B.sc. agri i po h unit 4.3 cultivation practices of grape
Course: B.Sc. Agriculture
Subject: Principles of Horticulture
Cultivation practices of Grape
3. Present status of grape cultivation in the country
4. Area, Production and Productivity
5. Varieties of grapes
6. Propagation methods
7. Establishment of vineyard
8. Care and Management of vineyard
A) Training of grapevine
B) Pruning of grapevine
C) Manures and fertilizers
D) Weed management Cont…
F) Use of growth regulators
G) Pests and their management
H) Diseases and their management
9. Physiological disorders
10. Quality improvement
11. Harvesting and Post Harvest Management
12. Grapes export from India
13. Uses of grapes
History (In world)
Grapes have a long and abundant history. While they've grown wild
since prehistoric times, evidence suggests they were cultivated in Asia
as early as 5000 BC. The grape also played a role in numerous biblical
stories, being referred to as the "fruit of the vine." Grapes were also
pictured in hieroglyphics in ancient Egyptian burial tombs.
During the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, grapes were
revered for their use in winemaking. They were planted in the Rhine
Valley in Germany, a place of notable wine production, in the 2nd
century AD. Around this time, over 90 varieties of grapes were already
As European travelers explored the globe, they brought the grape
with them. Grapes were first planted in the United States in the early
17th century at a Spanish mission in New Mexico. From there, they
quickly spread to the central valley of California where climate, and
absence of grape-preying insects, best supported their production.
In the late 19th century, almost all of the vinifera
varieties of grapes in France were destroyed by an
insect that was unintentionally brought from North
America. Fortunately, agriculturists crossbred some of
the vinifera variety with the American labrusca variety
and were able to continue the cultivation of grapes in
this region, one that is famous for its grapes and wine.
Today, as researchers continue to investigate the
health-promoting polyphenolic compounds found in
grapes, this fruit is gaining even more attention.
Currently, Italy, France, Spain, the United States,
Mexico and Chile are among the largest commercial
producers of grapes.
• Roots :
– The grape vine has spreading and descending
type of root system, root penetrate deep down to
1.8-3.6 m. the feeder roots are present up to 25 cm
depth and 60-120 cm away from the trunk.
– This is a permanent stem at the vine on which the
whole framework is based
– The succulent current season’s growth arising
from a bud after pruning
• It is a deciduous crop. Its natural habitat is
• It was introduced into north India from Iran
and Afghanistan in 1300 AD by the Muslim
invaders; and into south India in 1832 by the
Christian missionaries from France.
• However, grape was known in ancient India
though it was not commercially cultivated
until the 14th century.
• Wild grapes grown in Himachal Pradesh were
used to prepare local wine.
• Presently grape cultivation is concentrated in
the peninsular India (surrounded Arabian
Sea, Bay of Bangal & Indian
Ocean), accounting for 90% of the total area.
• Major grape-growing states are Maharashtra,
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and
the north-western region covering Punjab,
Haryana, Delhi, western Uttar Pradesh,
Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
Genus: Vitis L.
Vitis x bourquina
Vitis x champinii
• Vitis is a genus decidious, rarely evergreen, shrubby
climber, distributed chiefly in the northern
• This genus divided into two sugenera
– Euvitis (2n = 38)
– Muscadinia (2n = 40)
• Vitis contains about 60 species.
• Among these some popular species are
– Fox grape (Vitis valpinia)
– Frost grape (Vitis labrusca)
– River bank grape (Vitis riparia)
– Bird grape (Vitis munsoniana)
– Bullace grape (Vitis rotundifolia)
• The wild grapes are divided into 3 geographical
– Middle Asia
• The commercial cultivars of American grapes are the
direct derives of either V. rotundifolia or V. labrusca
whereas European grapes are V. vinifera, is a
polymorphic sp. which is considered the pinnacle of
fruit quality but lacks in resistance to disease, pests
& hardiness to cold.
• V. vinifera is considered a hybrid of 2 American spp.
V. vulpina & V. labrusca
PRESENT STATUS OF GRAPE
CULTIVATION IN THE COUNTRY
Grape is grown under a variety of soil and climatic
conditions in three distinct agro-climatic zones, namely,
sub-tropical, hot tropical and mild tropical climatic regions
This region covers the northwestern plains
corresponding to 28° and 32° N latitude including Delhi;
Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh;
Hissar and Jind districts of Haryana; and
Bhatinda, Ferozpur, Gurdaspur and Ludhiana districts of
Vines undergo dormancy and bud break
starts in the first week of March while the
rains arrive in the first week of June, and
therefore, only 90-95 days are available
from the initiation of growth to harvest.
Consequently, ‘Perlette’ is the only early
ripening variety grown in this region.
Rain damage is a problem with
Thompson Seedless in this region.
Single pruning and a single harvest is the
accepted practice here.
Hot Tropical Region:
This region covers Nashik, Sangli, Solapur,
Pune, Satara, Latur and Osmanabad districts of
Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Mahbubnagar,
Anantapur and Medak districts of Andhra
Bijapur, Bagalkot, Belgaum, Gulberga districts
of northern Karnataka lying between 15° and
20° N latitude.
This is the major viticulture region accounting
for 70 percent of the area under grapes in the
Vines do not undergo dormancy and double pruning
and a single harvest is the general practice in this
Maximum and minimum temperature is 42°C and 8°C,
The major problems in this region are soil and water
salinity and drought.
Berry growth is impaired and in certain locations pink
bluish sometimes develops on green berries due to
temperatures that drop to a low of 8°C.
Thompson Seedless and its clones (Tas-A-Ganesh,
Sonaka), Anab-e-Shahi, Sharad Seedless and Flame
Seedless are the varieties grown in this region.
Mild Tropical Region:
An area covered by 10° and 15° N latitude including Bangalore
and Kolar districts of Karnataka;
Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh and Coimbatore; and
Madurai and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu fall in this region.
Maximum temperatures in a year seldom exceed 36°C, while the
minimum is about 12°C.
Principal varieties are Bangalore Blue (Syn. Isabella), Anab-e-
Shahi, Gulabi (Syn. Muscat Hamburg), and Bhokri. Thompson
Seedless is grown only with limited success.
Except for Thompson Seedless, two crops are harvested in a
Vinifera varieties susceptible to mildew suffer losses due to
unprecedented rains during flowering and fruit set in both hot and
mild tropical regions.
Area, Production and Productivity
In terms of production, grape occupies the 7th position (only 0.02%
of total fruit production) among all fruits, but it has the highest
productivity among all fruits.
While during the period from 1991-92 to 1999-2000, India's area
under grape has increased by 50% (approx.), world area under grape
had shown declining trend till 1997-98 and thereafter it started
During the same period, India's production of grape had also shown
50% increase, whereas world production of grape shown fluctuating
According to a report, the worldwide grape production fell from 60
million tones during the mid '80s to 55 million tones in 1995.
Thereafter, it has increased to 63 million tones by 2000-
2001. However, the table grape production has remained rather
stable. The fall in grape production is mainly due to the fall in
production of wine grape.
Overall, the report clearly indicates the possibility of increase in the
production of table grapes in future. The CAGR during the period
from 1991-92 to 2000-01 indicates that India specially Maharashtra
achieved much higher rate than world as a whole.
India is credited with achieving the highest
productivity of grape i.e. average productivity of 25 tonne per ha. as
against the world average of 8 tonne per ha.and also the record yield
of 100 tonne per ha.The conducive climate in most of the important
grape growing areas, well developed production technologies and
the progressive entrepreneurship with easy availability of
institutional finance for the crop made it possible to increase the
grapeproduction and productivity. There is still scope to increase
grape production in India specially in Maharashtra by increasing the
area under cultivation.
Variety Area (ha) Production (t)
Anab-e-Shahi (white, seeded 3,000 135, 000
Bangalore Blue Syn. Isabella
Bhokri (white, seeded) 500 15,000
Flame Seedless (red, seedless) 500 10,000
Gulabi Syn. Muscat Hamburg
Perlette (white, seedless) 1,500 60,000
Sharad Seedless - A mutant of
Kishmish Chorni (black,
Thomson Seedless and its
mutants (white, seedless)
Total 34,000 1,000,000
• Temperature, humidity and light are important for grapes.
Hot and dry climate is ideal.
• Areas with high humidity and high rainfall are not
• The climatic requirements of vinifera are different from
those of labrusca grapes.
• Mild temperature, not exceeding 35°C in summers,
impairs the fruiting of vinifera grapes, particularly, in
• Higher night temperatures (above 25°C) during ripening
hamper the colour development in coloured grapes.
• Cool nights and hot days even though congenial for
coloured grapes, pink pigmentation develops in green
grapes if the diurnal differences are more than
20°C during ripening.
• Under high humid conditions, the vines put forth
excessive vegetative growth at the expense of
fruiting. Berries do not ripen properly. Disease
incidence is high.
• The total amount of rainfall is not the criterion, but
the timing, frequency and duration of rainfall are
important considerations for grape cultivation. Rains
associated with cloudy weather and poor sunlight
during 45–60 days after back pruning in the tropical
India reduce the fruitful buds in a vine.
• Rainfall during flowering, and berry ripening cause
enormous damage to grapes. If rains coincide with
flowering, the panicles are destroyed by downy
mildew. Rains during ripening cause berry cracking
• Soil with good drainage and water-holding capacity in a pH
range of 6.5–7.5 is ideally-suited for grapes.
• Presence of excess salts, particularly sodium and free calcium
is detrimental for grapes. Vines become weak and their
productive life span is reduced.
• When the soil contains more free calcium than 12%, vines
suffer from iron deficiency and the soil gradually becomes
• High content of sodium in soil posses drainage problems and
the root growth is impaired.
• Soils of Maharashtra, Haryana and Punjab are saline-alkali.
Free calcium content is also high in soils of Maharashtra.
• About 8000 varieties are recognised all over the
• Thomson Seedless- Tamil Nadu & Maharashtra
• Anab-a-shahi -Hydrabad region
• Bagalore Blue – Karnataka
• Seedless varieties – North India ( Pusa Seedless,
Beayty Seedless, Perlette
1. Thompson Seedless Grapes:
These grapes are seedless,
sweet-tart, and crunchy.
Thomson Seedless account for the bulk of
Table Grape exports from India.
Availability: Mid Jan - Mid April
2.Sonaka Seedless Grapes:
Sonaka Seedless is a Bud-sport of
Thompson Seedless grapes with elongated
berries. After Thompson Grapes these
account for the second largest (Bulk wise)
grape variety exports from India.
Availability: Mid Jan - Mid April
INDIAN GROWING VARITIES1
These grapes are seedless,
Black and make very good
Table and Wine Grapes.
Availability: January & February
4. Red Flame Seedless Grapes
Are the result of a cross between Thompson,
Cardinal and other grape varieties.
Flame grapes are one of the most popular
varieties along with Thompson grapes .These
grapes are seedless, sweet-tart, and crunchy.
Availability: January & February
3. Black Seedless Grapes:
One of the traditional varieties from the Lower and
Central Penedes producing fresh, fruity and light
wines.. It is also the base wine used to make cava.
This variety is found mainly in the Central Penedes and is used to
give a fruity aroma to Brut and Nature cavas. It is also used to
produce full-bodied dry and fruity wines.
The finest and most delicate of the traditional Catalan white
varieties.When grown in cool mountain microclimates (Upper
Penedès) it produces aromatic dry white wines, light and with delicate
A. WHITE VARITIES
ABROAD GROWING VARIETIES
This variety is the most cultivated Mediterranean
grape worldwide. It makes excellent red and rosé
wines that benefit from thick and sensual tannins. If
the grapes are cultivated in poor soils, with low
yields, the red wines can attain a power and
expression that is stunning, hence wines made from
Garnacha are so sought after.
A noble international variety, grown in our Middle
It has small berries, of very dark blue colour,
medium thick skins and a sugary pulp. It produces
excellent varietal wines, characterized by their
finesse, their elegance and their fine and velvety
B. RED VARIETIES
• Beauty seedless = Queen of Vineyard x Black Kishmish
• Pusa seedless – Clonal selection from Thomson Seedless at
• Perlette = Queen of Vineyard x Sultanina marble -26
• Thompson Seedless – Introduction from the University of
California Deris (USA)
• Arkavati = Black Champa x Thompson Seedless, evolved by
• Anab-e-Shahi – Brought from West Asia by Abdul Baquer Khan
Grapevines are propagated by
seeds, cuttings, layering, budding,
New plants have been produced by
several in vitro techniques, including
embryoid formation and fragmented
shoot tip cultures (Krul and
• Grape is mostly propagated by hardwood stem cuttings.
• Four-noded cuttings from well mature canes on proven
vines are made.
• The diameter of cuttings should be 8–10mm. Cuttings are
mostly obtained from October pruning in the peninsula.
• Rooting of cuttings is not a problem. However,
Thompson Seedless roots are poorer than Anab-e-Shahi
or Bangalore Blue.
• To increase the rooting of stem cuttings, they should
either be soaked or dipped to cover the basal buds in IBA
solution. For overnight soaking, 500ppm IBA solution is
used, while 2000ppm solution is used for quick dipping
for 10 sec. before planting the cuttings.
• Quick dip method is preferred. Cuttings after treating with
IBA should be planted in the nursery or directly in the
• Cuttings are planted in nursery either in beds or
polybags for rooting. The beds or polybags should
be under partial shade. The rooting media should
have 30–40% well-decomposed cattle manure to
retain moisture and similar proportion of sand to
provide drainage. The beds or rooting medium
should be treated with Chloropyriphos or Furadan
granules to prevent termite damage. Light frequent
watering is to be given to the cuttings.
• For planting in field, 3–4 cuttings should be planted
at each spot. Cuttings are covered with green twigs
to provide shade. After rooting, one good cutting is
retained at each spot. Gap filling should also be
done at this stage.
• Rootstocks are employed for grapes to
overcome salinity, nematode damage and to
impart vigour to vines.
• In normal soils with good and adequate
water for irrigation, rootstock is not
• In nematode-prone soils, the rootstock 1613
can be used for Anab-e-Shahi or Thompson
• In saline soils, Dogridge is better.
• Use of Dogridge in non-saline, nematode-free
soils, particularly under mild climatic
conditions makes the vines barren by
imparting excess vigour.
The land is tilled and laid into plots of 120 m x 180 m separated by
3 m wide roads. Land within a plot is leveled perfectly to have a
gradient of less than 1 percent in any direction to ensure uniform
discharge of water through the emitters of drip irrigation systems.
Trenches of 75 cm width, 75 cm depth and 118 m length in a north-
south direction with a gap of 3 m between trenches are opened with
heavy machinery. They are closed with topsoil, up to a height of 45 cm
after 15 days exposure to sun. The remaining gap is filled with a
mixture of soil, cattle manure, single super phosphate, sulphate of
potash and micro-nutrients. Usually, 50 kg of cattle manure, 2.5 kg of
super phosphate, 0.5 kg of sulphate of potash and 50 g each of ZnSO4
and FeSO4 are added to the soil for every running meter length of the
Land Preparation and Vine Establishment
The best season for planting the rooted cuttings of cultivated
varieties in the main field is September-October whereas for
rootstocks it is February-March
Spacing generally varies with the varieties and soil fertility. For
vigorous varieties it is 6 m x 3 m or 4 m x 3 m and 3 m x 3 m or 3 m x
2 m for less vigorous varieties.
CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF VINEYARDS
(A) Training of Vines:
Many training systems are in vogue in India, but the most popular are
Bower, Telephone and Flat Roof Gable systems
Owing to the high productive potential, bower was a very
popular system of training in the past. It is highly suited for vigorous
varieties like Anab-e-Shahi, Bangalore Blue and Gulabi. But in varieties
like Thompson Seedless and Tas-A-Ganesh where vine vigour and
excessive foliage density affects the productivity adversely, this
system is not popular.
T-trellis is used in this system of training. With three top wires
and ‘T’ shaped supports, the trellis looks like a telephone pole and
wires and hence the name.
This system is followed for moderately vigorous varieties like
Thompson Seedless and other seedless cultivars in about 25-30
percent of the vineyard area in Maharashtra. Yields in this system are
less than the bower. In very hot and dry places, sunburn of the berries
and of the arms are experienced in summer.
3.Flat Roof Gable System:
Combining the advantage of bower and the extended Y
systems and eliminating their disadvantages, an inter-connected Y
trellis forming a flat roof gable is being adopted. This system is
particularly followed for vigorous vines (vines grafted on rootstocks).
The bunches are protected from direct sunlight and well exposed to
sprays of pesticides. The clusters hang within the reach of the worker
of an average height. Owing to these advantages, this system is
gaining popularity among the growers in Maharashtra, Andhra
Pradesh and Karnataka.
(B) Pruning of Vines :
Three distinct pruning practices are in vogue in relation to cropping
in the three grape growing regions of the country.
In the sub-tropical region, vines are pruned only once in December
and the crop is harvested once. Half of the canes are pruned to
renewal spurs and the rest to fruiting canes (3-4 nodes for Perlette).
In hot tropical regions, vines are pruned twice but only one crop is
harvested. All canes in a vine are pruned back to single node spurs
in March-May to develop canes and the canes are forward pruned in
October-November for fruiting. The number of nodes retained on a
cane varies with the variety and cane thickness. There is no scope
to prune earlier than October and later than November due to
unfavorable weather conditions.
In the mild tropical region, vines are pruned twice and the crop is
harvested twice. In varieties like Gulabi and Bangalore Blue, which
are fairly resistant to rain damage and in which fruit bud
differentiation is not impaired by cloudy weather and rains, pruning
is done at any time of the year. As a result, five crops are harvested
every two years.
(C) Application of Manure and Fertilizers:
At the time of planting about 75 tonnes of cattle manure 5
tonnes of caster cake and 2 1/2 tonnes of super phosphate per
hectare are applied .After the vine has grown for 3-4 weeks it is given
an application of 100 to 150 g of Ammonium sulphate and 250g of
caster cake every month during the first six months after planting. The
quantities of fertilizer applied from 2nd year onwards are given in
Age of vine
Summer Pruning Winter Pruning
N P205 K20 N P205 K20
2nd Year 250 250 250 250 250 250
3rd Year 300 300 300 300 300 300
4th Year 350 350 350 300 350 400
5th Year 500 400 400 400 400 500
(D) Weed Management :
Farmyard manure and compost are the major sources of weed
seeds from outside. The problematic weeds in vineyards are bermuda
grass (Cynodon dactylon) and nut grass (Cyperus rotundus). The weed
intensity is less in bower trained vineyards.
Mechanical control is most common means of weed control in India.
Dhaincha and sunhemp are grown as intercrops to check the weeds in
vineyards trained to T, V or Y trellises. Post-emergent weedicides-
Paraquat (7.5 kg/ha) or Glyphosate (2.0kg/ha), is also recommended.
Glyphosate offers a long time control of weeds as compared to Paraquat
(E) Supplementary Irrigation :
Since grapes are grown in areas where the evapotranspiration
exceeds the precipitation, irrigation is essential. Less than 10 percent of
the vineyard areas are surface irrigated, while the rest is irrigated by drip
systems. Water requirement is calculated based on the pan evaporation
using 0.8 as the crop factor. Water is applied at different rates at different
stages of vine growth and berry development.
(F) Use of growth regulators (CCC, GA, Hydrgen Cyanamid) :
The CCC is used to suppress the vigour of vines and
increase the fruitfulness of buds. It is sprayed at 500 ppm
concentration at 5-leaf stage after back pruning. If weather is
cloudy, cool and rainy, it is sprayed on the foliage once again at
2) Gibberallic acid
Gibberallic acid (GA) is used invariably in all seedless
varieties. It is sprayed at 10 ppm to elongate the clusters, 22–25
days after forward pruning (4–5-leaf stage). It is also sprayed
on clusters @ 40ppm at 50% bloom stage for thinning the
berries. For increasing the berry size, the clusters are dipped in
60ppm GA alone or in a mixture of GA (30ppm) with 10ppm BA
or 2ppm CPPU at pearl millet or bajra grain-sized berries and
again at red gram sized berries.
Care must be taken not to treat the clusters with GA before
bajra grain-sized berries. Otherwise, berries of uneven size
form a cluster. For increasing berry size, vines are girdled.
Girdling is a process of removing 2–3mm wide strip of bark
around the stem without injuring the wood. This is also to
be done at the bajra grain-sized berries.
3) Hydrogen Cyanamid
Hydrogen Cyanamid is used to hasten and increase
the bud-break at winter pruning. Buds are swabbed with
cotton soaked in 1.5% solution of hydrogen cyanamide 48
hr after pruning. Hastening the bud-break with hydrogen
cyamide also hastens the ripening of grapes in the north.
Thiourea (4.0%) mixed with 1% Bordeaux mixture is also
used to increase bud-break in south.
1. Shoot and Cluster Thinning:
Only one or two clusters are retained per cane depending upon the
density of the latter. Irrespective of the number of clusters, only the
apical two or three shoots are retained. In vines trained to the flat roof
gable, individual shoot length is encouraged rather than the total
canopy size for preventing sunburn of the berries.
2. Production of Loose Clusters:
Pre-bloom GA sprays of 10 ppm and 15 ppm are given respectively
on the 11th to 14th day after bud break for cluster elongation. Rachides
of the clusters are trimmed to retain 8-10, depending on the number of
leaves available per cluster. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 30-40
ppm when 10-20 percent of the flowers open in each cluster for berry
4. Increasing Berry Size:
Manual means are used to supplement chemical thinning to ensure
adequate berry thinning and improve the quality of grapes.
Approximately 90-120 berries are retained per cluster depending upon
the number of leaves available to nourish it at 8-10 berries per every
leaf depending on its size. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 40-50
ppm concentration once at 3-4 mm size of the berries and again at 7-8
mm size. When berry diameter is to be increased to more than 16 mm,
clusters are dipped in a mixture of 10 ppm BA + 25 ppm GA or 2 ppm
CPPU + 25 ppm GA or 1 ppm brassinosteroid + 25 ppm GA instead of
GA alone at these two stages.
In addition to the treatment with growth regulators, berry size and
crispiness are increased by girdling. The width and depth of girdling
are 1-1.5 mm. Girdling is done at 4-5 mm diameter of the berries.
5. Increasing the TSS Content:
Berry thinning and cluster thinning to maintain adequate leaf/fruit
ratio (5 cm2), while girdling will ensure a TSS content of 20°B.
Harvesting and Post harvest management
Grapes are harvested when fully ripe, since they do not ripen after
harvesting. In seeded grapes, the seeds become dark brown when
they are fully ripe, while in seedless varieties, their characteristic berry
colour develops fully.
Grapes should be harvested during cool time of the day. Harvested
grapes are trimmed, graded and packed. For local markets, grapes are
packed in bamboo strip baskets using newspaper and grape leaves as
cushioning material. One basket contains 6kg of grapes. For distant
markets (within the country), wood or corrugated cardboard boxes are
used for packing. Old newspapers, hay and paper shreds are used as
cushioning material. The size of packing is 6 or 8kg in wood boxes,
and 2 or 4kg in cardboard boxes. Transport of grapes is mainly by
Period of Harvest
Anab-e-Shahi 45 90 February-May, July,
Bangalore Blue 40 60 January-March, June-
Bhokri 30 50 November-December, June-
Gulabi 30 50 January-March, June-
Perlette 40 50 June
Thompson Seedless and other
25 50 January-April
(G) Pests and their Management
The important pests of grapes in India are, flea beetles,
thrips, mealy bugs and leaf hoppers.
1. Flea beetles:
The adult beetles scrape the sprouting buds and eat
them up completely after each pruning. Damaged buds fail to
sprout. Insecticides like carbaryl at 0.15 percent, quinolphos at
0.05 percent, dichlorvas at 0.1 percent or phosalone at 0.05
percent are sprayed from the fourth day until the emergence of
Various species of thrips can damage wine grape shoots, leaves,
and fruit. The two species most commonly found on Pacific
Northwest grapes are western flower thrips, Frankliniella
occidentalis; and grape thrips, Drepanothrips reuteri. Onion thrips,
Thrips tabaci; Thrips minuta; and Frankliniella minuta also appear
occasionally, but are not damaging. During and shortly after bloom,
thrips may scar the berries. As the berries enlarge, the scars restrict
growth of the epidermis, producing misshapen and split berries.
Extensive berry scarring can also lead to a severe loss of pigment in
red varieties. Thrips feeding on shoots can severely stunt leaf and
shoot growth in the spring and summer.
Thrips are effectively controlled by spraying phosphamidon at 0.05
percent, carbaryl at 0.125 percent, phosalone at 0.05 percent or
malathion at 0.05 percent. Prophylactic sprays of insecticides
against thrips are given once in five days from the initiation of
bloom to berry set.
3. Mealy Bugs:
Mealy bugs are the most serious and problematic pests of grapes
Mealy bug, Pseudococcus maritimus, is a serious pest of both wine
and juice grapes. This pest produces a honeydew that makes the fruit,
shoots, and foliage sticky. A black fungus,Cladosporium spp., grows on
the honeydew, producing a sooty mold. Serious honeydew and sooty
mold contamination will make the fruit unsuitable for processing into
wine or juice.
i) Avoid spraying broad-spectrum insecticides particularly synthetic
ii) Spray only dichlorvas at 0.1 percent mixed with neem oil 0.2 percent
or tridemorph at 0.1 percent.
iii) Release cryptolaemus montrozieri beetles at 8,000-10,000 per
hectare when the berries start softening. It is better to release a
mixed population of grubs and adults rather than only adults.
4. Leaf hopper
Two species of leafhopper, the western grape leafhopper, Erythroneura
elegantula, and the Virginia creeper leafhopper, Erythroneura ziczac, feed on grape
leaves by puncturing the leaf cells and sucking out the cell contents. Repeated
feeding causes reduced photosynthesis; heavily damaged leaves will desiccate and
abscise. Thick infestations of leafhopper can defoliate a vineyard if no treatment is
applied. Large populations of adult leafhoppers may be present in vineyards before
harvest. These winged adults annoy workers by flying in their faces. Nymphs also
cause worker discomfort by trying to pierce exposed skin.
Insecticides are most effective when the majority of the leafhopper population
consists of third and fourth instar nymphs. Eggs are protected from exposure to insecticides
because they are embedded in the leaf tissue, and adults are more tolerant of insecticides
than nymphs are. When insecticide applications are properly timed, one or two treatments
should provide sufficient control for the season, depending on the material used. One
treatment of imidacloprid or dimethoate will usually give season-long control, while two
treatments of carbaryl, endosulfan or azinphos-methyl may be necessary in high-pressure
1. Powdery Mildew
Uncinula necator, a fungal disease common to all areas of the
PNW. The disease tends to be more severe on the Westside of the
Cascades but is a chronic problem in arid districts where over-the-canopy
irrigation is used for early-season frost protection or watering. Vitis
vinifera (European) cultivars commonly are susceptible to powdery
mildew. Other hosts include Boston ivy, Virginia creeper, and Ampelopsis
(porcelain berry). The fungus may over winter as a group of thin threads
called hyphae, inside the vine’s dormant buds and/or as small black
bodies (cleistothecia) on the exfoliating bark of the vine.
Powdery mildew can attack all aboveground plant parts. In early
stages, whitish or grayish patches are on leaves and, if severe, ultimately
cover both surfaces. Colonies are more easily detected in full sunlight.
Later in the season, the mildew darkens and is peppered with minute
black dots (cleistothecia). On fruit, the fungus at first may look grayish or
whitish but later has a brownish, russeted appearance. Infected fruit
cracks and drops from the cluster.
(H) Diseases and their Management
Even blossoms sometimes can be infected, causing them to dry up or fail
to set fruit. When green shoots and canes are infected, the affected
tissues appear dark brown to black in feathery patches. Patches later
appear reddish brown on the surface of dormant canes.
Flag shoots are difficult to detect. Some young shoots may be covered
with a large white mass of threads or mycelium. Others may have only a
hint of thin threads on the shoot. Shoots generally are delayed in bud
break and appear stunted and somewhat yellowed compared to healthy
2. Downey mildew
The disease is characterized by yellowish-green lesions (oil
spots) that form on the upper surfaces of leaves and turn reddish-
brown, necrotic, or mottled as they expand. A cottony mass of fungal
mycelium on the underside of leaves gives the lesions a downy white
appearance that is also characteristic of the disease. All green parts
of the vine that have mature, functioning stomata, including fruit,
leaves, and young shoots, can become infected and covered with a
white, downy, sporulating mass of mycelium. . Infections of young
berries can be mistaken for powdery mildew. When cluster infections
occur late in the season, fruit does not soften and appears mottled
and light green to red in color. Severely infected leaves may fall
Preventive management consists of effective soil drainage
and reduction of sources of over wintering inoculum. In a vineyard
that depends on sprinkler irrigation, extend the interval between
irrigations as long as possible.
(Plasmopara viticola) On Fruits small light pale yellow spots appear
on upper surface and whitish downy growth on lower side. In severe
case the entire leaf is affected, turn brown and later drop off fruit
becomes greyish,hard and often mummified.
Control : Collect infested leaves,shoots,berries etc. and destroy.
Spray Bordeux mixture 1% or Foltaf 0.1 to 0.2% or system
fungicides,Ridomil 25% WP 0.1 to 0.2%.
3. ANTHRACNOSE :
Anthracnose is a southern disease that also occurs in
northern regions. Some table grape varieties are particularly
susceptible. Symptoms occur on all aboveground parts of the vine,
particularly on young tissues. Leaves develop numerous dark brown
spots, 1/25 to 1/5 inch (1 to 5 mm) in diameter. As the centers fall out,
lesions take on a “shot-hole” appearance. Severe infections curl and
distort leaves. Lesions on shoots are sunken and dark brown with
Source of infection:
Anthracnose over winters on infected canes. It spreads to
all new growth during wet periods in early spring
( Elsinoe ampelina )
i. Avoid highly susceptible cultivars. Vidal and Reliance are the two
cultivars that have been severely infected: Although other cultivars
are susceptible, it should be noted that other cultivars in close
proximity to infected Vidal and Reliance were not affected by the
disease in 1998. I am not suggesting that growers do not plant
Vidal (an important wine grape) and Reliance (an important seedless
table grape); however, it is important to remember their high degree
ii. Sanitation is very important. Prune out and destroy as much infected
wood and possible during the dormant season. This includes
infected cluster stems and berries.
iii. Canopy Management. Any practice that opens the canopy to
improve air circulation and reduce drying time of susceptible tissue
is beneficial for disease control. These practices include selection
of the proper training system, shoot positioning and leaf removal.
iv. Eliminate wild hosts (grapes) near the vineyard. The disease has
been observed on wild grapes in southern Ohio and was present on
wild grapes near the vineyard in southern Ohio where the disease was
a problem in 1998. Wild grapes provide an excellent place for the
disease to develop, and serve as an excellent reservoir for the disease
near the vineyard. It is probably impossible to eradicate wild grapes
from the woods, but a serious effort should be made to at least remove
them from the fence rows and as far from the vineyard as possible
(create a buffer zone). Remember the spores are spread over relatively
short distances by splashing rain and should not be able to move over
long distances into the vineyard.
v. Use of Fungicides. Where the disease is a problem, the use of
fungicides is highly recommended. Fungicide recommendations for
anthracnose control consist of a dormant application of Liquid Lime
Sulfur in the early spring, followed by the applications of foliar
fungicides during the growing season.
Liquid Lime Sulfur is applied as a dormant application in early spring
at the rate of 10 gallons/acre. The application should be delayed as late
in the spring as possible, but should be made before the buds swell.
Lime sulfur is very caustic and can cause vine damage if applied after
bud swell and green tissue is present. This spray is directed at
eradicating (burning out) the fungus on infected tissue that was
missed during dormant pruning, and is considered to be very
important for obtaining effective control.
Lime sulfur has a bad smell (rotten eggs) and is caustic to wires and
sprayers. Special care should be taken when using it to avoid drift to
non-target plants and objects, and to thoroughly clean the sprayer
after use. Once the disease is "cleaned up" in the vineyard, it may not
be necessary to use Lime sulfur every year.
Many of the fungicides used in our "normal" disease management
program for control of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, black rot and
downy mildew should be beneficial for anthracnose control. After the
dormant application of lime sulfur, foliar fungicide applications should
be started at 4 to 10 inch shoot growth and continued at 7 - 14 day
intervals. Please note that this is the "normal" timing for our currently
recommended fungicide program. Mancozeb and Captan are both
recommended for early season control of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot
and should have activity against anthracnose. Benlate is reported to
have good activity against anthracnose, but is not generally used in our
"normal" early season disease control program.
If anthracnose is a serious problem in the vineyard, incorporation of
Benlate into the spray program could be considered. Although I have
not seen any data for control of grape anthracnose, Abound fungicide is
reported to have good activity against similar anthracnose diseases on
other crops and should have good activity on grape anthracnose.
Copper fungicides have also been reported to have good activity
against grape anthracnose.
Of physiological disorders, uneven ripening, post-harvest berry
drop, flower-bud and flower drop and pink berry formation are major
1. Uneven ripening
Presence of green berries in a ripe bunch of coloured grapes is
called uneven ripening. It is a varietal character and a problem in
Bangalore Blue, Bangalore Purple, Beauty Seedless and Gulabi grapes.
Within a variety this problem varies from bunch-to-bunch. Generally
inadequate leaf area, and non-availability of reserves to a developing
bunch is the reason. Cultural practices like cluster thinning, girdling and
use of growth regulators can reduce uneven ripening. Application of
Ethephon (250ppm) at colourbreak stage is recommended to reduce the
2. Post harvest berry drop
This is due to weak pedicel attachment to the berries. This is
common in Anab-e-Shahi, Cheema Sahebi and Beauty Seedless. Spraying
of NAA (50ppm), a week prior to harvesting can minimize the post-harvest
3. Flower-bud and flower drop
When panicles are fully expanded, the flower-buds drop
before the fruit set. This is common in north India but not in the
south. The reasons for this disorder are not known. Stem girdling
about 10 days prior to full bloom can reduce the problem.
4. Pink berry formation
It is a common disorder in Thompson Seedless and its clone
Tas-A-Ganesh in Maharashtra. Pink blush develops on a few ripe
berries close to harvesting. The pink colour turns to dull red colour
and the berries become soft and watery. They do not stand for long
after harvesting. Although the definite cause of the disorder is not
known, it is recommended to spray a mixture of 0.2% ascorbic acid
and 0.25% sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate at fortnightly intervals
commencing berry softening.
1) Raisin grapes: are the only processed products in India.
Approximately 30% of seedless grapes are dried to produce 15,000
tonnes of raisins. Golden bleached raisins are produced by shade
drying the clusters after dipping in either boiling solution of sodium
hydroxide (0.2–0.3%) and exposing to sulphur fumes. Dipping in
soda oil (dipping oil) containing ethyl oleate and potassium
carbonate and shade drying is the most common method of
preparing raisins in India.
Seeded grapes of Anab-e-Shahi are also dried in very small
quantities to make raisins.
2) Table grapes:
The table grapes which as utilized either as a fresh fruit or for
decorative purpose. The table grapes should have attractive
appearance, good eating and shipping quality and should be sold at a
reasonable price. The berries should be large uniform in size shape
and colour. the eating quality include the aroma test texture of skin
and pulp and seedless ness
e.g.- Perlette, Thompson seedless, Anab-e-shahi(seed), Cheema
sahebi, Bangalore blue,Pusa seedless,Tas-e-ganesh, Sonaka, Sharad
3) Wine grapes:
Grapes of high acidity and low sugar are suitable for
dry or table wine. While sweet or desert wine are prepared
from grapes with high sugar content and low acid . The
grape and flavor be retained in the wine .
e.g.- early mascat, Perlette,Thompson seedless, Beauty
seedless, make good quality of wine.
4) juice grapes:
Champion, Black champa, Arka shyam, Bangalore
blue, beauty seedless are good for juice making
5) Canning grape :
Seedless grapes are used in caning. Important varieties
are Thompson Seedless & Perlette
Grapes are exported to middle-east, Europe and south Asian
countries. Grapes are packed in ventilated cardboard boxes using dual
release sulphur dioxide releasing pads (grape guard) as an inpacking
material to check the postharvest diseases during transit and storage.
Strict cold chain is maintained right from harvesting by precooling and
cold storage. Boxes are stored at 0°–1°C temperature and 90–95%
relative humidity in cold storage. They are transported by sea in
Most of the grapes produced in India, irrespective of variety, are
consumed fresh. Negligible quantities of Bangalore Blue are crushed to
make juice and wine for household consumption. Wine is also
produced in India with French collaboration by some private industries
growing certain French varieties.
is done in the early hours of the morning when ambient
temperatures are low.
Bunches of grapes are carefully placed in a single layer in
crates and are kept in the shade.
Removal of unwanted berries, watered, small berries and
grading bunches as per size and colour are undertaken.