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Course: B.Sc. Agriculture
Subject: Principles of Horticulture
Unit :4
Cultivation practices of Grape
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Botany
3. Present status of grape cultivation in the country
4. Area, Production and Productiv...
E) Irrigation
F) Use of growth regulators
G) Pests and their management
H) Diseases and their management
9. Physiological ...
History (In world)
Grapes have a long and abundant history. While they've grown wild
since prehistoric times, evidence sug...
In the late 19th century, almost all of the vinifera
varieties of grapes in France were destroyed by an
insect that was un...
Botany
• Roots :
– The grape vine has spreading and descending
type of root system, root penetrate deep down to
1.8-3.6 m....
Introduction
• It is a deciduous crop. Its natural habitat is
temperate climate.
• It was introduced into north India from...
Introduction
• Presently grape cultivation is concentrated in
the peninsular India (surrounded Arabian
Sea, Bay of Bangal ...
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Vitales
Family: Vitaceae
Genus: Vitis L.
Species
Viti...
Vitis x doaniana
Vitis girdiana
Vitis labrusca
Vitis x labruscana
Vitis lincecumii
Vitis monticola
Vitis mustangensis
Viti...
Introduction
• Vitis is a genus decidious, rarely evergreen, shrubby
climber, distributed chiefly in the northern
hemisphe...
Introduction
• The wild grapes are divided into 3 geographical
groups
– American
– Middle Asia
– Oriental
• The commercial...
PRESENT STATUS OF GRAPE
CULTIVATION IN THE COUNTRY
Grape is grown under a variety of soil and climatic
conditions in three...
 Vines undergo dormancy and bud break
starts in the first week of March while the
rains arrive in the first week of June,...
Hot Tropical Region:
 This region covers Nashik, Sangli, Solapur,
Pune, Satara, Latur and Osmanabad districts of
Maharash...
 Vines do not undergo dormancy and double pruning
and a single harvest is the general practice in this
region.
 Maximum ...
Mild Tropical Region:
 An area covered by 10° and 15° N latitude including Bangalore
and Kolar districts of Karnataka;
 ...
Area, Production and Productivity
 In terms of production, grape occupies the 7th position (only 0.02%
of total fruit pro...
Overall, the report clearly indicates the possibility of increase in the
production of table grapes in future. The CAGR du...
Variety Area (ha) Production (t)
Anab-e-Shahi (white, seeded 3,000 135, 000
Bangalore Blue Syn. Isabella
(black, seeded)
4...
Climate
• Temperature, humidity and light are important for grapes.
Hot and dry climate is ideal.
• Areas with high humidi...
Climate
• Under high humid conditions, the vines put forth
excessive vegetative growth at the expense of
fruiting. Berries...
Soil
• Soil with good drainage and water-holding capacity in a pH
range of 6.5–7.5 is ideally-suited for grapes.
• Presenc...
Varieties
• About 8000 varieties are recognised all over the
world.
• Thomson Seedless- Tamil Nadu & Maharashtra
• Anab-a-...
1. Thompson Seedless Grapes:
These grapes are seedless,
sweet-tart, and crunchy.
Thomson Seedless account for the bulk of
...
These grapes are seedless,
Black and make very good
Table and Wine Grapes.
Availability: January & February
4. Red Flame S...
1.Xarel.lo
One of the traditional varieties from the Lower and
Central Penedes producing fresh, fruity and light
wines.. I...
1.Garnacha
This variety is the most cultivated Mediterranean
grape worldwide. It makes excellent red and rosé
wines that b...
Varieties
• Beauty seedless = Queen of Vineyard x Black Kishmish
• Pusa seedless – Clonal selection from Thomson Seedless ...
Propagation methods
 Grapevines are propagated by
seeds, cuttings, layering, budding,
or grafting.
 New plants have been...
• Grape is mostly propagated by hardwood stem cuttings.
• Four-noded cuttings from well mature canes on proven
vines are m...
• Cuttings are planted in nursery either in beds or
polybags for rooting. The beds or polybags should
be under partial sha...
• Rootstocks are employed for grapes to
overcome salinity, nematode damage and to
impart vigour to vines.
• In normal soil...
The land is tilled and laid into plots of 120 m x 180 m separated by
3 m wide roads. Land within a plot is leveled perfect...
Planting Season
The best season for planting the rooted cuttings of cultivated
varieties in the main field is September-Oc...
CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF VINEYARDS
(A) Training of Vines:
Many training systems are in vogue in India, but the most popular ...
This system is followed for moderately vigorous varieties like
Thompson Seedless and other seedless cultivars in about 25-...
(B) Pruning of Vines :
 Three distinct pruning practices are in vogue in relation to cropping
in the three grape growing ...
(C) Application of Manure and Fertilizers:
At the time of planting about 75 tonnes of cattle manure 5
tonnes of caster cak...
(D) Weed Management :
Farmyard manure and compost are the major sources of weed
seeds from outside. The problematic weeds ...
(F) Use of growth regulators (CCC, GA, Hydrgen Cyanamid) :
1) CCC
The CCC is used to suppress the vigour of vines and
incr...
Care must be taken not to treat the clusters with GA before
bajra grain-sized berries. Otherwise, berries of uneven size
f...
Quality Improvement
1. Shoot and Cluster Thinning:
Only one or two clusters are retained per cane depending upon the
densi...
4. Increasing Berry Size:
Manual means are used to supplement chemical thinning to ensure
adequate berry thinning and impr...
Harvesting and Post harvest management
Grapes are harvested when fully ripe, since they do not ripen after
harvesting. In ...
Variety
Yield (t/ha)
Period of Harvest
Averag
e
Potenti
al
Anab-e-Shahi 45 90 February-May, July,
November-December
Bangal...
(G) Pests and their Management
The important pests of grapes in India are, flea beetles,
thrips, mealy bugs and leaf hoppe...
2. Thrips:
Damage
Various species of thrips can damage wine grape shoots, leaves,
and fruit. The two species most commonly...
3. Mealy Bugs:
Mealy bugs are the most serious and problematic pests of grapes
in India.
Damage
Mealy bug, Pseudococcus ma...
4. Leaf hopper
Damage
Two species of leafhopper, the western grape leafhopper, Erythroneura
elegantula, and the Virginia c...
1. Powdery Mildew
Cause:
Uncinula necator, a fungal disease common to all areas of the
PNW. The disease tends to be more s...
Even blossoms sometimes can be infected, causing them to dry up or fail
to set fruit. When green shoots and canes are infe...
2. Downey mildew
Symptoms:
The disease is characterized by yellowish-green lesions (oil
spots) that form on the upper surf...
MANAGEMENT
Preventive management consists of effective soil drainage
and reduction of sources of over wintering inoculum. ...
3. ANTHRACNOSE :
Anthracnose is a southern disease that also occurs in
northern regions. Some table grape varieties are pa...
Management:
i. Avoid highly susceptible cultivars. Vidal and Reliance are the two
cultivars that have been severely infect...
iv. Eliminate wild hosts (grapes) near the vineyard. The disease has
been observed on wild grapes in southern Ohio and was...
Liquid Lime Sulfur is applied as a dormant application in early spring
at the rate of 10 gallons/acre. The application sho...
be started at 4 to 10 inch shoot growth and continued at 7 - 14 day
intervals. Please note that this is the "normal" timin...
Physiological Disorders
Of physiological disorders, uneven ripening, post-harvest berry
drop, flower-bud and flower drop a...
3. Flower-bud and flower drop
When panicles are fully expanded, the flower-buds drop
before the fruit set. This is common ...
Uses of grapes
1) Raisin grapes: are the only processed products in India.
Approximately 30% of seedless grapes are dried to produce 15,0...
2) Table grapes:
The table grapes which as utilized either as a fresh fruit or for
decorative purpose. The table grapes sh...
3) Wine grapes:
Grapes of high acidity and low sugar are suitable for
dry or table wine. While sweet or desert wine are pr...
Grapes are exported to middle-east, Europe and south Asian
countries. Grapes are packed in ventilated cardboard boxes usin...
Harvesting :
is done in the early hours of the morning when ambient
temperatures are low.
Bunches of grapes are carefully ...
Image References:
1. http://imghost1.indiamart.com/data2/AR/YR/IMFCP-236657/photo12-
250x250.jpg
2. http://img.21food.com/...
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B.sc. agri i po h unit 4.3 cultivation practices of grape

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B.sc. agri i po h unit 4.3 cultivation practices of grape

  1. 1. Course: B.Sc. Agriculture Subject: Principles of Horticulture Unit :4 Cultivation practices of Grape
  2. 2. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Botany 3. Present status of grape cultivation in the country 4. Area, Production and Productivity 5. Varieties of grapes 6. Propagation methods 7. Establishment of vineyard 8. Care and Management of vineyard A) Training of grapevine B) Pruning of grapevine C) Manures and fertilizers D) Weed management Cont…
  3. 3. E) Irrigation F) Use of growth regulators G) Pests and their management H) Diseases and their management 9. Physiological disorders 10. Quality improvement 11. Harvesting and Post Harvest Management 12. Grapes export from India 13. Uses of grapes
  4. 4. History (In world) Grapes have a long and abundant history. While they've grown wild since prehistoric times, evidence suggests they were cultivated in Asia as early as 5000 BC. The grape also played a role in numerous biblical stories, being referred to as the "fruit of the vine." Grapes were also pictured in hieroglyphics in ancient Egyptian burial tombs. During the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, grapes were revered for their use in winemaking. They were planted in the Rhine Valley in Germany, a place of notable wine production, in the 2nd century AD. Around this time, over 90 varieties of grapes were already known. As European travelers explored the globe, they brought the grape with them. Grapes were first planted in the United States in the early 17th century at a Spanish mission in New Mexico. From there, they quickly spread to the central valley of California where climate, and absence of grape-preying insects, best supported their production. I INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. In the late 19th century, almost all of the vinifera varieties of grapes in France were destroyed by an insect that was unintentionally brought from North America. Fortunately, agriculturists crossbred some of the vinifera variety with the American labrusca variety and were able to continue the cultivation of grapes in this region, one that is famous for its grapes and wine. Today, as researchers continue to investigate the health-promoting polyphenolic compounds found in grapes, this fruit is gaining even more attention. Currently, Italy, France, Spain, the United States, Mexico and Chile are among the largest commercial producers of grapes.
  6. 6. Botany • Roots : – The grape vine has spreading and descending type of root system, root penetrate deep down to 1.8-3.6 m. the feeder roots are present up to 25 cm depth and 60-120 cm away from the trunk. • Trunk – This is a permanent stem at the vine on which the whole framework is based • Shoot – The succulent current season’s growth arising from a bud after pruning
  7. 7. Introduction • It is a deciduous crop. Its natural habitat is temperate climate. • It was introduced into north India from Iran and Afghanistan in 1300 AD by the Muslim invaders; and into south India in 1832 by the Christian missionaries from France. • However, grape was known in ancient India though it was not commercially cultivated until the 14th century. • Wild grapes grown in Himachal Pradesh were used to prepare local wine.
  8. 8. Introduction • Presently grape cultivation is concentrated in the peninsular India (surrounded Arabian Sea, Bay of Bangal & Indian Ocean), accounting for 90% of the total area. • Major grape-growing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and the north-western region covering Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, western Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
  9. 9. Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Vitales Family: Vitaceae Genus: Vitis L. Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Scientific classification
  10. 10. Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis lincecumii Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis vinifera Vitis vulpina
  11. 11. Introduction • Vitis is a genus decidious, rarely evergreen, shrubby climber, distributed chiefly in the northern hemisphere. • This genus divided into two sugenera – Euvitis (2n = 38) – Muscadinia (2n = 40) • Vitis contains about 60 species. • Among these some popular species are – Fox grape (Vitis valpinia) – Frost grape (Vitis labrusca) – River bank grape (Vitis riparia) – Bird grape (Vitis munsoniana) – Bullace grape (Vitis rotundifolia)
  12. 12. Introduction • The wild grapes are divided into 3 geographical groups – American – Middle Asia – Oriental • The commercial cultivars of American grapes are the direct derives of either V. rotundifolia or V. labrusca whereas European grapes are V. vinifera, is a polymorphic sp. which is considered the pinnacle of fruit quality but lacks in resistance to disease, pests & hardiness to cold. • V. vinifera is considered a hybrid of 2 American spp. V. vulpina & V. labrusca
  13. 13. PRESENT STATUS OF GRAPE CULTIVATION IN THE COUNTRY Grape is grown under a variety of soil and climatic conditions in three distinct agro-climatic zones, namely, sub-tropical, hot tropical and mild tropical climatic regions in India. Sub-tropical Region:  This region covers the northwestern plains corresponding to 28° and 32° N latitude including Delhi;  Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh;  Hissar and Jind districts of Haryana; and  Bhatinda, Ferozpur, Gurdaspur and Ludhiana districts of Punjab.
  14. 14.  Vines undergo dormancy and bud break starts in the first week of March while the rains arrive in the first week of June, and therefore, only 90-95 days are available from the initiation of growth to harvest.  Consequently, ‘Perlette’ is the only early ripening variety grown in this region.  Rain damage is a problem with Thompson Seedless in this region.  Single pruning and a single harvest is the accepted practice here.
  15. 15. Hot Tropical Region:  This region covers Nashik, Sangli, Solapur, Pune, Satara, Latur and Osmanabad districts of Maharashtra;  Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Mahbubnagar, Anantapur and Medak districts of Andhra Pradesh; and  Bijapur, Bagalkot, Belgaum, Gulberga districts of northern Karnataka lying between 15° and 20° N latitude.  This is the major viticulture region accounting for 70 percent of the area under grapes in the country.
  16. 16.  Vines do not undergo dormancy and double pruning and a single harvest is the general practice in this region.  Maximum and minimum temperature is 42°C and 8°C, respectively.  The major problems in this region are soil and water salinity and drought.  Berry growth is impaired and in certain locations pink bluish sometimes develops on green berries due to temperatures that drop to a low of 8°C.  Thompson Seedless and its clones (Tas-A-Ganesh, Sonaka), Anab-e-Shahi, Sharad Seedless and Flame Seedless are the varieties grown in this region.
  17. 17. Mild Tropical Region:  An area covered by 10° and 15° N latitude including Bangalore and Kolar districts of Karnataka;  Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh and Coimbatore; and  Madurai and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu fall in this region.  Maximum temperatures in a year seldom exceed 36°C, while the minimum is about 12°C.  Principal varieties are Bangalore Blue (Syn. Isabella), Anab-e- Shahi, Gulabi (Syn. Muscat Hamburg), and Bhokri. Thompson Seedless is grown only with limited success.  Except for Thompson Seedless, two crops are harvested in a year Vinifera varieties susceptible to mildew suffer losses due to unprecedented rains during flowering and fruit set in both hot and mild tropical regions.
  18. 18. Area, Production and Productivity  In terms of production, grape occupies the 7th position (only 0.02% of total fruit production) among all fruits, but it has the highest productivity among all fruits.  While during the period from 1991-92 to 1999-2000, India's area under grape has increased by 50% (approx.), world area under grape had shown declining trend till 1997-98 and thereafter it started increasing.  During the same period, India's production of grape had also shown 50% increase, whereas world production of grape shown fluctuating trend.  According to a report, the worldwide grape production fell from 60 million tones during the mid '80s to 55 million tones in 1995. Thereafter, it has increased to 63 million tones by 2000- 2001. However, the table grape production has remained rather stable. The fall in grape production is mainly due to the fall in production of wine grape.
  19. 19. Overall, the report clearly indicates the possibility of increase in the production of table grapes in future. The CAGR during the period from 1991-92 to 2000-01 indicates that India specially Maharashtra achieved much higher rate than world as a whole. India is credited with achieving the highest productivity of grape i.e. average productivity of 25 tonne per ha. as against the world average of 8 tonne per ha.and also the record yield of 100 tonne per ha.The conducive climate in most of the important grape growing areas, well developed production technologies and the progressive entrepreneurship with easy availability of institutional finance for the crop made it possible to increase the grapeproduction and productivity. There is still scope to increase grape production in India specially in Maharashtra by increasing the area under cultivation.
  20. 20. Variety Area (ha) Production (t) Anab-e-Shahi (white, seeded 3,000 135, 000 Bangalore Blue Syn. Isabella (black, seeded) 4,500 180,000 Bhokri (white, seeded) 500 15,000 Flame Seedless (red, seedless) 500 10,000 Gulabi Syn. Muscat Hamburg (purple, seeded) 1,000 30,000 Perlette (white, seedless) 1,500 60,000 Sharad Seedless - A mutant of Kishmish Chorni (black, seedless) 1,000 20,000 Thomson Seedless and its mutants (white, seedless) 22,000 550,000 Total 34,000 1,000,000
  21. 21. Climate • Temperature, humidity and light are important for grapes. Hot and dry climate is ideal. • Areas with high humidity and high rainfall are not suitable. • The climatic requirements of vinifera are different from those of labrusca grapes. • Mild temperature, not exceeding 35°C in summers, impairs the fruiting of vinifera grapes, particularly, in Thompson Seedless. • Higher night temperatures (above 25°C) during ripening hamper the colour development in coloured grapes. • Cool nights and hot days even though congenial for coloured grapes, pink pigmentation develops in green grapes if the diurnal differences are more than 20°C during ripening.
  22. 22. Climate • Under high humid conditions, the vines put forth excessive vegetative growth at the expense of fruiting. Berries do not ripen properly. Disease incidence is high. • The total amount of rainfall is not the criterion, but the timing, frequency and duration of rainfall are important considerations for grape cultivation. Rains associated with cloudy weather and poor sunlight during 45–60 days after back pruning in the tropical India reduce the fruitful buds in a vine. • Rainfall during flowering, and berry ripening cause enormous damage to grapes. If rains coincide with flowering, the panicles are destroyed by downy mildew. Rains during ripening cause berry cracking and rotting.
  23. 23. Soil • Soil with good drainage and water-holding capacity in a pH range of 6.5–7.5 is ideally-suited for grapes. • Presence of excess salts, particularly sodium and free calcium is detrimental for grapes. Vines become weak and their productive life span is reduced. • When the soil contains more free calcium than 12%, vines suffer from iron deficiency and the soil gradually becomes sodic. • High content of sodium in soil posses drainage problems and the root growth is impaired. • Soils of Maharashtra, Haryana and Punjab are saline-alkali. Free calcium content is also high in soils of Maharashtra.
  24. 24. Varieties • About 8000 varieties are recognised all over the world. • Thomson Seedless- Tamil Nadu & Maharashtra • Anab-a-shahi -Hydrabad region • Bagalore Blue – Karnataka • Seedless varieties – North India ( Pusa Seedless, Beayty Seedless, Perlette
  25. 25. 1. Thompson Seedless Grapes: These grapes are seedless, sweet-tart, and crunchy. Thomson Seedless account for the bulk of Table Grape exports from India. Availability: Mid Jan - Mid April 2.Sonaka Seedless Grapes: Sonaka Seedless is a Bud-sport of Thompson Seedless grapes with elongated berries. After Thompson Grapes these account for the second largest (Bulk wise) grape variety exports from India. Availability: Mid Jan - Mid April INDIAN GROWING VARITIES1 2
  26. 26. These grapes are seedless, Black and make very good Table and Wine Grapes. Availability: January & February 4. Red Flame Seedless Grapes Are the result of a cross between Thompson, Cardinal and other grape varieties. Flame grapes are one of the most popular varieties along with Thompson grapes .These grapes are seedless, sweet-tart, and crunchy. Availability: January & February 3. Black Seedless Grapes: 3 4
  27. 27. 1.Xarel.lo One of the traditional varieties from the Lower and Central Penedes producing fresh, fruity and light wines.. It is also the base wine used to make cava. 2.Macebeo This variety is found mainly in the Central Penedes and is used to give a fruity aroma to Brut and Nature cavas. It is also used to produce full-bodied dry and fruity wines. 3.Parellada The finest and most delicate of the traditional Catalan white varieties.When grown in cool mountain microclimates (Upper Penedès) it produces aromatic dry white wines, light and with delicate fruity aromas. A. WHITE VARITIES ABROAD GROWING VARIETIES 5
  28. 28. 1.Garnacha This variety is the most cultivated Mediterranean grape worldwide. It makes excellent red and rosé wines that benefit from thick and sensual tannins. If the grapes are cultivated in poor soils, with low yields, the red wines can attain a power and expression that is stunning, hence wines made from Garnacha are so sought after. 2.Merlot A noble international variety, grown in our Middle Penedèsvineyards. It has small berries, of very dark blue colour, medium thick skins and a sugary pulp. It produces excellent varietal wines, characterized by their finesse, their elegance and their fine and velvety tannins B. RED VARIETIES 6 7
  29. 29. Varieties • Beauty seedless = Queen of Vineyard x Black Kishmish • Pusa seedless – Clonal selection from Thomson Seedless at IARI • Perlette = Queen of Vineyard x Sultanina marble -26 • Thompson Seedless – Introduction from the University of California Deris (USA) • Arkavati = Black Champa x Thompson Seedless, evolved by IIHR, Bangalore • Anab-e-Shahi – Brought from West Asia by Abdul Baquer Khan in 1890.
  30. 30. Propagation methods  Grapevines are propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering, budding, or grafting.  New plants have been produced by several in vitro techniques, including embryoid formation and fragmented shoot tip cultures (Krul and Mowbray, 1985).
  31. 31. • Grape is mostly propagated by hardwood stem cuttings. • Four-noded cuttings from well mature canes on proven vines are made. • The diameter of cuttings should be 8–10mm. Cuttings are mostly obtained from October pruning in the peninsula. • Rooting of cuttings is not a problem. However, Thompson Seedless roots are poorer than Anab-e-Shahi or Bangalore Blue. • To increase the rooting of stem cuttings, they should either be soaked or dipped to cover the basal buds in IBA solution. For overnight soaking, 500ppm IBA solution is used, while 2000ppm solution is used for quick dipping for 10 sec. before planting the cuttings. • Quick dip method is preferred. Cuttings after treating with IBA should be planted in the nursery or directly in the field.
  32. 32. • Cuttings are planted in nursery either in beds or polybags for rooting. The beds or polybags should be under partial shade. The rooting media should have 30–40% well-decomposed cattle manure to retain moisture and similar proportion of sand to provide drainage. The beds or rooting medium should be treated with Chloropyriphos or Furadan granules to prevent termite damage. Light frequent watering is to be given to the cuttings. • For planting in field, 3–4 cuttings should be planted at each spot. Cuttings are covered with green twigs to provide shade. After rooting, one good cutting is retained at each spot. Gap filling should also be done at this stage.
  33. 33. • Rootstocks are employed for grapes to overcome salinity, nematode damage and to impart vigour to vines. • In normal soils with good and adequate water for irrigation, rootstock is not necessary. • In nematode-prone soils, the rootstock 1613 can be used for Anab-e-Shahi or Thompson Seedless. • In saline soils, Dogridge is better. • Use of Dogridge in non-saline, nematode-free soils, particularly under mild climatic conditions makes the vines barren by imparting excess vigour.
  34. 34. The land is tilled and laid into plots of 120 m x 180 m separated by 3 m wide roads. Land within a plot is leveled perfectly to have a gradient of less than 1 percent in any direction to ensure uniform discharge of water through the emitters of drip irrigation systems. Trenches of 75 cm width, 75 cm depth and 118 m length in a north- south direction with a gap of 3 m between trenches are opened with heavy machinery. They are closed with topsoil, up to a height of 45 cm after 15 days exposure to sun. The remaining gap is filled with a mixture of soil, cattle manure, single super phosphate, sulphate of potash and micro-nutrients. Usually, 50 kg of cattle manure, 2.5 kg of super phosphate, 0.5 kg of sulphate of potash and 50 g each of ZnSO4 and FeSO4 are added to the soil for every running meter length of the trench. Land Preparation and Vine Establishment
  35. 35. Planting Season The best season for planting the rooted cuttings of cultivated varieties in the main field is September-October whereas for rootstocks it is February-March Spacing Spacing generally varies with the varieties and soil fertility. For vigorous varieties it is 6 m x 3 m or 4 m x 3 m and 3 m x 3 m or 3 m x 2 m for less vigorous varieties.
  36. 36. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF VINEYARDS (A) Training of Vines: Many training systems are in vogue in India, but the most popular are Bower, Telephone and Flat Roof Gable systems 1.Bower System: Owing to the high productive potential, bower was a very popular system of training in the past. It is highly suited for vigorous varieties like Anab-e-Shahi, Bangalore Blue and Gulabi. But in varieties like Thompson Seedless and Tas-A-Ganesh where vine vigour and excessive foliage density affects the productivity adversely, this system is not popular. 2.Telephone System: T-trellis is used in this system of training. With three top wires and ‘T’ shaped supports, the trellis looks like a telephone pole and wires and hence the name.
  37. 37. This system is followed for moderately vigorous varieties like Thompson Seedless and other seedless cultivars in about 25-30 percent of the vineyard area in Maharashtra. Yields in this system are less than the bower. In very hot and dry places, sunburn of the berries and of the arms are experienced in summer. 3.Flat Roof Gable System: Combining the advantage of bower and the extended Y systems and eliminating their disadvantages, an inter-connected Y trellis forming a flat roof gable is being adopted. This system is particularly followed for vigorous vines (vines grafted on rootstocks). The bunches are protected from direct sunlight and well exposed to sprays of pesticides. The clusters hang within the reach of the worker of an average height. Owing to these advantages, this system is gaining popularity among the growers in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
  38. 38. (B) Pruning of Vines :  Three distinct pruning practices are in vogue in relation to cropping in the three grape growing regions of the country.  In the sub-tropical region, vines are pruned only once in December and the crop is harvested once. Half of the canes are pruned to renewal spurs and the rest to fruiting canes (3-4 nodes for Perlette).  In hot tropical regions, vines are pruned twice but only one crop is harvested. All canes in a vine are pruned back to single node spurs in March-May to develop canes and the canes are forward pruned in October-November for fruiting. The number of nodes retained on a cane varies with the variety and cane thickness. There is no scope to prune earlier than October and later than November due to unfavorable weather conditions.  In the mild tropical region, vines are pruned twice and the crop is harvested twice. In varieties like Gulabi and Bangalore Blue, which are fairly resistant to rain damage and in which fruit bud differentiation is not impaired by cloudy weather and rains, pruning is done at any time of the year. As a result, five crops are harvested every two years.
  39. 39. (C) Application of Manure and Fertilizers: At the time of planting about 75 tonnes of cattle manure 5 tonnes of caster cake and 2 1/2 tonnes of super phosphate per hectare are applied .After the vine has grown for 3-4 weeks it is given an application of 100 to 150 g of Ammonium sulphate and 250g of caster cake every month during the first six months after planting. The quantities of fertilizer applied from 2nd year onwards are given in table. Age of vine (Nutrients Kg/ha) Summer Pruning Winter Pruning N P205 K20 N P205 K20 2nd Year 250 250 250 250 250 250 3rd Year 300 300 300 300 300 300 4th Year 350 350 350 300 350 400 5th Year 500 400 400 400 400 500
  40. 40. (D) Weed Management : Farmyard manure and compost are the major sources of weed seeds from outside. The problematic weeds in vineyards are bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and nut grass (Cyperus rotundus). The weed intensity is less in bower trained vineyards. Mechanical control is most common means of weed control in India. Dhaincha and sunhemp are grown as intercrops to check the weeds in vineyards trained to T, V or Y trellises. Post-emergent weedicides- Paraquat (7.5 kg/ha) or Glyphosate (2.0kg/ha), is also recommended. Glyphosate offers a long time control of weeds as compared to Paraquat (E) Supplementary Irrigation : Since grapes are grown in areas where the evapotranspiration exceeds the precipitation, irrigation is essential. Less than 10 percent of the vineyard areas are surface irrigated, while the rest is irrigated by drip systems. Water requirement is calculated based on the pan evaporation using 0.8 as the crop factor. Water is applied at different rates at different stages of vine growth and berry development.
  41. 41. (F) Use of growth regulators (CCC, GA, Hydrgen Cyanamid) : 1) CCC The CCC is used to suppress the vigour of vines and increase the fruitfulness of buds. It is sprayed at 500 ppm concentration at 5-leaf stage after back pruning. If weather is cloudy, cool and rainy, it is sprayed on the foliage once again at 10-leaf stage. 2) Gibberallic acid Gibberallic acid (GA) is used invariably in all seedless varieties. It is sprayed at 10 ppm to elongate the clusters, 22–25 days after forward pruning (4–5-leaf stage). It is also sprayed on clusters @ 40ppm at 50% bloom stage for thinning the berries. For increasing the berry size, the clusters are dipped in 60ppm GA alone or in a mixture of GA (30ppm) with 10ppm BA or 2ppm CPPU at pearl millet or bajra grain-sized berries and again at red gram sized berries.
  42. 42. Care must be taken not to treat the clusters with GA before bajra grain-sized berries. Otherwise, berries of uneven size form a cluster. For increasing berry size, vines are girdled. Girdling is a process of removing 2–3mm wide strip of bark around the stem without injuring the wood. This is also to be done at the bajra grain-sized berries. 3) Hydrogen Cyanamid Hydrogen Cyanamid is used to hasten and increase the bud-break at winter pruning. Buds are swabbed with cotton soaked in 1.5% solution of hydrogen cyanamide 48 hr after pruning. Hastening the bud-break with hydrogen cyamide also hastens the ripening of grapes in the north. Thiourea (4.0%) mixed with 1% Bordeaux mixture is also used to increase bud-break in south.
  43. 43. Quality Improvement 1. Shoot and Cluster Thinning: Only one or two clusters are retained per cane depending upon the density of the latter. Irrespective of the number of clusters, only the apical two or three shoots are retained. In vines trained to the flat roof gable, individual shoot length is encouraged rather than the total canopy size for preventing sunburn of the berries. 2. Production of Loose Clusters: Pre-bloom GA sprays of 10 ppm and 15 ppm are given respectively on the 11th to 14th day after bud break for cluster elongation. Rachides of the clusters are trimmed to retain 8-10, depending on the number of leaves available per cluster. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 30-40 ppm when 10-20 percent of the flowers open in each cluster for berry thinning.
  44. 44. 4. Increasing Berry Size: Manual means are used to supplement chemical thinning to ensure adequate berry thinning and improve the quality of grapes. Approximately 90-120 berries are retained per cluster depending upon the number of leaves available to nourish it at 8-10 berries per every leaf depending on its size. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 40-50 ppm concentration once at 3-4 mm size of the berries and again at 7-8 mm size. When berry diameter is to be increased to more than 16 mm, clusters are dipped in a mixture of 10 ppm BA + 25 ppm GA or 2 ppm CPPU + 25 ppm GA or 1 ppm brassinosteroid + 25 ppm GA instead of GA alone at these two stages. In addition to the treatment with growth regulators, berry size and crispiness are increased by girdling. The width and depth of girdling are 1-1.5 mm. Girdling is done at 4-5 mm diameter of the berries. 5. Increasing the TSS Content: Berry thinning and cluster thinning to maintain adequate leaf/fruit ratio (5 cm2), while girdling will ensure a TSS content of 20°B.
  45. 45. Harvesting and Post harvest management Grapes are harvested when fully ripe, since they do not ripen after harvesting. In seeded grapes, the seeds become dark brown when they are fully ripe, while in seedless varieties, their characteristic berry colour develops fully. Grapes should be harvested during cool time of the day. Harvested grapes are trimmed, graded and packed. For local markets, grapes are packed in bamboo strip baskets using newspaper and grape leaves as cushioning material. One basket contains 6kg of grapes. For distant markets (within the country), wood or corrugated cardboard boxes are used for packing. Old newspapers, hay and paper shreds are used as cushioning material. The size of packing is 6 or 8kg in wood boxes, and 2 or 4kg in cardboard boxes. Transport of grapes is mainly by trucks.
  46. 46. Variety Yield (t/ha) Period of Harvest Averag e Potenti al Anab-e-Shahi 45 90 February-May, July, November-December Bangalore Blue 40 60 January-March, June- December Bhokri 30 50 November-December, June- July Gulabi 30 50 January-March, June- December Perlette 40 50 June Thompson Seedless and other seedless varieties 25 50 January-April Yield :
  47. 47. (G) Pests and their Management The important pests of grapes in India are, flea beetles, thrips, mealy bugs and leaf hoppers. 1. Flea beetles: The adult beetles scrape the sprouting buds and eat them up completely after each pruning. Damaged buds fail to sprout. Insecticides like carbaryl at 0.15 percent, quinolphos at 0.05 percent, dichlorvas at 0.1 percent or phosalone at 0.05 percent are sprayed from the fourth day until the emergence of leaves.
  48. 48. 2. Thrips: Damage Various species of thrips can damage wine grape shoots, leaves, and fruit. The two species most commonly found on Pacific Northwest grapes are western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis; and grape thrips, Drepanothrips reuteri. Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci; Thrips minuta; and Frankliniella minuta also appear occasionally, but are not damaging. During and shortly after bloom, thrips may scar the berries. As the berries enlarge, the scars restrict growth of the epidermis, producing misshapen and split berries. Extensive berry scarring can also lead to a severe loss of pigment in red varieties. Thrips feeding on shoots can severely stunt leaf and shoot growth in the spring and summer. Control Thrips are effectively controlled by spraying phosphamidon at 0.05 percent, carbaryl at 0.125 percent, phosalone at 0.05 percent or malathion at 0.05 percent. Prophylactic sprays of insecticides against thrips are given once in five days from the initiation of bloom to berry set.
  49. 49. 3. Mealy Bugs: Mealy bugs are the most serious and problematic pests of grapes in India. Damage Mealy bug, Pseudococcus maritimus, is a serious pest of both wine and juice grapes. This pest produces a honeydew that makes the fruit, shoots, and foliage sticky. A black fungus,Cladosporium spp., grows on the honeydew, producing a sooty mold. Serious honeydew and sooty mold contamination will make the fruit unsuitable for processing into wine or juice. Control i) Avoid spraying broad-spectrum insecticides particularly synthetic pyrethroids. ii) Spray only dichlorvas at 0.1 percent mixed with neem oil 0.2 percent or tridemorph at 0.1 percent. iii) Release cryptolaemus montrozieri beetles at 8,000-10,000 per hectare when the berries start softening. It is better to release a mixed population of grubs and adults rather than only adults.
  50. 50. 4. Leaf hopper Damage Two species of leafhopper, the western grape leafhopper, Erythroneura elegantula, and the Virginia creeper leafhopper, Erythroneura ziczac, feed on grape leaves by puncturing the leaf cells and sucking out the cell contents. Repeated feeding causes reduced photosynthesis; heavily damaged leaves will desiccate and abscise. Thick infestations of leafhopper can defoliate a vineyard if no treatment is applied. Large populations of adult leafhoppers may be present in vineyards before harvest. These winged adults annoy workers by flying in their faces. Nymphs also cause worker discomfort by trying to pierce exposed skin. Control Insecticides are most effective when the majority of the leafhopper population consists of third and fourth instar nymphs. Eggs are protected from exposure to insecticides because they are embedded in the leaf tissue, and adults are more tolerant of insecticides than nymphs are. When insecticide applications are properly timed, one or two treatments should provide sufficient control for the season, depending on the material used. One treatment of imidacloprid or dimethoate will usually give season-long control, while two treatments of carbaryl, endosulfan or azinphos-methyl may be necessary in high-pressure situations
  51. 51. 1. Powdery Mildew Cause: Uncinula necator, a fungal disease common to all areas of the PNW. The disease tends to be more severe on the Westside of the Cascades but is a chronic problem in arid districts where over-the-canopy irrigation is used for early-season frost protection or watering. Vitis vinifera (European) cultivars commonly are susceptible to powdery mildew. Other hosts include Boston ivy, Virginia creeper, and Ampelopsis (porcelain berry). The fungus may over winter as a group of thin threads called hyphae, inside the vine’s dormant buds and/or as small black bodies (cleistothecia) on the exfoliating bark of the vine. Symptoms: Powdery mildew can attack all aboveground plant parts. In early stages, whitish or grayish patches are on leaves and, if severe, ultimately cover both surfaces. Colonies are more easily detected in full sunlight. Later in the season, the mildew darkens and is peppered with minute black dots (cleistothecia). On fruit, the fungus at first may look grayish or whitish but later has a brownish, russeted appearance. Infected fruit cracks and drops from the cluster. (H) Diseases and their Management
  52. 52. Even blossoms sometimes can be infected, causing them to dry up or fail to set fruit. When green shoots and canes are infected, the affected tissues appear dark brown to black in feathery patches. Patches later appear reddish brown on the surface of dormant canes. Flag shoots are difficult to detect. Some young shoots may be covered with a large white mass of threads or mycelium. Others may have only a hint of thin threads on the shoot. Shoots generally are delayed in bud break and appear stunted and somewhat yellowed compared to healthy shoots.
  53. 53. 2. Downey mildew Symptoms: The disease is characterized by yellowish-green lesions (oil spots) that form on the upper surfaces of leaves and turn reddish- brown, necrotic, or mottled as they expand. A cottony mass of fungal mycelium on the underside of leaves gives the lesions a downy white appearance that is also characteristic of the disease. All green parts of the vine that have mature, functioning stomata, including fruit, leaves, and young shoots, can become infected and covered with a white, downy, sporulating mass of mycelium. . Infections of young berries can be mistaken for powdery mildew. When cluster infections occur late in the season, fruit does not soften and appears mottled and light green to red in color. Severely infected leaves may fall prematurely. (Plasmopara viticola)
  54. 54. MANAGEMENT Preventive management consists of effective soil drainage and reduction of sources of over wintering inoculum. In a vineyard that depends on sprinkler irrigation, extend the interval between irrigations as long as possible. (Plasmopara viticola) On Fruits small light pale yellow spots appear on upper surface and whitish downy growth on lower side. In severe case the entire leaf is affected, turn brown and later drop off fruit becomes greyish,hard and often mummified. Control : Collect infested leaves,shoots,berries etc. and destroy. Spray Bordeux mixture 1% or Foltaf 0.1 to 0.2% or system fungicides,Ridomil 25% WP 0.1 to 0.2%. .
  55. 55. 3. ANTHRACNOSE : Anthracnose is a southern disease that also occurs in northern regions. Some table grape varieties are particularly susceptible. Symptoms occur on all aboveground parts of the vine, particularly on young tissues. Leaves develop numerous dark brown spots, 1/25 to 1/5 inch (1 to 5 mm) in diameter. As the centers fall out, lesions take on a “shot-hole” appearance. Severe infections curl and distort leaves. Lesions on shoots are sunken and dark brown with grayish centers. Source of infection: Anthracnose over winters on infected canes. It spreads to all new growth during wet periods in early spring Symptoms : ( Elsinoe ampelina )
  56. 56. Management: i. Avoid highly susceptible cultivars. Vidal and Reliance are the two cultivars that have been severely infected: Although other cultivars are susceptible, it should be noted that other cultivars in close proximity to infected Vidal and Reliance were not affected by the disease in 1998. I am not suggesting that growers do not plant Vidal (an important wine grape) and Reliance (an important seedless table grape); however, it is important to remember their high degree of susceptibility. ii. Sanitation is very important. Prune out and destroy as much infected wood and possible during the dormant season. This includes infected cluster stems and berries. iii. Canopy Management. Any practice that opens the canopy to improve air circulation and reduce drying time of susceptible tissue is beneficial for disease control. These practices include selection of the proper training system, shoot positioning and leaf removal.
  57. 57. iv. Eliminate wild hosts (grapes) near the vineyard. The disease has been observed on wild grapes in southern Ohio and was present on wild grapes near the vineyard in southern Ohio where the disease was a problem in 1998. Wild grapes provide an excellent place for the disease to develop, and serve as an excellent reservoir for the disease near the vineyard. It is probably impossible to eradicate wild grapes from the woods, but a serious effort should be made to at least remove them from the fence rows and as far from the vineyard as possible (create a buffer zone). Remember the spores are spread over relatively short distances by splashing rain and should not be able to move over long distances into the vineyard. v. Use of Fungicides. Where the disease is a problem, the use of fungicides is highly recommended. Fungicide recommendations for anthracnose control consist of a dormant application of Liquid Lime Sulfur in the early spring, followed by the applications of foliar fungicides during the growing season.
  58. 58. Liquid Lime Sulfur is applied as a dormant application in early spring at the rate of 10 gallons/acre. The application should be delayed as late in the spring as possible, but should be made before the buds swell. Lime sulfur is very caustic and can cause vine damage if applied after bud swell and green tissue is present. This spray is directed at eradicating (burning out) the fungus on infected tissue that was missed during dormant pruning, and is considered to be very important for obtaining effective control. Lime sulfur has a bad smell (rotten eggs) and is caustic to wires and sprayers. Special care should be taken when using it to avoid drift to non-target plants and objects, and to thoroughly clean the sprayer after use. Once the disease is "cleaned up" in the vineyard, it may not be necessary to use Lime sulfur every year. Foliar fungicides Many of the fungicides used in our "normal" disease management program for control of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, black rot and downy mildew should be beneficial for anthracnose control. After the dormant application of lime sulfur, foliar fungicide applications should
  59. 59. be started at 4 to 10 inch shoot growth and continued at 7 - 14 day intervals. Please note that this is the "normal" timing for our currently recommended fungicide program. Mancozeb and Captan are both recommended for early season control of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot and should have activity against anthracnose. Benlate is reported to have good activity against anthracnose, but is not generally used in our "normal" early season disease control program. If anthracnose is a serious problem in the vineyard, incorporation of Benlate into the spray program could be considered. Although I have not seen any data for control of grape anthracnose, Abound fungicide is reported to have good activity against similar anthracnose diseases on other crops and should have good activity on grape anthracnose. Copper fungicides have also been reported to have good activity against grape anthracnose.
  60. 60. Physiological Disorders Of physiological disorders, uneven ripening, post-harvest berry drop, flower-bud and flower drop and pink berry formation are major ones. 1. Uneven ripening Presence of green berries in a ripe bunch of coloured grapes is called uneven ripening. It is a varietal character and a problem in Bangalore Blue, Bangalore Purple, Beauty Seedless and Gulabi grapes. Within a variety this problem varies from bunch-to-bunch. Generally inadequate leaf area, and non-availability of reserves to a developing bunch is the reason. Cultural practices like cluster thinning, girdling and use of growth regulators can reduce uneven ripening. Application of Ethephon (250ppm) at colourbreak stage is recommended to reduce the problem. 2. Post harvest berry drop This is due to weak pedicel attachment to the berries. This is common in Anab-e-Shahi, Cheema Sahebi and Beauty Seedless. Spraying of NAA (50ppm), a week prior to harvesting can minimize the post-harvest berry drop.
  61. 61. 3. Flower-bud and flower drop When panicles are fully expanded, the flower-buds drop before the fruit set. This is common in north India but not in the south. The reasons for this disorder are not known. Stem girdling about 10 days prior to full bloom can reduce the problem. 4. Pink berry formation It is a common disorder in Thompson Seedless and its clone Tas-A-Ganesh in Maharashtra. Pink blush develops on a few ripe berries close to harvesting. The pink colour turns to dull red colour and the berries become soft and watery. They do not stand for long after harvesting. Although the definite cause of the disorder is not known, it is recommended to spray a mixture of 0.2% ascorbic acid and 0.25% sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate at fortnightly intervals commencing berry softening.
  62. 62. Uses of grapes
  63. 63. 1) Raisin grapes: are the only processed products in India. Approximately 30% of seedless grapes are dried to produce 15,000 tonnes of raisins. Golden bleached raisins are produced by shade drying the clusters after dipping in either boiling solution of sodium hydroxide (0.2–0.3%) and exposing to sulphur fumes. Dipping in soda oil (dipping oil) containing ethyl oleate and potassium carbonate and shade drying is the most common method of preparing raisins in India. Seeded grapes of Anab-e-Shahi are also dried in very small quantities to make raisins.
  64. 64. 2) Table grapes: The table grapes which as utilized either as a fresh fruit or for decorative purpose. The table grapes should have attractive appearance, good eating and shipping quality and should be sold at a reasonable price. The berries should be large uniform in size shape and colour. the eating quality include the aroma test texture of skin and pulp and seedless ness e.g.- Perlette, Thompson seedless, Anab-e-shahi(seed), Cheema sahebi, Bangalore blue,Pusa seedless,Tas-e-ganesh, Sonaka, Sharad seedless
  65. 65. 3) Wine grapes: Grapes of high acidity and low sugar are suitable for dry or table wine. While sweet or desert wine are prepared from grapes with high sugar content and low acid . The grape and flavor be retained in the wine . e.g.- early mascat, Perlette,Thompson seedless, Beauty seedless, make good quality of wine. 4) juice grapes: Champion, Black champa, Arka shyam, Bangalore blue, beauty seedless are good for juice making 5) Canning grape : Seedless grapes are used in caning. Important varieties are Thompson Seedless & Perlette
  66. 66. Grapes are exported to middle-east, Europe and south Asian countries. Grapes are packed in ventilated cardboard boxes using dual release sulphur dioxide releasing pads (grape guard) as an inpacking material to check the postharvest diseases during transit and storage. Strict cold chain is maintained right from harvesting by precooling and cold storage. Boxes are stored at 0°–1°C temperature and 90–95% relative humidity in cold storage. They are transported by sea in refrigerated containers. Most of the grapes produced in India, irrespective of variety, are consumed fresh. Negligible quantities of Bangalore Blue are crushed to make juice and wine for household consumption. Wine is also produced in India with French collaboration by some private industries growing certain French varieties. MARKETING :
  67. 67. Harvesting : is done in the early hours of the morning when ambient temperatures are low. Bunches of grapes are carefully placed in a single layer in crates and are kept in the shade. Grading: Removal of unwanted berries, watered, small berries and grading bunches as per size and colour are undertaken.
  68. 68. Image References: 1. http://imghost1.indiamart.com/data2/AR/YR/IMFCP-236657/photo12- 250x250.jpg 2. http://img.21food.com/20110609/product/1306518600338.jpg 3. http://imghost1.indiamart.com/data2/AR/YR/IMFCP-236657/photo3- 250x250.jpg 4. http://imghost1.indiamart.com/data2/AR/YR/IMFCP-236657/photo3- 250x250.jpg 5. http://www.vinariatinto.com/images/xarello.gif 6.http://intoxreport.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/im_2_16_5_var.jpg 7. http://www.vinyaescude.com/res/RamsNegres/merlot.jpg Web References: 1. www.agri info.in 2. www.nhb.gov.in/Horticulture%20Crops/Grape/Grape1.htm 3. nrcgrapes.nic.in/zipfiles/POP-Diseases_InsectPests-Grapes.pdf 4. agmarknet.nic.in/grapes.pdf

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