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Wk1 1 u.s. legal system


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Wk1 1 u.s. legal system

  1. 1. <ul><li>MANAGERIAL APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>AMERICAN LEGAL SYSTEM I </li></ul><ul><li>WRAP-UP </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>CHECKS & BALANCES: 3 BRANCHES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial branch </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>CHECKS & BALANCES: 3 BRANCHES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive branch: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who: President and governors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What: Enforce laws; request legislation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative branch: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who: Congress and state legislatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What: Enact new laws and amend existing ones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>CHECKS & BALANCES: 3 BRANCHES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial branch: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who: Federal and state courts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What: Interpret laws </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>CHECKS & BALANCES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAW MAKING & INTERPRETATION: EXAMPLE #1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress: Enact “National Labor Relations Act” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admin. agency (NLRB): Promulgate Agency regulations according to the Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal & state courts: Case law (decisions) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>CHECKS & BALANCES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROCESS OF MAKING & INTERPRETING LAW: EXAMPLE #2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress: Enact “Americans with Disabilities Act” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admin. agency (EEOC): Promulgate agency regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal & state Courts: Case law (decisions) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>U.S. COURT SYSTEM (DUAL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State courts: Trial court, appellate court, highest state court (mostly “Supreme Court”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal courts: Trial court (Federal District Court), appellate court (Federal Circuit Court of Appeals), highest court (U.S. Supreme Court) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>U.S. COURT SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE #1: STATE COURT SYSTEM (CT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trial: Superior Court </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appellate: Court of Appeals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highest: Supreme Court </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>U.S. COURT SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE #2: STATE COURT SYSTEM (OH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trial: Court of Claims & Common Pleas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appellate: Courts of Appeals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highest: Supreme Court of Ohio </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>U.S. COURT SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE #3: 6 th Circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trial: Federal District Court of Northern Ohio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appellate: Courts of Appeals (Cincinnati) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highest: U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>WHAT TRIAL COURTS DO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early decision before discovery or full trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summary judgment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary injunction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find facts (evidence) of case </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>WHAT APPELLATE COURTS DO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirm: Uphold decision of lower court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse: Losing party becomes winner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remand: Send the case back to the lower court with instructions how they must reexamine it </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>WHAT THE HIGHEST COURT DO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discretionary jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can choose cases to hear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certiorari: Determines whether the Supreme Court reviews a case </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decides legal error only (not factual issues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court of last resort: U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case of big implications only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State Supreme court cases can go to the U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>TYPE OF CASE: CRIMINAL CASE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosecute suspects charged with a crime against people (= the state) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to jury trial (always) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>TYPES OF CASE: CIVIL CASE </li></ul><ul><li>Cases of a noncriminal nature (e.g., contract dispute, employment discrimination, torts) </li></ul><ul><li>May proceed with a jury, or without a jury </li></ul><ul><li>Must prove the case by a preponderance of evidence (= likely than not) </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>JURISDICTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A court’s power to hear & enforce the case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why limiting jurisdiction  Due Process (U.S. Constitution, “fundamental fairness”) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>JURISDICTION: TWO TYPES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal jurisdiction: The person must have enough relationship with the state where the court sits (“minimum contact”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject matter jurisdiction: The kind of case that can be heard by the court </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>FEDERAL COURT’S JURISDICTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st type: Federal law cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd type: A dispute between parties from different state with amount of controversy over $75K (“diversity jurisdiction”) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>STATE COURT’S JURISDICTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May hear both federal & state law claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant in a civil action may move the case to federal court of the region </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>ANATOMY OF COURT PROCEEDINGS: HOW A TRIAL ENDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early dismissal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summary judgment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dismissed for failure to state a claim </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>ANATOMY OF COURT PROCEEDINGS: HOW A TRIAL ENDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Out of court settlement between parties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settlement upon court’s approval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full trial on merits of the case </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>LEGAL ANALYSIS: CONSTITUTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only court can interpret Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court may strike down a statute or agency regulation if unconstitutional </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>LEGAL ANALYSIS: STATUTE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canon 1: “Any ambiguity? If not, end of story” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canon 2: “If ambiguous, does the interpretation of statute give effect to the legislative intent?” </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>LEGAL ANALYSIS: INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two canons may be conflicting each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative intent might not be clearly given </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>LEGAL ANALYSIS: AGENCY REGULATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great deference to agency’s interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Whether the agency's [regulation] is based on a permissible construction of the statute [to give effect to the legislative intent.]” Chevron v. NRD. 467 U.S. 837 (1984) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>LEGAL ANALYSIS: COMMON LAW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common law: case law made by judges over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stare decisis: You must follow if precedent binds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binding precedents: Higher court decision within controlling jurisdiction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive precedent: Decision made in other jurisdictions; not binding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>LEGAL ANALYSIS: COMMON LAW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to use a case in favor of you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If it supports: Analogize the case </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If not: Distinguish the case </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>AMERICAN LEGAL SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of three branches have unique function in the law making system (all three make some law) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal & state system (trial + appellate + highest) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal & civil cases have different standards </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>AMERICAN LEGAL SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction: A court’s power to hear cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy of court proceedings: Complaint  answer  discovery  settle or trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal analysis: How to interpret U.S. Constitution, statute, agency regulation, case law </li></ul></ul>