Psychologists

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Presentation about 3 psychologists.
Albert Bandura, Ivan Pavlov, Wilhelm Wundt.

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Psychologists

  1. 1. Psychologists Presented by: Pramuka Amarakeerthi Kushani Chathurya Nadhini Hirimuthugodage
  2. 2. Presented by: Pramuka Amarakeerthi
  3. 3. Outline <ul><ul><li>Early Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic Career </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Cognitive Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobo Doll Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobo Study Key Findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Key Processes in Social Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents of Observational Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triadic Responsibility Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early Life <ul><ul><li>Born in 1925 in a rural community in Alberta, Canada. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents were immigrants.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attended room in a 8 room school house with modest resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Academic Career <ul><ul><li>Undergraduate studies at University of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Columbia in Vancouver. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Masters (1951) and PhD (1952) at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iowa State University. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completed Masters and PhD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in three years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professor at Stanford University since 1953. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author of over 300 scholarly publications. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Social Learning Theory <ul><ul><li>Miller and Dollard (1941) wrote a book entitled ‘Social Learning and Imitation’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was a movement forward because they discussed imitation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, they viewed imitation along Traditional behavioristic principles . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandura intrigued by the idea by the assumptions that learning requires more powerful mode than trial and error . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1960s, conducted research on modeling, vicarious learning and his version of social learning theory resulted.  </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Social Cognitive Theory <ul><ul><li>Humans can learn by observing and modeling others, specially those that they identify with. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic 'Bobo Doll ' studies demonstrated observational learning and impact on violent behavior in children. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandura originally called this theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observational Learning Theory or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Learning theory .  </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Bobo Doll Experiment
  9. 9. Bobo Study: Key Findings <ul><ul><li>After viewing adults strike and kick a Bobo doll, children would imitate the behavior in another environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests that the violence could be imitated by viewers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results showed 88% of the children imitated aggressive behavior following the viewing of the tape of adults acting aggressively towards the doll. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 months later 40% of the same children reproduced the violent behavior observed in the Bobo doll experiment. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Four Key Processes in Social Learning <ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul>Bandura formulated his findings in a four-step pattern which combines a cognitive view and an operant view of learning.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Step 1 – Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Something is noticed in the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observers must pay attention to learn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process influenced by characteristics of the model. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Step 2 – Retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observer must recognize and remember the behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process depends on observers ability to code information. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Step 3 – Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What observer noticed is duplicated by an action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observer must be physically and intellectually capable of producing action. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Step 4 – Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observer performs act. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of reinforcement or punishment. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Agents of Observational Learning <ul><li>Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Other Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul>
  16. 16. Social Cognitive Theory <ul><ul><li>In 1986, Bandura published a book entitled 'Social Foundations of Thought and Action .' : A Social Cognitive Theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded social learning theory into a fuller theory of human behavior not just learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presented the triadic responsibility model. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Triadic Responsibility Model Overt Behavior Personal Factors Environment
  18. 18. Reference <ul><ul><li>1998, 2006 Dr. C. George Boeree, biography of Albert Bandura. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May1, 2010; Jim Kinneer; presentation; Social Cognitive Theory, Indiana University of Pennsylvania. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2010 Marie Downing; presentation, Walden University; EdD Student. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandura, A. (2009). Social cognitive theory goes global. The Psychologist, 22(6), 504-506. Retrieved from PsycINFO database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandura, A. (1977).  Social learning theory.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pajares, F. (2004).  Albert Bandura: Biographical sketch . Retrieved Oct 22, 2009, from http://des.emory.edu/mfp/bandurabio.html </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Ivan Pavlov Presented by: Kushani Chathurya
  20. 20. Background Information <ul><li>Full Name: Ivan Petrovich Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>Born: September 14, 1849 </li></ul><ul><li>Birthplace: Ryazan, Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Education: Attended Ryazan Ecclesiastical Seminary for several years, dropped out and enrolled at the University of St. Petersburg to study the natural sciences and become a physiologist. </li></ul><ul><li>Earned his doctorate in 1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Death: February 27, 1936 </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Beginning.... <ul><li>Pavlov was planning to study saliva (which he received from dogs), collect normal data and see the reaction it had on foods under different conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>While attempting to collect saliva from dogs he noticed that the dogs salivate before food was actually delivered to their mouths. </li></ul><ul><li>He called this phenomenon “psychic secretion&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>His attention then turned from saliva to behaviorism. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the pioneer of classical conditioning. </li></ul>
  22. 22. A type of learning in which an organism responds to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that response What Classical Conditioning Is
  23. 23. Components <ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): An event that automatically elicits a unconditioned response. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Response (UCR): The action that a UCS automatically elicits. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Stimulus (CS): The neutral stimulus being paired with the UCS to elicit the same response. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Response (CR): The response elicited by the CS due to the training. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Pavlov’s Dog The first experiment that led to the discovery of Classical Conditioning was Pavlov’s dogs. Pavlov discovered classical conditioning when he trained dogs with a bell to call them to eat.
  25. 26. Conditional Reflexes <ul><li>Once satisfied with his experiments, Pavlov establish the basic rules of “conditional reflexes” </li></ul><ul><li>He stated that conditional reflexes can only occur when responses become automatic after several experiences where the condition (Pavlov's case was the bell) occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Even after Pavlov's discovery his experiments and findings wouldn't be published in English until 1927 </li></ul>
  26. 27. The Experiment of his death… <ul><li>On the day of his death, Pavlov asked </li></ul><ul><li> one of his students to stay by his bed side and record the conditions of his death. </li></ul><ul><li>It's believe Pavlov wanted to create evidence of particular experiences in one's last moments in life </li></ul><ul><li>It takes a great scientist to want to increase their knowledge on their </li></ul><ul><li>death bed. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Thank you
  28. 29. WILHEM WUNDT (16 August 1832 )
  29. 30. <ul><li>Born in 16 august 1832. </li></ul><ul><li>“ father of experimental psychology” in 1879. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology , physiologist , philosopher and professor. </li></ul><ul><li>He formed the first journal for psychological research in 1881. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>He married his wife, Sophie Mau, while at Heidelberg. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote the first psychology text book. </li></ul><ul><li>Wundt offered the first course ever taught in scientific psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>His lectures on psychology were published as lectures on the Mind of Humans and Animals. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind
  32. 33. <ul><li>Wundt studied briefly with Johannes Müller before joining the University of Heidelberg. </li></ul><ul><li>The fourth child to parents Maximilian Wundt (a Lutheran minister), and his wife Marie Frederike. </li></ul><ul><li>He studied from 1851 to 1856 at the University of Tubingen, University of Heidelberg. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Wundt applied himself to writing a work that came to be one of the most important in the history of psychology ”principal of psychological” Psychology in 1874. </li></ul><ul><li>His background in physiology would have a great effect on his approach to the new science of psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a german medical doctor. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Wundt's gravestone 31st August 1920
  35. 36. These drawing were by Wilhem Wundt in 1902
  36. 37. Wilhem Wundt and his assistants. his horoscope with biography  
  37. 38. Thank you

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