Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The U.S. Legal System


Published on

U.S. Legal System Intro

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

The U.S. Legal System

  1. 1. 10/20/10<br />THE U.S. LEGAL SYSTEM<br />Miriam A. Smith<br />Broadcast and Electronic Communication Arts Department<br />San Francisco State University<br />
  2. 2. 10/20/10<br />WHAT IS THE LAW?<br />A set of rules, promulgated by government agencies with authority to do so, that attempt to guide conduct, and subsequently provide sanctions when the rules are violated.<br />
  3. 3. 10/20/10<br />LAW<br />The discipline and profession concerned with the customs, practices, and rules of conduct of a community that are recognized as binding by the community. <br />Enforcement of the body of rules is through a controlling authority. <br />
  4. 4. 10/20/10<br />Where does U.S. law come from?<br />Medieval England<br />U.S. Constitution -- constitutional law<br />Congress -- statutory law<br />Government Agencies -- administrative law<br />Courts -- modern case law<br />
  5. 5. 10/20/10<br />Medieval England<br />
  6. 6. 10/20/10<br />COMMON LAW<br />The body of customary law, based upon judicial decisions and embodied in reports of decided cases<br />Encyclopedia Britannica Online<br />
  7. 7. 10/20/10<br />equity law<br />remedy at law was insufficient<br />(damages or return property)<br />
  8. 8. 10/20/10<br />U.S. Constitution<br />
  9. 9. 10/20/10<br />U.S. Constitution<br />supreme law of the land<br />standard by which all actions of government are measured<br />Constitution -- 1787<br />Bill of Rights -- 1791<br />
  10. 10. 10/20/10<br />Bill of Rights<br />
  11. 11. 10/20/10<br />Bill of Rights = First 10 Amendments<br />First Amendment -- freedom of expression<br />Sixth Amendment -- speedy and fair trial<br />Fourteenth Amendment -- equal rights<br />
  12. 12. 10/20/10<br />Congress<br />
  13. 13. 10/20/10<br />Inside Congress<br />
  14. 14. 10/20/10<br />To become a statute . . .<br />bill introduced in House<br />if passed, transmitted to Senate<br />Senate may pass, reject or amend<br />Senate amendments considered by House<br />if passed by House and Senate -- must be approved by President<br />if President vetoes, need 2/3rds vote to override veto<br />I'm Just a Bill<br />
  15. 15. 10/20/10<br />Statutes . . .<br />Are implemented through rule making of relevant government agency<br />May be challenged in court -- on grounds do not meet requirements of constitution<br />vague<br />overbroad<br />U.S. Code<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. 10/20/10<br />Administrative Law<br />regulations<br />established by independent regulatory agencies<br />Federal Communications Commission (FCC)<br />Federal Trade Commission (FTC)<br />implement legislation (Acts of Congress)<br />
  18. 18. 10/20/10<br />The Federal Trade Commission<br />
  19. 19. 10/20/10<br />U.S. Case Law<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. 10/20/10<br />U.S. Supreme Court<br />original jurisdiction<br />Ambassadors, state is a party<br />appellate jurisdiction<br />direct appeal -- ruled federal law unconstitutional<br />writ of certiorari -- important legal question<br />certification -- lower courts ask questions, very rare<br />
  22. 22. 10/20/10<br />Legal Distinctions<br />Civil and Criminal<br />Federal and State<br />
  23. 23. 10/20/10<br />Civil and Criminal Law<br />Why was O.J. acquitted in one court and found “guilty” in another?<br />
  24. 24. 10/20/10<br />Criminal Law<br />government prosecutes accused individuals on behalf of the people<br />purpose is to impose punishment<br />punishment includes fines or imprisonment<br />highest standard of proof (burden of proof)<br />beyond a reasonable doubt<br />
  25. 25. 10/20/10<br />Civil Law<br />essentially private law<br />harmed individuals or entities (companies, government) can sue those who do harm<br />seek redress of wrongs<br />burden of proof<br />clear and convincing<br />preponderance of the evidence<br />
  26. 26. 10/20/10<br />Types of Civil Law<br />Contract Law<br />Tort Law<br />Copyright Law<br />Intellectual Property Law<br />
  27. 27. 10/20/10<br />Contract<br />legally binding mutual promises to perform in a certain way under certain circumstances<br />
  28. 28. 10/20/10<br />Contract Law<br />way of enforcing promises<br />agreements to broadcast ad<br />production agreements<br />offer, acceptance, consideration<br />breach of contract<br />
  29. 29. 10/20/10<br />Tort Law<br />injury to person, thing or relationship<br />
  30. 30. 10/20/10<br />Tort Law<br />libel and slander<br />invasion of privacy<br />infliction of emotional distress<br />must prove negligence, gross negligence, malice, or strict liability<br />
  31. 31. 10/20/10<br />Copyright Law<br />rights created by Copyright Act<br />
  32. 32. 10/20/10<br />Copyright Act<br />five exclusive rights<br />can act against anyone who violates any of the five exclusive rights<br />exception for “fair use”<br />
  33. 33. 10/20/10<br />Copyright Act<br />
  34. 34. 10/20/10<br />Remedies<br />What do you want done?<br />
  35. 35. 10/20/10<br />Remedies<br />Damages<br />Equitable remedies<br />restitution<br />injunction<br />
  36. 36. 10/20/10<br />Federal and State<br />The Judicial System<br />
  37. 37. 10/20/10<br />Federal Courts<br />U.S. District Court -- trial courts<br />U.S. Circuit Courts -- appellate courts<br />U.S. Supreme Court -- the court of last resort<br />
  38. 38. 10/20/10<br />Federal Court Jurisdiction<br />Broadcast regulations<br />Cable regulations<br />Copyright<br />Patents<br />Diversity<br />
  39. 39. 10/20/10<br />State Courts<br />Superior Court<br />California Court of Appeal<br />California Supreme Court<br />
  40. 40. 10/20/10<br />State Court Jurisdiction<br />Contract<br />Torts<br />privacy<br />libel<br />Unfair competition<br />
  41. 41. 10/20/10<br />Concurrent (shared) Jurisdiction<br />trademarks<br />advertising<br />antitrust<br />obscenity<br />
  42. 42. 10/20/10<br />Legal Procedure<br />
  43. 43. 10/20/10<br />Legal Procedure -- Civil<br />Complaint<br />Answer<br />Discovery<br />Pretrial Motions and Hearings<br />Settlement Conference<br />Trial<br />Appeal<br />
  44. 44. 10/20/10<br />
  45. 45. 10/20/10<br />Legal Procedure -- Criminal<br />Investigation<br />Arrest<br />Criminal complaint filed<br />Arraignment<br />Preliminary Hearing or Grand Jury Indictment<br />Pretrial motions and hearings<br />Trial<br />Sentencing<br />Appeal<br />
  46. 46. 10/20/10<br />Injunctions<br />Inadequate remedy exists at law<br />Irreparable harm<br />
  47. 47. 10/20/10<br />Summary Judgment<br />material facts are not controverted<br />entitled to prevail as a matter of law<br />
  48. 48. 10/20/10<br />In a jury trial . . . <br />Jury -- determines questions of fact<br />Judge -- determines questions of law<br />
  49. 49. 10/20/10<br />Legal Citation<br />last names of parties<br />Kramer v. Kramer<br />name of case is underlined or italicized<br />volume reporter page (year court)<br />283 U.S. 697 (1931)<br />Near v. Minnesota<br />