. Camera control unit(CCU) : This unit includes : 1) Focus. 2) Zoom-in/out. 3) Beam focus. 4) Contrast. 5) Brightness.  A color composite video signal(CCVS) is Received from the studio camera through the Triax -able can be viewed in monitor. Character Generator (CG): Modern CG are computer based and character can be generated with the help of software. Character may be static or animated (ex: news crawls and credits roles) 18
  19. 19. Video tape recorder : It contain :1) Analog and digital processor servo system. 2) Microprocessor. 3) Memory etc. Here a video tape recorder(VTR) or Video Cassette recorder (VCR) used for recording. Recording is done in playback format. Audio and video level can be adjust from here. Quality of the recorded program are tested Immediately after recording and error is solved for better quality. 19
  20. 20. 20 PRODUCTION AREA
  21. 21. Production Area: • Area where the actual production decision is made and the show is created. This area includes the space for the director, producer and their assistants. One of the most significant parts of the production area is the monitor wall. It includes the following: • Preview monitor • Live or on-air monitor • Camera monitors • VTR monitors • Graphics monitors • Still stores monitors • Routed monitors 21
  22. 22. Advantages of large programmable monitors: • Compact • Light • Consume little power Audio Area: It includes: • Audio mixing board • Patch panels • Video and audio monitors 22
  23. 23. 23 Audio Control
  24. 24. 24 EDITING
  25. 25. EDITING Two types of Editing:- 1) LINEAR EDITING(non-computerized) 2) NON-LINEAR EDITING(computerized) 25
  26. 26. LINEAR EDITING It is basically a mechanical process that employs the use to perform the edit functions are:- • Camcorders • VCRs • Edit controllers and • Mixers 26
  27. 27. This editing technique is performs in linear steps, one cut at a time (or a series of program cuts) to its conclusion.  It is the process of assembling footage in a sequential fashion, from start to finish. This type of editing is generally carried out when working with video tapes. Video tapes can be cut into sections and spliced together. The content must be accessed sequentially. CAMCORDERS VCRs 27 Video tapes
  28. 28. NON-LINEAR EDITING:  Carried out on a computer with editing software.  Gathering into the software, then cut, copy and paste it together in desired order.  When the nonlinear sequence is ready, it is recorded onto the master tape.  Possible to access any frame. 28 Non-Linear Editing
  29. 29. Some of the editing software available and used in DDK, Guwahati are:  Leitch- velocity DPS & Velocity HD (version 8 and 9).  Adobe Premiere pro CS-3 and CS-6.  Canopus-EDIUS-4. 29 ADVANTAGE OF NON-LINEAR EDITING  The original source files are not lost or modified during editing.  & one of the biggest adv. Compared to linear editing.
  30. 30. 30 MASTER SWITCHING ROOM
  31. 31. 31 Master Switching Room(MSR)  It is used for transmission media.  Room where all different sources from the outside studio comes here and enroots transmission to different destination like Tr & Earth station.  Room comprises of routine switcher, video/audio distributor amplifier etc.  So, it is called heart of the studio.  Most of the switching electronics is kept here:- 1. Camera base stations. 2. Switcher main frame. 3. Sync pulse generator(SPG). 4. Satellite Receivers etc.  Signals is routed through MSR from various to earth stations and can be monitored at various stages.
  32. 32. 32 EARTH STATION
  33. 33. 33 Earth Station GROUND STATIONS
  34. 34. 34  It is the terrestrial base of the system. Located either on the surface of the earth, or within Earth’s atmosphere. Communicates with the satellite (or spacecraft) by transmitting and receiving radio waves. Successful transmission of radio waves to a spacecraft (or vice versa), lead to establishment of telecommunication link.  It is possible for a satellite to communicate with more than one Earth station at a time. EARTH STATION
  35. 35. 35 WHAT IS AN EARTH STATION? UPLINK STATION RECEIVE CENTRE DOWNLINK FREQ: 6725MHzUPLINK FREQ: 6333MHz
  36. 36.  Earth station involves the two terms which are basically the important parameters of the communication i.e., UPLINK & DOWNLINK. 1. Uplink: The process of gathering any information part & sending it to the satellite, running on specified frequency is termed as UPLINK. The uplink frequency is 6333MHz. 2. Downlink: The process by which satellite sends or received the signals to the controlling stations is termed as DOWNLINK. The downlink frequency is 3725MHz. 36
  37. 37. 37 Major Components of Digital Earth Stations Some Major components are:-  PDA(Parabolic Dish Antenna)  Up converter  Modulator  Encoder  IRD(Integrated Receiver Decoder)
  38. 38. 38 TRANSMITTER
  39. 39. TRANSMITTER • In DDK-Guwahati VHF Solid State NEC(Japan) TV transmitter is used. • It is a digital transmitter. • Power rating is 10kw. • Main parts are: o Exciter o Amplifier 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. EARTH STATION TANSMITTER/RECEIVER SATELLITE DTH RECEIVER TV UPLINKING DOWNLINKING THE PROCESS OF TRANSMISSION 41 Picture IF : 38.9 MHz Sound IF : 33.4 MHz Uplink : 6333 MHz Downlink : 6725 MHz
  42. 42. OUTSIDE BROADCASTING This is shooting progrms outside the studios. It can be live or recorded programs. It involves two systems: OB van and ENG. OB Van • Mobile unit • Mobile television control room • Equipped with a video switcher, intercom, graphics, audio, recorder/playback decks and all the engineering equipment required to maintain a quality signal • Variety of sizes • Primary areas of OB van are: o Production Area o Audio Area o Video Control/Transmission 42
  43. 43. 43 OB Van
  44. 44. Thank You 44
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complete presentation on "In plant TV broadcasting(Transmission and studio) at Doordarshan Kendra,Guwahati

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