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Ch. Allaylay Devi
PhD. (Hort.)
Dept. of FSC
Ch. Allaylay Devi
PhD. (Hort.)
Dept. of FSC
Presentation
INTRODUCTION
Rootstock:-
• A fruit tree rootstock is the stump
of a related species which already
has an established, healthy root
system, and to which a separate
fruit tree is joined by grafting or
budding (Thomas and Morgan).
• The resulting fruit tree will be
stronger, quicker to establish and
will take on the desirable features
of the rootstock itself.
ROOT STOCK
The working part which
interacts with the soil to
nourish the new plant
Timeline of Rootstock
First used in European vineyards in
the late 1800s
to combat devastating Phylloxera
outbreak.
Root stock types
WHY ROOTSTOCKS ARE USED IN FRUIT
PROPAGATION ..?
 Naturally, most fruit trees easily reach heights of at least 4.5
m (15 ft.).
 Such tall fruit trees would be difficult to harvest as well as
being far too large for most people’s gardens.
 One great advantage of dwarf rootstocks is that they have no
influence upon the size of fruit itself, so a dwarf ratio fruit tree
will produce the same sized fruits as a large orchard sized tree.
 Some times the scion cultivar otherwise highly suitable may
not be fit for cultivation or successful when grown on its own
roots
Stock Scion Relationships
 The performance of a graft is the result of
interaction of stock and scion.
A. Effect of Stock on Scion Cultivates:
1. Size and Growth Habit
2. Precocity in Flowering and Fruiting.
3. Fruit Set and Yield
4. Fruit Size and Quality
5. Nutrient Status of Scion
6. Winter Hardiness
7. Diseases and pest Resistance
8.Ability to resist soil adverse conditions
B. Effect of Scion on Root Stock:
 1. Effect on Root System of Stock
 2. Cold Hardiness of the Rootstock
 3. Age of Root Stock Seedling.
FunctionFunction
Dwarfing might be caused by water supply restrictions to the scion
induced by anatomical characteristics of the rootstock
( Beakbane, 1956: Aykinson et al., 2003)
It was caused by reduction of solutes transported to the scion
through the rootstock (Bukovac et al., 1958; Jones, 1976)
Dwarfing might be caused by partial incompatibility between the
scion and the rootstock which may alter the transport of minerals and
hormones (Webster, 2004)
INTERACTION
Objectives
 Breeding for vigorous rootstock.
 Breeding for resistant to pests and diseases.
 Breeding for resistant to salt , drought and lime.
 Precocity, dwarfness.
 Adaptation to different soil conditions.
 Adaptation to different climatic conditions.
Abilities of Rootstock
1.     Nursery ability:
 Ready availability of seed.
 High percentage of polyembryony.
 Good germination and seedling growth.
 Free from pests attacks and easy budding.
2.       Soil adaptability:
 Relative vigour of growth on soils of varied depth, structure, 
texture, pH, salinity, moisture and nutrient supply.
3.  Climatic adaptability: 
 Hardiness. 
 Resist to cold.
4. Biotic adaptability : 
 Free from or resistant to various soil borne diseases. 
 Some rootstocks are found superior in one or more of these 
qualities  but  inferior  in  other  but  none  is  found 
outstandingly superior in all respects.
 Some    rootstocks  may  be  superior  for  one  scion  variety 
under given environmental conditions and inferior for other 
variety. 
IMPROTANCE OF ROOTSTOCKS IN FRUIT CROPS
 Impart resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses of scion cultivar
 Resistant to adverse soil and climatic conditions
 Cold hardiness
 Provide strong root system
 Regulate uptake of moisture and nutrients
 Regulate tree vigour and size
 Dwarfing effect
 Affect flowering, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit size
 Affect fruit quality and yield
 Trees propagated on rootstocks are true to type, comes to bear earlier, precocious.
 Affect compositions of fruit crops
 Affect storage life and preservation properties of fruits crops 
PROBLEMS
 Graft incompatibility
 Use in possible only in dicots
 Difference in the performance according to region, pests, 
diseases, abiotic conditions and other characters
 Less options of superior rootstocks
 Reproduction by sexual method
 Knowledge of characteristics of rootstocks
Symptoms
 Complete failure to form a graft union
 Very low percentage of graft success
 Union takes place, growth occurs but eventually the tree dies 
either in the nursery or in the field.
 Degeneration of tissues at the graft joint, yellowing of foliage 
and premature defoliation
 Small stunted growth and general ill health of the graft
 Deficiency symptoms or nutritional disorders
 Over growth or under growth of the stock or the scion
 Excessive swelling of the graft joint
 Breaking of the tree at the point of graft joint and the breakage 
is clear and smooth
20
Cont..
Causes
1. Distant relationship
2. Anatomical causes
 Vascular connection between stock and scion is interrupted due to which movement 
of minerals, water and metabolites get disturb.
 Accumulation of excess callus tissues between graft components
 Lack of proper lignification of cell walls.
3. Physiological causes
 Due to inability of the stock or the scion to supply the other component with the 
necessary amount or quality of materials of normal functioning
 In certain graft combinations one components (Scion or stock) produces chemicals 
that are toxic to the other, killing the entire plant.
4. Pathogenic causes
 Virus or mycoplasma infected rootstock or scion may produce a graft 
incompatibility.
Types of Rootstock
1. Localized
 At the actual contact between stock and scion
 It can be overcome by inserting a mutually compatible inter 
stock between them.
2. Translocated
 Degeneration of phloem takes place
 Cannot be checked by any method
23
PROPAGATION METHODS
OF FRUIT CROP
MANGO
Propagation-  veneer  grafting,  inarching  side 
grafting and cutting, epicotyle grafting.
ROOTSTOCk OF MANGO
 To  minimize  the  variability  in  mango,  the  poly-embryonic 
races, known for their uniformity and vigorous growth offer a 
great scope for use as rootstocks.
 Kurrukan- salt resistant polyembryonic.
 Olour-  vigorous rootstock 
 Vellaikolamban-  dwarfing and allopolyploid
 Rumani - Dwarfing
 Moovandan and Nekkare - salt tolerent.
 Gomera 1: Most adaptable in saline conditions where low water 
quality.
 Species Mangifera minor: Resistant to anthracnose
 Mangitera zeylanica : Salinity resist.
 Olour and Villai collumban : dwarfing.
 Seedlings from stone of  Kesar variety found better
 Bappakai  and Olour : salt tolerant for high survival, germination 
and growth percentage under salt stress condition (Varu and Barad, 
2010)
 Dashehari and Chousa : salt resist.
BANANA
• Propagation: Sword 
sucker, rhizome, tissue 
culture.
GRAPE
• Propagation- hard wood stem cutting, chip budding, micro-
propagation.
Root stock of gRape
 Phylloxera resistance: Riparia Gloire, St. George (Rupestris du
lot), SO4 (Selection Oppenheim), 5BB (Kober), 5C (Teleki),
420A (Millardet et de Grasset), 99R (Richter).
 Salt and nematode resistant : Salt creek and Dogridge.
 Temple- multiple resistant/pierce’s desease.
 St. George, Ripario, Gloria- Phylloxera resistant.
Salient features of resistant sources
 M.rotundifolia: Resistant to Phylloxera, downy mildew,
anthracnose and nematodes.
 V. berlandieri: Resistant to Phylloxera, and high lime content
in the soils but difficult to propagate vegetatively.
 V. labrusca: Cold hardy, resistant to many pests and diseases.
 V. amurensis: Resistant to cold and frost.
 V.aestivali: Resistant to many fungal diseases but susceptible to
Phylloxera, best for hot climatic condition.
pomegRanate
• Hardwood cutting and air layering.
guava
 Propagation- Air layering, stooling,
approach graf budding.
 Important rootstocks:
P. friedrichsthalianum (cas)-Dwarfing
and wilt resistant.
P. friedrichsthalianum var. lucidum-
Wilt resistant.
P. pumilum- Most dwarfing.
 Psidium cattleianum : tolerant low temp.
 Psiduim gujavillis : Fruit size and quality.
sapota
 Propagation- inarching, air layering,
soft wood grafting.
Rootstock :
Manilkara hexandra (Khirni/
Rayan)- commercially used.
Manilkara kauki (Adam’s apple)
Bassia latifolia (Mee tree)
Madhuka latifolia (Mahua)
Chrysophyllum cainito (star apple)
pineapple
Suckers (crown, root and shoot), slips and micro-
propagation.
s
Slips Sucker
Apple
Apples can be grafted in several ways. A
particularly common graft is the “whip and
tongue” method. (Hertz, Jauron, Hartmann )
Apple tissue culture dates back to the late
1960s and the early 1970s when apple
shoots had been cultured in vitro and their
axenic growth was first reported. ( Jones,
1967, Elliott, 1972 and Walkey, 1972).
Rootstock useD in apple
 In past times, seedlings that sprouted naturally in pomace piles around
cider mills were often dug up, and buds from known scion varieties were
grafted onto these seedlings for planting new orchards.
 Since the genetic traits of these seedling rootstocks were unknown, their
performance was unpredictable.
 To avoid these problems, most orchards today are propagated from
"clonal" rootstocks that is, they are grafted onto rootstocks that are
genetically identical offshoots or clones of a mother rootstock type with
certain desirable characteristics.
 Most of the important apple rootstocks used today were derived from
collections and selections by East Malling Research Station in England,
during the early 1900s.
Ian A. Merwin1999
table: effects of apple Rootstocks on scion vigoR
Feature Very dwarf Dwarf Semi dwarf Semi
Vigorous
Very
vigorous
Varieties P22, M27,
G65 , Bud
54-146,Bud
57-491,
MAC 39
G11, G41,
G16, M8,
M9, M20,
P2, P22,
MAC-9
M7, M26,
Bud9, P16,
Northern
Spy, M116,
J9, MAC-1,
Bemali
MM106, M2,
M4, P18,
Anis, KSC
11
M1, M13,
MM111,
MAC-4,
MAC-5
MAC- 24
Height 6 ft/2m 8 ft/2.5m 10 ft/3m 14 ft/4m 18 ft/5m
Source: Mitra et al 1991
seRies of clonal Rootstocks
 Mitra (1991) enumerated numerous series of clonal rootstocks, namely:
1. " M" Malling series developed stocks : The Malling series of Rootstock
(16) were selected by R.G. Hutton at East Malling Research Station in Kent,
England from old European clones like French Paradise and Doucin . E.g.
M-2, M-6, M-9, M-26, M-27 etc
2."MM" Malling Merton series: in 1928, two institutes in England (John Inns
Horticultural Institute, Merton and East Malling Research Station, Malling)
had a joint venture to develop wooly aphid resistant apple rootstocks like
MM 106, MM 109 etc.
3."EMLA" designates East Malling / Long Ashton research stations who took
the "M" stocks and developed virus free versions. For example, EMLA 7 is
M 7 with a guaranteed virus-free stock.
4."CG" or "G" designates Cornell-Geneva stocks which are those developed
via the Cornell and USDA collaboration at the New York Agricultural
Experiment Station in Geneva, NY. The "G" is the old designation. G.41 ,
G.11 , G.202
cont…
5. Polish (P) series: Developed in Poland e. g. P 1, P 2, P 16, P 18, and P 22
etc. P 18 have considerable resistant to collar rot disease but susceptible to
fire blight, whereas P 22 has dwarfing effect on scion variety
6. Budagovsky (Bud) series: These selections have been developed with the
primary objective of winter hardiness. All of them have been able to
withstand the severe winter. These are developed at the Michurin College of
Horticulture, Russia. Some of the rootstocks are Bud 9, Bud 67-490 and Bud
57-491
7. MAC series: Developed by Michigan State University, USA. e. g. MAC 9.
Apple rootstock (Resistant/tolerant)
V3 (Vineland 3) Moderately resist to fire
G-65 (Genera 65) Resist to fireblight caser rot
Mg moderate to good in hardiners
Mark Resist to collaz rot
V1 (Vinclast) highly resist to fire blight
Bod-9 Excellent winter hardness
0.3 (oftawa) resist to collar rot
V2 (Vineland-2) highly resist to fire blight
mm. 106 Resist to wally aphid resist
Robusta 5 cold resist
Mg, m26, mm106, mm11 Free from virus diseases
seeDling Rootstock :
Vigorous trees produced on a rootstock grown from seed.
There is greater variability than with the vegetatively
propagated rootstocks.
 Apples used for production of seedling rootstocks include
"Dolgo" and "Antonovka", which are both extremely hardy and
vigorous.
peaR
• Propagation: tongue grafting and double
grafting. T-budding is also used in
commercially propagation
 Quince C: Moderately vigorous
 Quince A: Medium vigor- Slightly more
vigorous than Quince C, this is the most
common variety upon which pears are grafted.
 Some varieties however are not compatible
with quince, and these require double working.

 Example: Bristol Cros, Dr. Jules Guyot
Williams Bon Chrétien, Bartlett, Bosc, Winter
nellis, Eldorado, Clapp favorite, Secke
(Rathore, 1991)
Peach
 Propagation – T-budding and tongue grafting.
 The most commonly used rootstocks are Nemaguard,
Nemared, Lovell, Halford, and Guardian.
 In addition to these, there are four others: Flordaguard, a low-
chill, nematode-resistant rootstock developed in Florida, and
three peach-almond hybrid rootstocks developed in California.
CONT…
 Choice of rootstock depends on weather and soil conditions at
your orchard site. These rootstocks differ in five main traits:
• Resistance to root knot nematodes- Nemaguard, Nemared, and
Yunnan.
• Tolerance to calcareous soil conditions- Titan Hybrids and the Hansen
rootstock.
• Tolerance to water-logged soil conditions.
• Cold hardiness- Lovell and Guardian
• Tolerance to peach tree short life (PTSL)- Guardian is the only PTSL
tolerant rootstock that is available
Table . Tolerance of Peach rooTsTocks To
sTress.
Rootstock Root knot
nematode
Calcareous
soil
Water
logging
Cold
Hardiness
Peach Tree
Short Life
Lovell S MS S Moderate S
Halford S S S Moderate S
Nemaguard R VS S Poor-Fair S
Nemared R S S Fair S
Guardian R MS S Moderate R
Flordaguard R VS S Poor S
Titan Hybrids R R VS Fair-Good S
Hansen R R VS Fair-Good S
VS = very susceptible; S = susceptible; MS = moderately susceptible; R = resistant
Plum
 Propagation – T- budding and tongue grafting.
Pixy —A dwarfing rootstock.
St. Julien A — A semi-vigorous rootstock
Myrobalan — Resistence to cold, collar rot, and nematodes.
Citation — Semi-dwarf rootstock. Shallow, vigorous, good choice
for hard soils. Prefers a wetter soil.
Myro-29C — (Prunus cerasifera) Semi-dwarf rootstock. Shallow,
vigorous, good choice for hard soils. Somewhat drought tolerant.
cheries
Propagation – Tongue grafting and layering.
Rootstock
 Recently, dwarfing or semi-dwarfing rootstocks (i.e., Gisela-5 and 6,
Edabriz, and Weiroot) have become available.
Dr. Greg Lang at Michigan State University
 Colt and Charger – dwarf rootstock.
 Mazzard – produces dwarf tree.
 Gisela 5 – Tree is 20% smaller than Colt and 45% smaller than Mahaleb
and Mazzard.
 Gisela 3 – tree has 50% dwarfing qualities in comparison with Mahaleb and
Mazzard and is 10% smaller still than Gisela 5 rootstock.
 Wild cherry (P. puddum) and Paja – Show delayed incopatibility .
WalnuT
 Propagation - Cutting, Patch budding, Epicotyle grafting, Micro-
propagation.
 Two common types of seedling rootstock are Northern California black
walnut (Juglans nigra) and Paradox hybrid (usually a hybrid cross of J.
hindsii x J. nigra).
(Yakabe et al. 2010).
 Paradox (J.hindsi x J.nigra)- shows delayed incompatibility.
 J. nigra- Resistant to crown rot, susceptible to water logged saline or
nematode infested soils
ProPagaTion meThods of some oTher fruiTs
Fruits Propagation method
Cashew nut Seed, soft wood grafting, epicotyle grafting.
Coconut Seed
Date palm Seed , offshoots
Karonda Seed , hard wood cutting.
Litchi Air layering, chip budding, splice grafting.
Mangosteen Seed and inarching.
Papaya seed
conT…
Crops Propagation Root stocks
Custard
apple-
Soft wood
grafting
Annona glabra( pond apple)-
suitable for various type of soil
condition
Fig Cutting, budding
and air layering
Ficus glomerata- nematode
resistant.
Ber Cutting budding
and air layering
Zizyphus nummularia- Dwarfing
due to formation of invert bottle
neck at graft union.
Z.rotundifolia- Deep rooted suited
for arid zones.
Fruit Propagation method
Wood apple Root cutting, budding
Tamarind Seed and soft wood grafting
Persimmon Cleft and whip grafting, chip and
T-budding.
Jamun Seed and budding.
Aonla T-budding/ patch budding
Cape gooseberry seed
Acid lime seed
Loquat Inarching, budding and grafting.
Mangosteen Seed and inarching.
Phalsa seed
Jackfruit Inarching, air layering, cutting epicotyle
grafting.
conclusion
 Using dwarf rootstock through HDP system yield can be
increased in per unit area
 In case of propagation method the new technology tissue
culture can be used for rapid multiplication of plant in short
duration along with it we can obtain virus free planting
material
Rootstock

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Rootstock

  • 1. 1 On Ch. Allaylay Devi PhD. (Hort.) Dept. of FSC Ch. Allaylay Devi PhD. (Hort.) Dept. of FSC Presentation
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Rootstock:- • A fruit tree rootstock is the stump of a related species which already has an established, healthy root system, and to which a separate fruit tree is joined by grafting or budding (Thomas and Morgan). • The resulting fruit tree will be stronger, quicker to establish and will take on the desirable features of the rootstock itself.
  • 3. ROOT STOCK The working part which interacts with the soil to nourish the new plant
  • 4. Timeline of Rootstock First used in European vineyards in the late 1800s to combat devastating Phylloxera outbreak.
  • 6. WHY ROOTSTOCKS ARE USED IN FRUIT PROPAGATION ..?  Naturally, most fruit trees easily reach heights of at least 4.5 m (15 ft.).  Such tall fruit trees would be difficult to harvest as well as being far too large for most people’s gardens.  One great advantage of dwarf rootstocks is that they have no influence upon the size of fruit itself, so a dwarf ratio fruit tree will produce the same sized fruits as a large orchard sized tree.  Some times the scion cultivar otherwise highly suitable may not be fit for cultivation or successful when grown on its own roots
  • 7. Stock Scion Relationships  The performance of a graft is the result of interaction of stock and scion. A. Effect of Stock on Scion Cultivates: 1. Size and Growth Habit 2. Precocity in Flowering and Fruiting. 3. Fruit Set and Yield 4. Fruit Size and Quality 5. Nutrient Status of Scion 6. Winter Hardiness 7. Diseases and pest Resistance 8.Ability to resist soil adverse conditions
  • 8. B. Effect of Scion on Root Stock:  1. Effect on Root System of Stock  2. Cold Hardiness of the Rootstock  3. Age of Root Stock Seedling.
  • 10. Dwarfing might be caused by water supply restrictions to the scion induced by anatomical characteristics of the rootstock ( Beakbane, 1956: Aykinson et al., 2003) It was caused by reduction of solutes transported to the scion through the rootstock (Bukovac et al., 1958; Jones, 1976) Dwarfing might be caused by partial incompatibility between the scion and the rootstock which may alter the transport of minerals and hormones (Webster, 2004)
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. Objectives  Breeding for vigorous rootstock.  Breeding for resistant to pests and diseases.  Breeding for resistant to salt , drought and lime.  Precocity, dwarfness.  Adaptation to different soil conditions.  Adaptation to different climatic conditions.
  • 15. Abilities of Rootstock 1.     Nursery ability:  Ready availability of seed.  High percentage of polyembryony.  Good germination and seedling growth.  Free from pests attacks and easy budding. 2.       Soil adaptability:  Relative vigour of growth on soils of varied depth, structure,  texture, pH, salinity, moisture and nutrient supply. 3.  Climatic adaptability:   Hardiness.   Resist to cold.
  • 16. 4. Biotic adaptability :   Free from or resistant to various soil borne diseases.   Some rootstocks are found superior in one or more of these  qualities  but  inferior  in  other  but  none  is  found  outstandingly superior in all respects.  Some    rootstocks  may  be  superior  for  one  scion  variety  under given environmental conditions and inferior for other  variety. 
  • 17. IMPROTANCE OF ROOTSTOCKS IN FRUIT CROPS  Impart resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses of scion cultivar  Resistant to adverse soil and climatic conditions  Cold hardiness  Provide strong root system  Regulate uptake of moisture and nutrients  Regulate tree vigour and size  Dwarfing effect  Affect flowering, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit size  Affect fruit quality and yield  Trees propagated on rootstocks are true to type, comes to bear earlier, precocious.  Affect compositions of fruit crops  Affect storage life and preservation properties of fruits crops 
  • 18. PROBLEMS  Graft incompatibility  Use in possible only in dicots  Difference in the performance according to region, pests,  diseases, abiotic conditions and other characters  Less options of superior rootstocks  Reproduction by sexual method  Knowledge of characteristics of rootstocks
  • 19. Symptoms  Complete failure to form a graft union  Very low percentage of graft success  Union takes place, growth occurs but eventually the tree dies  either in the nursery or in the field.  Degeneration of tissues at the graft joint, yellowing of foliage  and premature defoliation  Small stunted growth and general ill health of the graft
  • 20.  Deficiency symptoms or nutritional disorders  Over growth or under growth of the stock or the scion  Excessive swelling of the graft joint  Breaking of the tree at the point of graft joint and the breakage  is clear and smooth 20 Cont..
  • 21. Causes 1. Distant relationship 2. Anatomical causes  Vascular connection between stock and scion is interrupted due to which movement  of minerals, water and metabolites get disturb.  Accumulation of excess callus tissues between graft components  Lack of proper lignification of cell walls. 3. Physiological causes  Due to inability of the stock or the scion to supply the other component with the  necessary amount or quality of materials of normal functioning  In certain graft combinations one components (Scion or stock) produces chemicals  that are toxic to the other, killing the entire plant. 4. Pathogenic causes  Virus or mycoplasma infected rootstock or scion may produce a graft  incompatibility.
  • 22. Types of Rootstock 1. Localized  At the actual contact between stock and scion  It can be overcome by inserting a mutually compatible inter  stock between them. 2. Translocated  Degeneration of phloem takes place  Cannot be checked by any method
  • 24. MANGO Propagation-  veneer  grafting,  inarching  side  grafting and cutting, epicotyle grafting.
  • 25. ROOTSTOCk OF MANGO  To  minimize  the  variability  in  mango,  the  poly-embryonic  races, known for their uniformity and vigorous growth offer a  great scope for use as rootstocks.  Kurrukan- salt resistant polyembryonic.  Olour-  vigorous rootstock   Vellaikolamban-  dwarfing and allopolyploid  Rumani - Dwarfing  Moovandan and Nekkare - salt tolerent.
  • 26.  Gomera 1: Most adaptable in saline conditions where low water  quality.  Species Mangifera minor: Resistant to anthracnose  Mangitera zeylanica : Salinity resist.  Olour and Villai collumban : dwarfing.  Seedlings from stone of  Kesar variety found better  Bappakai  and Olour : salt tolerant for high survival, germination  and growth percentage under salt stress condition (Varu and Barad,  2010)  Dashehari and Chousa : salt resist.
  • 29. Root stock of gRape  Phylloxera resistance: Riparia Gloire, St. George (Rupestris du lot), SO4 (Selection Oppenheim), 5BB (Kober), 5C (Teleki), 420A (Millardet et de Grasset), 99R (Richter).  Salt and nematode resistant : Salt creek and Dogridge.  Temple- multiple resistant/pierce’s desease.  St. George, Ripario, Gloria- Phylloxera resistant.
  • 30. Salient features of resistant sources  M.rotundifolia: Resistant to Phylloxera, downy mildew, anthracnose and nematodes.  V. berlandieri: Resistant to Phylloxera, and high lime content in the soils but difficult to propagate vegetatively.  V. labrusca: Cold hardy, resistant to many pests and diseases.  V. amurensis: Resistant to cold and frost.  V.aestivali: Resistant to many fungal diseases but susceptible to Phylloxera, best for hot climatic condition.
  • 31. pomegRanate • Hardwood cutting and air layering.
  • 32. guava  Propagation- Air layering, stooling, approach graf budding.  Important rootstocks: P. friedrichsthalianum (cas)-Dwarfing and wilt resistant. P. friedrichsthalianum var. lucidum- Wilt resistant. P. pumilum- Most dwarfing.  Psidium cattleianum : tolerant low temp.  Psiduim gujavillis : Fruit size and quality.
  • 33. sapota  Propagation- inarching, air layering, soft wood grafting. Rootstock : Manilkara hexandra (Khirni/ Rayan)- commercially used. Manilkara kauki (Adam’s apple) Bassia latifolia (Mee tree) Madhuka latifolia (Mahua) Chrysophyllum cainito (star apple)
  • 34. pineapple Suckers (crown, root and shoot), slips and micro- propagation. s Slips Sucker
  • 35. Apple Apples can be grafted in several ways. A particularly common graft is the “whip and tongue” method. (Hertz, Jauron, Hartmann ) Apple tissue culture dates back to the late 1960s and the early 1970s when apple shoots had been cultured in vitro and their axenic growth was first reported. ( Jones, 1967, Elliott, 1972 and Walkey, 1972).
  • 36. Rootstock useD in apple  In past times, seedlings that sprouted naturally in pomace piles around cider mills were often dug up, and buds from known scion varieties were grafted onto these seedlings for planting new orchards.  Since the genetic traits of these seedling rootstocks were unknown, their performance was unpredictable.  To avoid these problems, most orchards today are propagated from "clonal" rootstocks that is, they are grafted onto rootstocks that are genetically identical offshoots or clones of a mother rootstock type with certain desirable characteristics.  Most of the important apple rootstocks used today were derived from collections and selections by East Malling Research Station in England, during the early 1900s. Ian A. Merwin1999
  • 37. table: effects of apple Rootstocks on scion vigoR Feature Very dwarf Dwarf Semi dwarf Semi Vigorous Very vigorous Varieties P22, M27, G65 , Bud 54-146,Bud 57-491, MAC 39 G11, G41, G16, M8, M9, M20, P2, P22, MAC-9 M7, M26, Bud9, P16, Northern Spy, M116, J9, MAC-1, Bemali MM106, M2, M4, P18, Anis, KSC 11 M1, M13, MM111, MAC-4, MAC-5 MAC- 24 Height 6 ft/2m 8 ft/2.5m 10 ft/3m 14 ft/4m 18 ft/5m Source: Mitra et al 1991
  • 38. seRies of clonal Rootstocks  Mitra (1991) enumerated numerous series of clonal rootstocks, namely: 1. " M" Malling series developed stocks : The Malling series of Rootstock (16) were selected by R.G. Hutton at East Malling Research Station in Kent, England from old European clones like French Paradise and Doucin . E.g. M-2, M-6, M-9, M-26, M-27 etc 2."MM" Malling Merton series: in 1928, two institutes in England (John Inns Horticultural Institute, Merton and East Malling Research Station, Malling) had a joint venture to develop wooly aphid resistant apple rootstocks like MM 106, MM 109 etc. 3."EMLA" designates East Malling / Long Ashton research stations who took the "M" stocks and developed virus free versions. For example, EMLA 7 is M 7 with a guaranteed virus-free stock. 4."CG" or "G" designates Cornell-Geneva stocks which are those developed via the Cornell and USDA collaboration at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY. The "G" is the old designation. G.41 , G.11 , G.202
  • 39. cont… 5. Polish (P) series: Developed in Poland e. g. P 1, P 2, P 16, P 18, and P 22 etc. P 18 have considerable resistant to collar rot disease but susceptible to fire blight, whereas P 22 has dwarfing effect on scion variety 6. Budagovsky (Bud) series: These selections have been developed with the primary objective of winter hardiness. All of them have been able to withstand the severe winter. These are developed at the Michurin College of Horticulture, Russia. Some of the rootstocks are Bud 9, Bud 67-490 and Bud 57-491 7. MAC series: Developed by Michigan State University, USA. e. g. MAC 9.
  • 40. Apple rootstock (Resistant/tolerant) V3 (Vineland 3) Moderately resist to fire G-65 (Genera 65) Resist to fireblight caser rot Mg moderate to good in hardiners Mark Resist to collaz rot V1 (Vinclast) highly resist to fire blight Bod-9 Excellent winter hardness 0.3 (oftawa) resist to collar rot V2 (Vineland-2) highly resist to fire blight mm. 106 Resist to wally aphid resist Robusta 5 cold resist Mg, m26, mm106, mm11 Free from virus diseases
  • 41. seeDling Rootstock : Vigorous trees produced on a rootstock grown from seed. There is greater variability than with the vegetatively propagated rootstocks.  Apples used for production of seedling rootstocks include "Dolgo" and "Antonovka", which are both extremely hardy and vigorous.
  • 42. peaR • Propagation: tongue grafting and double grafting. T-budding is also used in commercially propagation  Quince C: Moderately vigorous  Quince A: Medium vigor- Slightly more vigorous than Quince C, this is the most common variety upon which pears are grafted.  Some varieties however are not compatible with quince, and these require double working.   Example: Bristol Cros, Dr. Jules Guyot Williams Bon Chrétien, Bartlett, Bosc, Winter nellis, Eldorado, Clapp favorite, Secke (Rathore, 1991)
  • 43. Peach  Propagation – T-budding and tongue grafting.  The most commonly used rootstocks are Nemaguard, Nemared, Lovell, Halford, and Guardian.  In addition to these, there are four others: Flordaguard, a low- chill, nematode-resistant rootstock developed in Florida, and three peach-almond hybrid rootstocks developed in California.
  • 44. CONT…  Choice of rootstock depends on weather and soil conditions at your orchard site. These rootstocks differ in five main traits: • Resistance to root knot nematodes- Nemaguard, Nemared, and Yunnan. • Tolerance to calcareous soil conditions- Titan Hybrids and the Hansen rootstock. • Tolerance to water-logged soil conditions. • Cold hardiness- Lovell and Guardian • Tolerance to peach tree short life (PTSL)- Guardian is the only PTSL tolerant rootstock that is available
  • 45. Table . Tolerance of Peach rooTsTocks To sTress. Rootstock Root knot nematode Calcareous soil Water logging Cold Hardiness Peach Tree Short Life Lovell S MS S Moderate S Halford S S S Moderate S Nemaguard R VS S Poor-Fair S Nemared R S S Fair S Guardian R MS S Moderate R Flordaguard R VS S Poor S Titan Hybrids R R VS Fair-Good S Hansen R R VS Fair-Good S VS = very susceptible; S = susceptible; MS = moderately susceptible; R = resistant
  • 46. Plum  Propagation – T- budding and tongue grafting. Pixy —A dwarfing rootstock. St. Julien A — A semi-vigorous rootstock Myrobalan — Resistence to cold, collar rot, and nematodes. Citation — Semi-dwarf rootstock. Shallow, vigorous, good choice for hard soils. Prefers a wetter soil. Myro-29C — (Prunus cerasifera) Semi-dwarf rootstock. Shallow, vigorous, good choice for hard soils. Somewhat drought tolerant.
  • 47. cheries Propagation – Tongue grafting and layering. Rootstock  Recently, dwarfing or semi-dwarfing rootstocks (i.e., Gisela-5 and 6, Edabriz, and Weiroot) have become available. Dr. Greg Lang at Michigan State University  Colt and Charger – dwarf rootstock.  Mazzard – produces dwarf tree.  Gisela 5 – Tree is 20% smaller than Colt and 45% smaller than Mahaleb and Mazzard.  Gisela 3 – tree has 50% dwarfing qualities in comparison with Mahaleb and Mazzard and is 10% smaller still than Gisela 5 rootstock.  Wild cherry (P. puddum) and Paja – Show delayed incopatibility .
  • 48. WalnuT  Propagation - Cutting, Patch budding, Epicotyle grafting, Micro- propagation.  Two common types of seedling rootstock are Northern California black walnut (Juglans nigra) and Paradox hybrid (usually a hybrid cross of J. hindsii x J. nigra). (Yakabe et al. 2010).  Paradox (J.hindsi x J.nigra)- shows delayed incompatibility.  J. nigra- Resistant to crown rot, susceptible to water logged saline or nematode infested soils
  • 49. ProPagaTion meThods of some oTher fruiTs Fruits Propagation method Cashew nut Seed, soft wood grafting, epicotyle grafting. Coconut Seed Date palm Seed , offshoots Karonda Seed , hard wood cutting. Litchi Air layering, chip budding, splice grafting. Mangosteen Seed and inarching. Papaya seed
  • 50. conT… Crops Propagation Root stocks Custard apple- Soft wood grafting Annona glabra( pond apple)- suitable for various type of soil condition Fig Cutting, budding and air layering Ficus glomerata- nematode resistant. Ber Cutting budding and air layering Zizyphus nummularia- Dwarfing due to formation of invert bottle neck at graft union. Z.rotundifolia- Deep rooted suited for arid zones.
  • 51. Fruit Propagation method Wood apple Root cutting, budding Tamarind Seed and soft wood grafting Persimmon Cleft and whip grafting, chip and T-budding. Jamun Seed and budding. Aonla T-budding/ patch budding Cape gooseberry seed Acid lime seed Loquat Inarching, budding and grafting. Mangosteen Seed and inarching. Phalsa seed Jackfruit Inarching, air layering, cutting epicotyle grafting.
  • 52. conclusion  Using dwarf rootstock through HDP system yield can be increased in per unit area  In case of propagation method the new technology tissue culture can be used for rapid multiplication of plant in short duration along with it we can obtain virus free planting material