Psychology module 2


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Psychology module 2

  1. 1. Module 2: History and Perspectives<br />
  2. 2. Learning goals:<br />1. Describe the first psychologists and the origins of psychology as a science<br />2. Explain how twentieth Century psychologists changed the way psychology was studied<br />3. Discuss how some of psychology’s groundbreakers helped advance gender and race equality.<br />4. Explain the six contemporary psychological perspectives.<br />5. Discuss 3 recentareas of psychological study.<br />
  3. 3. Modern psychological ninteenth-century roots<br />Thinking critically: How did the study of psychology of science get started?<br />Earliest pioneers shared an interest in understanding mental proce3sses and behavior.<br />Wilhelm Wundt(VOONT)- German philosopher and physiologist.<br />Became a doctor but wanted to understand human consciousness.<br />Introspection-describe own concious experiences in systematic way.<br />Experiment-given similar sound or visual experience and each person asked to give full details of what they felt. <br />
  4. 4. WUNDT….CONTINUED…..BORING<br />Used details as foundation for understanding consciousness<br />More examples of consciousness: BUTTON EXPERIMENT. Time it took to react<br />Time it took to press button and left green right red button<br />Task one- perception of light<br />Task 2-perception of light, decision of color, decision of button to press.<br />
  5. 5. Edward Titchener and structuralism<br />Wundt’s student<br />Structuralism- Theory that the structure of conscious experience could be understood by analyzing the basic elements of thoughts and sensations.<br />Understand conscious experience through intensity, clarity and quality of its basic parts.<br />Example tree<br />Intensity-height clairity-texture quality of leaves<br />Building blocks of consciousness<br />Titchener steered psychology to use descriptive titles<br />
  6. 6. Gestalt psychology<br />German word meaning configuration<br />Emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.<br />Not just use consciousness, but to use individual elements of the experience.<br />Example song<br />
  7. 7. William James and functionalism<br />William James(1842-1910)First American psychologist<br />Needed to study the functions of consciousness or how consciousness helps people adapt to their environment.<br />Functionalism-STUDY OF HOW conciousness helps adapt to their environment<br />Analysis of basic thoughts and sensations in lab<br />
  8. 8. Psychology in the 20th century<br />People didn’t really hear of structualismandfunctualism<br />1900 Sigmund Freud(1856-1939) introduced psychoanalysis<br />Psychoanalysis-Theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconcous motives and conflicts<br />Focused on abnormal behavior- Freud linked to unconscious drives and conflicts stemming from childhood.<br />Example:potty training cleaniliness later in life.<br />
  9. 9. Freud continued<br />Psychoanalysis relied on personal observation and reflection instead of controlled laboratory experimentation as its means of discovery.<br />Cons- Freud claimed his work was scientific, but relied on self reported reflections and not scientific method.<br />Freud’s original theory still is being used as a basis till today. <br />
  10. 10. Ivan pavlov, john watson, and behaviorism<br />Ivan Pavlov(1849-1936) studied of animal behavior prompted interest in observable behaviors from the self-examination of inner ideas and experiences.<br />Focused on things that are visual not mental<br />John Watson(1878-1958) Made article to dismiss the idea of consciousness<br />Used fact that the study of structuralism and functionalism where non-scie3ntific and so you should not even consider theories.<br />Wanted psychology to move to more experimental<br />
  11. 11. Watson conrtinued… <br />Developed the idea of behaviorism<br />Behaviorism- the theory that psychology should only study observable behaviors not mental processes<br />Utilized scientific methods<br />BREAK-WHAT ARE THE SCIENTIFIC METHODS???<br />Watson’s ideas where most dominant thought in schools.<br />Promoted the study of learned reflexes orignially developed by Pavlov<br />
  12. 12. Watson <br />Developed experimentation on human reactions to stimuli in their environment<br />Famous presentation of white furry object paired with a loud noise<br />Fear of furry white object similar to Pavlov’s dog<br />
  13. 13. BF Skinner and albertbandura<br />BF Skinner(1904-1990)<br />American Psychologist whose brand of behaviorism focused on the role of responses in learning<br />Utilized operant conditioning(will cover in later chapters)<br />Albert Bandura(1925-)<br />Utilized idea that people learned by watching others<br />
  14. 14. Abraham Maslow, carlrogersand humanistic psychology<br />Behaviorism and psychoanalysis was strong in the field of psychology till the 1960’s<br />Humanistic psychology- school of thought that focuses on the study of consncious experience, the individual’s freedom to choose, and the capacity for personal growth<br />Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers rejected the idea thaqt humans are controlled by a series of rewards and reinforcements they instead emphasized conscious experience and “ FREE WILL”<br />
  15. 15. Humanistic cont.<br />Gestalt theory was idea based on humanistic experience<br />CON-did not have enough scientific research to back up ideas<br />RULE: IF YOU HAVE AN IDEA… SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH MUST BACK IT UP…<br />
  16. 16. JEAN PIAGET AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT<br />Jean Piaget(1896-1980)Swiss biologist and psycholigist.<br />Pioneer for children devleopment on their thinking abilities<br />Worked at a school that administered intelligence testing and noticed that younger kids made mistakes that on tests that older children did not make<br />
  17. 17. Piagets work<br />
  18. 18. Psychology’s american groundbreakers<br />G. Stanley Hall was student of Wundt and first american to receive Ph.D. <br />First American to open up laboratory at John Hopkins and first APA president in 1895<br />Women in psychology was unheard of due to discrimination.<br />Mary Whiton Calkins first women to get Ph.D from Harvard but they did not give it to her.<br />APA president in 1905<br />Margaret Floy Washburn was Titchener’s first grad student at Cornell and wrote first textbook in 1908 about animal behavior<br />
  19. 19. AMERIKAN<br />Francis Cecil Sumner was the first African American in 1920 to receive Ph.D. <br />Wrote many articles about racism, prejudice and nature nurture issues.<br />Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark were deucational psychologists whose research was presented as evidence to the US Supereme Court during the landmark case of desegregating schools Brown V board of education.<br />Lead to separate but equal clause<br />
  20. 20. Amerikan cont.<br />Inez Beverly Prosser first AA woman to receive Ph.d in 1933 studided development of AA in segregated and integrated schools<br />
  21. 21. Six conteporarypsychological perspectives<br />Thinking critically: how do current psychological theories explain thinking and behavior?<br />Perspectives have come and go<br />People view one way look that way: behaviorist looks at behavioral perspectives<br />Review <br />Behavioral perspective-observable responsesto rewards and punishments<br />Humanistic-how people strive to reach full potential<br />Psychodynamic perspective-behavior springs from unconcious drives and conflicts<br />
  22. 22. cont<br />Cognitive perspective-thought that focuses on how people think<br />Structuralism fuctionalism and gestalt psychology follow this style<br />Biological perspective-thought that focuses on physical structures and substances underlying a particular behavior<br />Chemical responses in the bran<br />Social-cultural perspective:thought that focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in situations.<br />Psychologists today focus on all 6 perspectives<br />
  23. 23. Psychology in 21st century<br />Thinking critically: what are the basic ideas behind the 3 of psychology’s developing areas?<br />Psychology continues to grow<br />Developing areas<br />Genetics, evolutionary psychology and positive psychology<br />