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  2. 2. Presenters name: Ammara Khan Niazi ,, M.ed Student
  3. 3. Psychology : Psychology is the branch of science, which studies bahaviour and mental processes. Educational psychology : According to Crow and Crow, “Educational psychology describes and explains the learning experiences of an individual from birth through old age.”
  4. 4. School of thoughts in psychology:  When psychology was first established as a science separate from biology and philosophy, the debate over how to describe and explain the human mind and behavior began. The different schools of psychology represent the major theories within psychology.  The following are some of the major schools of thought that have influenced our knowledge and understanding of psychology:
  5. 5. 1. Structuralism 2. Functionalism 3. Behaviorism 4. Gestalt psychology 5. Psychoanalysis 6. Humanistic psychology
  6. 6. 1. Wilhelm wundt :  German philosopher.  Wundt, who noted psychology as a science apart from biology and philosophy, was the first person to ever call himself a Psychologist .He is widely regarded as the "father of experimental psychology".  In 1879,Wundt founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research at the University of Leipzig. This marked psychology as an independent field of study.  The school of psychology that Wundt began and championed all his life is referred to as "structuralism“. For this reason, Wundt is often referred to as the father of structuralism.
  7. 7.  Titchener was a student of Wundt.  Titchener “Americanized” Wundt’s experimental psychology.  Translated “Principles of Physiological Psychology” into English.  Develop structuralism based on the ideas or concepts of his teacher.  Defined psychology as the science of consciousness or study of experiences.  He and his teacher both tried to describe the structure of mind with the help of introspection method.  Titchener was an influential figure in the formative years of psychology. As one of Wundt's students, Titchener is perhaps best remembered for establish in the school of thought known as structuralism.
  8. 8. Wundt applied himself to writing a work that came to be one of the most important in the history of psychology, Principles of Physiological Psychology in 1874. This was the first textbook that was written pertaining to the field of psychology. Wundt claimed that the book was "an attempt to mark out “psychology” as a new domain of science. Wundt was greatly emphasized on the study of components of consciousness, which is the supposed structure of our mind so, his approach to psychology is called as structuralism. Example:  An example of structuralism is describing an apple. An apple is crisp, sweet, juicy, round, and hard. Another example of structuralism is describing your experience at the ocean by saying it is windy, salty, and cold, but rejuvenating.
  9. 9.  Titchener was extremely interested in attention, and he differentiated between primary attention, which is involuntary, and secondary attention, which is voluntarily focused.  He emphasized the importance of association, but he maintained that contiguity is the only law of association.  Titchener suggested that the study of association must involve careful introspection of impressions made by the stimuli, he emphasized association by contiguity, and he argued for the importance of studying the physiology of association.  Titchener‟s context theory proposed how the “meaningless sensation” is given meaning in the form of perceptions.  Titchener distinguished between emotion and affect, which may be nothing more than sensations of pleasantness or unpleasantness.
  10. 10. Titchener believed that the goal of psychology was to study mind and consciousness. He defined consciousness as the sum total of mental experience at any given moment, and the mind as the accumulated experience of a lifetime. He believed that he could understand reasoning and the structure of the mind if he could define and categorize the basic components of mind and the rules by which the components interacted. Interaction of elements OF Mind: Titchener's theory of structuralism arises the question how the mental elements combined and interacted with each other to form conscious experience. His conclusions were largely based on ideas of associationism. In particular, Titchener focuses on the law of contiguity, which is the idea that the thought of something will tend to cause thoughts of things that are usually experienced along with it.
  11. 11. Wundt emphasize the study of consciousness and its components:  Consciousness: The normal state of being awake and able to understand what is happening around you, it represents a person‟s mind and thoughts .It is the totality in psychology of sensations, perceptions, ideas, attitudes, and feelings of which an individual or a group is aware at any given time or within a given time span .Your conscious experiences are constantly shifting and changing.
  12. 12. Sensation:  Sensation refers to sensing our environment through touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell (the 5 senses). Sensation is something you feel. Perception:  Perception is the way we interpret these sensations and therefore make sense of everything around us. Perception occurs when your brain gets involved, and you assimilate what you sense into an experience. perception is something you see. Sensation couldn't exist without perception and perception couldn't exist without sensation. They're not the same but they're related. e.g ,you can feel the piece of paper and you can see it
  13. 13. Thoughts: Thought can refer to the ideas or arrangements of ideas that result from thinking, the act of producing thoughts, or the process of producing thoughts. Despite the fact that thought is a fundamental human activity familiar to everyone, there is no generally accepted agreement as to what thought is or how it is created. Ideas: A thought or collection of thoughts that generate in the mind. An idea is usually generated with intent, but can also be created unintentionally. Ideas often form during brainstorming sessions or through discussions. Emotions: A mental state that arises spontaneously rather than through conscious effort and is often accompanied by physiological changes. It is a conscious mental reaction (as anger or fear) subjectively experienced as strong feeling usually directed toward a specific object and typically accompanied by physiological and behavioral changes in the body.
  14. 14. Introspection method: Introspection is examination of one „s own conscious thoughts and feelings. In psychology , the process of introspection relies exclusively on observation of one's mental state, while in a spiritual context, it may refer to the examination of one's soul. Introspection is closely related to human self- reflection and is contrasted with external observation. Through introspection experiments, Wundt began to catalog a large number of basic conscious elements, which could hypothetically be combined to describe all human experiences.
  15. 15. Limitations: The school of Structuralism is, for the most part, completely dead in psychology. 1. By today‟s scientific standards, the experimental methods used to study the structures of the mind were too subjective— the use of introspection led to a lack of reliability in results. 2. Other critics argue that structuralism was too concerned with internal behavior, which is not directly observable and cannot be accurately measured.
  16. 16. Conclusion:  Structuralism is important because it is the first major school of thought in psychology.  It helps in the approval of psychology as separate science.  Structuralism also influenced experimental psychology.  It provides base for the study of mind under its elements.  It provides techniques of using introspection method in education.  It provide base for further study in Psychology.