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First thirty slides of Legal Writing class

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  1. 1. Wake Up, Guys! I know it’s early in the semester, <ul><li>But we’ve got a lot of material to review before we can even begin to collect our materials so that we can begin to write. </li></ul>
  2. 2. We can begin at the top… <ul><li>With the United States Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Find it here… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Article. I. <ul><li>LEGISLATIVE BRANCH </li></ul><ul><li>Section 1. </li></ul><ul><li>All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. </li></ul><ul><li>What word describes an entity, such as our legislature, that is split into two houses? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bicameral <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of or based on two legislative chambers or branches: a bicameral legislature. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Article. II. <ul><li>THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH </li></ul><ul><li>Section. 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause 1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Administrative regulation <ul><li>A pronouncement or rule issued by an administrative agency that implements, clarifies, or carries out the law that created the agency, or that furthers the purpose of the agency. </li></ul>
  7. 7. A great deal of federal administrative law… <ul><li>is generated by the executive branch. </li></ul><ul><li>If you need to research a particular area of administrative law, you might start with a link such as this one. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Article. III. <ul><li>THE JUDICIAL BRANCH </li></ul><ul><li>Section. 1. </li></ul><ul><li>The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Judicial review <ul><li>The process by which a court determines the constitutionality of a statute or regulation; also the process by which a regular court hears an appeal of an administrative ruling or regulation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Bill of Rights <ul><li>First Amendment--Religion and Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Second Amendment--Bearing Arms </li></ul><ul><li>Third Amendment--Quartering Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Amendment--Search and Seizure </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Amendment--Rights of Persons </li></ul><ul><li>Sixth Amendment--Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions </li></ul><ul><li>Seventh Amendment--Civil Trials </li></ul><ul><li>Eighth Amendment--Further Guarantees in Criminal Cases Ninth Amendment--Unenumerated Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Tenth Amendment--Reserved Powers </li></ul>
  11. 11. First Ten Amendments: Limits of Federal Power <ul><li>TENTH AMENDMENT RESERVED POWERS </li></ul><ul><li>The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people </li></ul>
  12. 12. THIRTEENTH through FIFTEENTH-Increase federal power <ul><li>THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT SLAVERY AND INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Fourteenth Amendment INCREASED FEDERAL POWER <ul><li>Fourteenth Amendment--Rights Guaranteed: Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process, and Equal Protection </li></ul>
  14. 14. First Amendment <ul><li>Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. </li></ul>
  15. 15. FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT SECTION 1. RIGHTS GUARANTEED Section 1. <ul><li>All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Federal Court <ul><li>What Federal Circuit would you research if you wanted mandatory authority for our area? </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Fourth Circuit <ul><li>Here are some links you can use if you wish to research a Fourth Circuit issue: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  18. 18. So…Our federal government <ul><li>Has three branches. What are they? </li></ul>
  19. 19. We also have state governments, <ul><li>Which may or may not also have three branches. </li></ul><ul><li>(dual sovereignty) </li></ul>
  20. 20. All of this law, and we haven’t even talked about county and local governments… <ul><li>With so many sources of law, is it any wonder that good legal researchers are in demand? </li></ul>
  21. 21. If federal law and state law conflict, <ul><li>Which prevails? </li></ul><ul><li>A valid federal law preempts a conflicting state law. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, a state law may be preempted when federal law “occupies the field.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Do you remember the definition for <ul><li>Common law? </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The body of court decisions that become precedent and generally must be followed in later similar cases </li></ul>
  24. 24. Who knows the difference <ul><li>Between a statute and an ordinance? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Statutes prevail over ordinances! <ul><li>Both are legislative enactments, BUT </li></ul><ul><li>An ordinance is specifically a legislative enactment of a municipality. </li></ul>
  26. 26. If your research requires knowledge of ordinances, <ul><li>You might find relevant ordinances here. </li></ul>
  27. 27. With so many sources of law, <ul><li>Who has the power to declare what the law is? </li></ul>The above image is public domain through creative commons licensing .
  28. 28. Key word: Jurisdiction <ul><li>The etymology of this word: </li></ul><ul><li>juris = law </li></ul><ul><li>diction = speech, declaring or speaking </li></ul>
  29. 29. Personal Jurisdiction <ul><li>The power of a trial court to hear a case and impose its judgment on the parties to a case, generally based on the parties' relationship or connection to the particular jurisdiction of the court. </li></ul><ul><li>So personal jurisdiction is power over the parties. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Subject Matter Jurisdiction <ul><li>Is power over the subject matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Can a divorce case be heard in federal court? </li></ul><ul><li>Can a ten-million dollar class action suit be heard in Virginia’s general district courts? </li></ul>