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Mm unit 3point1

The document discusses various aspects of branding such as definitions of a brand, brand positioning, brand name selection, brand sponsorship, brand development strategies like line extensions and brand extensions, challenges in branding, importance of packaging, labeling, and universal product codes. It provides examples of well-known brands and analyzes their branding strategies. The key points covered are creating emotional value for customers, building relationships and loyalty, using brands to project aspirational lifestyles and values to command premium prices.

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Branding
Course: MBA
Subject: MM II
Unit: 3
Mm unit 3point1
Views on Brands
“A name, logo, or symbol that
evokes in customers a perception of
added value for which they will pay
a premium price.”
John Torella, J.C. Winters Group, Toronto
“A product with a personality.”
Chris Staples, Rethink, Vancouver
Marketing communications in any form has an impact
on customers’perceptions.
What is a brand ?
Branding is a combined effort of the company which is projected to
the consumer.
Company
Brand
Consumer
Marketing
Design
(1) Products and services have become so alike that they fail to
distinguish themselves by their quality, efficacy, reliability, assurance
and care. Brands add emotion and trust to these products and services,
thus providing clues that simplify consumers’ choice.
(2) These added emotions and trust help create a relationship between
brands and consumers, which ensures consumers’ loyalty to the brands.
(3) Brands create aspirational lifestyles based on these consumer
relationships. Associating oneself with a brand transfers these lifestyles
onto consumers.
(4) The branded lifestyles extol values over and above the brands’
product or service category that allow the brands to be extended into
other product and service categories. Thus saving companies the
trouble and costs of developing new brands, while entering new
lucrative markets.
(5) The combination of emotions, relationships, lifestyles and values
allows brand owners to charge a price premium for their products and
services, which otherwise are barely distinguishable from generics.
What is a brand ?
Brand Loyalty
“The degree of consumer attachment
to a brand.”
Recognition
Preference
Insistence
Awareness of name,
benefit and package
Is useful, consumer will
buy if available…evoked
set
Will search for; must have

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Mm unit 3point1

  • 3. Views on Brands “A name, logo, or symbol that evokes in customers a perception of added value for which they will pay a premium price.” John Torella, J.C. Winters Group, Toronto “A product with a personality.” Chris Staples, Rethink, Vancouver Marketing communications in any form has an impact on customers’perceptions.
  • 4. What is a brand ? Branding is a combined effort of the company which is projected to the consumer. Company Brand Consumer Marketing Design
  • 5. (1) Products and services have become so alike that they fail to distinguish themselves by their quality, efficacy, reliability, assurance and care. Brands add emotion and trust to these products and services, thus providing clues that simplify consumers’ choice. (2) These added emotions and trust help create a relationship between brands and consumers, which ensures consumers’ loyalty to the brands. (3) Brands create aspirational lifestyles based on these consumer relationships. Associating oneself with a brand transfers these lifestyles onto consumers. (4) The branded lifestyles extol values over and above the brands’ product or service category that allow the brands to be extended into other product and service categories. Thus saving companies the trouble and costs of developing new brands, while entering new lucrative markets. (5) The combination of emotions, relationships, lifestyles and values allows brand owners to charge a price premium for their products and services, which otherwise are barely distinguishable from generics. What is a brand ?
  • 6. Brand Loyalty “The degree of consumer attachment to a brand.” Recognition Preference Insistence Awareness of name, benefit and package Is useful, consumer will buy if available…evoked set Will search for; must have
  • 7. The Role of Brands Significance of Brands.. • Identify the maker • Simplify product handling • Organize accounting • Signify quality • Create barriers to entry • Serve as a competitive advantage • Secure price premium
  • 8. What is Branding? • Branding is endowing products and services with the power of the brand
  • 9. What is Brand Equity? • Brand equity is the added value endowed on products and services, which may be reflected in the way consumers, think, feel and act with respect to the brand.
  • 10. Advantages of Strong Brand Improved perceptions of product Greater loyalty Less vulnerability to competitive marketing actions Less vulnerability to crises Larger margins More inelastic Greater trade cooperation Increase marketing communications effectiveness Possible licensing opportunities
  • 11. What is a Brand Promise? • A brand promise is the marketer’s vision of what the brand must be and do for consumers
  • 12. Company Product A Product B Product Packaging Websites Advertisements A brand is a promise. A promise to achieve certain results, deliver a certain experience, or act in a certain way. A promise that is conveyed by everything people see, hear, touch, taste or smell about your business. logo Integrity of Brand
  • 14. Drivers of Brand Equity • Brand elements • Marketing Activities • Meaning transference
  • 16. •Brand Recognition / Equity •Brand Preference / Loyalty •Brand Insistence __________________ •Brand Awareness •Brand Association Page 220
  • 17. • Brand Recognition / Equity - awareness, loyalty, quality, emotion • Brand Preference / Loyalty - the degree to which customers are committed to further purchases eg. I will always buy Reebok (Brand Insistence) ________________________________________________ • Brand Awareness -your product is the first that comes to mind in a certain product category eg. Snapple ice tea, jeans-Levi’s, walkman - SONY • Brand Association - the link to favourable images, celebrities, geographic regions ie. Red Strip - Jamaica, VW - Germany, Screech - NFLD Bailey’s - Eire
  • 18. • Brand Awareness -your product is the first that comes to mind in a certain product category eg. Snapple ice tea, jeans-Levi’s, walkman - SONY Not in the text
  • 19. • Brand Association - the link to favourable images, celebrities, geographic regions ie. Red Strip - Jamaica, VW - Germany, Screech - NFLD Bailey’s - Eire • Paul Hogan - Subaru • James Earl Jones (voice of CNN) • Chihuahua - Taco Bell • Jordan - Nike • Julia Louis Dryfuss - Nice and Easy • Candice Bergen - Sprint Canada
  • 20. Brand Association - the link to favourable images, celebrities, geographic regions • white diamonds - liz taylor • BMW Z3 - 007 • roots hats - olympics • fubu - urban trend / hip hop • right guard - Sir Charles • Ru Paul - MAC Cosmetics • Seinfeld - AMEX
  • 21. • Brand Awareness -your product is the first that comes to mind in a certain product category eg. ice tea = Snapple, running shoes = Nike
  • 23. The Nike’s case • Reflects the popularity of a well-known TM • The “Swoosh” is the well known symbol of Nike • Originally Nike’s logo included also the shoemaker’s name • At the end of the nineties, the Nike’s name disappeared • The swoosh remained as the main identification symbol of the shoemaker • Today there is no need to include the brand into this logo since the recognition of a simple swoosh automatically brings our attention to Nike
  • 27. Challenge of consistency and clutter • Consistency: Everyone in the company has an impact on the brand • Clutter: Standing out and forming association is difficult
  • 28. CHALLENGES • Savvy Customers • Mature markets ( desktop PC’s ) • Difficulty in differentiation • Short term performance orientation • New communication options • Brand proliferation
  • 29. Media Fragmentation • Cost • Clutter • Fragmentation • Technology
  • 30. Increased Competition • Globalization • Low priced competition • Brand extensions • Deregulation
  • 31. Branding Strategy • Both Tiger Woods and Nike can be considered brands
  • 32. Brand Strategy • Brand Positioning • Brand Name Selection • Brand Sponsorship • Brand Development • Three levels of positioning: – Product attributes • Least effective – Benefits – Beliefs and values • Taps into emotions Key Decisions
  • 33. Brand Positioning • Brand Positioning: marketers need to position their brands clearly in target customers’ minds • Can position under product attributes – The least desirable level for brand positioning because competitors can easily copy attributes – Customers are not necessarily interested in attributes but what those attributes will do for them • Can position by associating its name with a desirable benefit • The strongest brands are positioned on strong beliefs and values • When positioning a brand, the marketer should establish a mission for the brand and a vision of what the brand must be and do
  • 35. Product Positioned on Emotions MasterCard positions its credit card based on consumer emotions
  • 36. Brand Strategy • Brand Positioning • Brand Name Selection • Brand Sponsorship • Brand Development • Good Brand Names: – Suggest something about the product or its benefits – Are easy to say, recognize and remember – Are distinctive – Are extendable – Translate well into other languages – Can be registered and legally protected Key Decisions
  • 37. Brand Name Selection • Desirable qualities for a brand name include: 1. It should be easy to pronounce, recognize, and remember. 2. It should be distinctive. 3. It should suggest product’s benefits and qualities. 4. It should be extendable. 5. It should translate easily into foreign languages. 6. It should be capable of registration and legal protection.
  • 38. Boudreaux’s Butt Paste is a real product that is used in the treatment of diaper rash. Evaluate this brand name against the criteria for a good brand name that were previously discussed. How does it fare? Explain.
  • 39. Brand Strategy • Brand Positioning • Brand Name Selection • Brand Sponsorship • Brand Development • Manufacturer brands • Private (store) brands – Costly to establish and promote – Higher profit margins • Licensed brands – Name and character licensing has grown • Co-branding – Advantages / disadvantages Key Decisions
  • 40. Brand Sponsorship • Brand Sponsorship: four sponsorship options – Private Brands: store brand or distributor brand – Manufacturer’s Brand: or national brand – Licensed Brands: the brand name is licensed to other products – Co-Branding: when two established brand names of different companies are used on the same product
  • 41. Brand Strategy • Brand Positioning • Brand Name Selection • Brand Sponsorship • Brand Development • Line extensions – Minor changes to existing products • Brand extensions – Successful brand names help introduce new products • Multibrands – Multiple product entries in a product category • New brands – New product category Key Decisions
  • 42. Brand Development • Brand Development- 4 choices for brand development: • Line Extensions – Occur when a company introduces additional items in a given product category under the same brand name, such as new flavors, forms, colors, ingredients, or package sizes • Brand Extension – Involves the use of a successful brand name to launch new or modified products in a new category—gives a new product instant recognition and faster acceptance • Multibrands – Offers a way to establish different features and appeal to different buying motives—additional brands in the same category—a drawback is that each brand might only obtain a small portion of market share and none may be very profitable • New Brands – A company may create a new brand name when it enters a new product category for which none of the company’s current brand names is appropriate
  • 43. Brand rejuvenation • Brand rejuvenation involves adding value to an existing brand by improving product attributes and enhancing its overall appeal. It is intended to re-focus the attention of consumers on an existing brand. Brand rejuvenation helps overcome the consumer’s boredom in seeing the same product on the shelves year after year. A consumer’s psychological desire for changing is one key factor behind brand rejuvenation. • Quite often, we see ongoing brands appearing as; ’new’, ‘super’, ‘special’ ‘premium,’ deluxe, ‘extra strong’ and ‘fresh’,. They appear in new shapes, new pack sizes, new containers, new colors and flavors. Basically what happens here is an updating of brands. Corn Products reintroduced Rex jam with pieces of fruit in it and packed them in new containers. Cadbury’s 5 star chocolate bar received a fill up through a new creamier and smoother version.
  • 44. Brand Re-launch • Relaunch Reintroducing a brand, product or service into a specific market. The term implies that the company has previously marketed the product but stopped marketing it. A relaunched offering has usually been technically modified or rebranded/repositioned
  • 45. Brand proliferation… • Brand proliferation is the opposite of brand extension. While in brand extension, new items are added using an existing brand name and several products are offered under the same brand name, in brand proliferation, more items are brought in with new brand names. In other words, the firm has several brands in the same product/product category. It means that the list of independent brands swells up. For instance, Unilever has more than 25 brands of ice creams and P&G has more than a dozen brands of detergents. • Brand proliferation can help expand the market as well as the company’s market share in the category. It can also increase the company’s clout at the retail level by offering variety. New brands also generate excitement of the sales team of the company at the same time, however, there are also many pitfalls in brand proliferation. More brands from a company’s stable enhance competition in the market. It also paves the way for the company’s brands to compete among themselves, a phenomenon known as brand cannibalization.
  • 46. Packaging • How can we define Packaging? • Kotler defines packaging as "all the activities of designing and producing the container for a product." Packaging can be defined as the wrapping material around a consumer item that serves to contain, identify, describe, protect, display, promote, and otherwise make the product marketable and keep it clean. Packaging is the outer wrapping of a product. It is the intended purpose of the packaging to make a product readily sellable as well as to protect it against damage and prevent it from deterioration while storing. Furthermore the packaging is often the most relevant element of a trademark and conduces to advertising or communication.
  • 47. Importance of Packaging • 1. Protection and preservation • A basic function of package is to protect and preserve the contents during transit from the manufacturer to the ultimate consumer. It is the protection during transport and distribution; From climatic effects (heat and cold, moisture, vapour, drying atmospheres); from hazardous substances and contaminants; and from infestation. Protection is required against transportation hazards spillage, dirt, ingress and egress of moisture, insect infection, contamination by foreign material, tampering pilferage etc. A package should preserve the contents in 'Factory Fresh' condition during the period of storage and transportation, ensuring protection from bacteriological attacks, chemical reaction etc.
  • 48. • 2. Containment • Most products must be contained before they can be moved from one place to another. To function successfully, the package must contain the product. This containment function of packaging makes a huge contribution to protecting the environment. A better packaging help to maintain the quality of the product and reachability of the product in the consumer's hand without spillages It gives better image to the organisation.
  • 49. • 3. Communication • A major function of packaging is the communication of the product. A package must communicate what it sells. When international trade is involved and different languages are spoken, the use of unambiguous, readily understood symbols on the distribution package is essential. It is the interest further that to get appropriate communication to the consumer about the product, how to use it and other utility informations. Packaging protects the interests of consumers. Information includes: quantity; price; inventory levels; lot number; distribution routes; size; elapsed time since packaging; colour; and merchandising and premium data.
  • 50. Labeling • Display of information about a product on its container, packaging, or the product itself. For several types of consumer and industrial products, the type and extent of information that must be imparted by a label is governed by the relevant safety and shipping laws.
  • 51. Universal Product Code • Twelve-digit barcode printed or affixed on virtually everything sold in supermarkets or retail stores, including books, magazines, candy, etc., for automatic checking-out at the cashier counter. UPC not only identifies an item, it also provides real time information on quantity sold, store traffic pattern, and inventory and ordering information. Introduced by IBM in 1973 for use in electronic point-of-sale applications, it was supplanted by European Article Numbering (EAN) code in 1976.
  • 52. Sources:- • http://www.slideshare.net/jwayne2013/branding-ppt-16015717 • http://www.slideshare.net/muzamilquadir/branding-challenges-and-opportunities-16730942?related=1 • http://www.slideshare.net/rdhawthorne/chapter7-branding-cont • http://www.citeman.com/2921-brand-rejuvenation-with-examples.html • http://www.blackcoffee.com/brand-related/brand-terms/R/relaunch • http://www.citeman.com/3193-brand-proliferation-and-the-other-strategies.html • http://www.indianmba.com/Faculty_Column/FC337/fc337.html • http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/labeling.html • http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/Universal-Product-Code-UPC.html#ixzz3OxG9gL9y