Latin I Lesson 01


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Lesson 1 for MC2 homeschool class.

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Latin I Lesson 01

  1. 1. Latin I /Intro to Latin<br />A study of the Latin language and the history, culture and geography of Ancient Rome<br />
  2. 2. Latin’s a dead language.<br />It’s very plain to see.<br />First it killed the Romans,<br />And now it’s killing me!<br />
  3. 3. Why take Latin?<br />It makes learning other languages easier<br />Knowing Latin word roots will improve your English vocabulary (and SAT scores)<br />It improves your logic/problem-solving skills<br />You don’t have to speak it well – it’s all on paper<br />You want to be a lawyer/doctor <br />You can tell your sister to get a life (“Facutvivas!”) and she won’t be able to tell your mom what you just said<br />It’s cool!<br />
  4. 4. Where Do I See Latin Today? <br />You have the body<br />I do not wish to contend<br />In place of a parent<br />For the good<br />Under penalty<br />Method of operating<br />In absence<br />From the law<br />
  5. 5. Where Do I See Latin Today?<br />Medical phrases<br />NPO is short for “nihil per os” which means nothing through the mouth <br />Medical conditions<br />Cerebellum, lacrimal, pulmonary<br />Body parts<br />Bicep is the muscle with “two heads”, tricep is the muscle with “three heads”<br />Adductor muscles pull to the center, abductor muscles pull away from the center<br />
  6. 6. Where Do I See Latin Today?<br />
  7. 7. Where Do I See Latin Today?<br />Planets<br />Jupiter, Venus, Mercury<br />Moons<br />Io, Europa, Callisto<br />Constellations<br />Pegasus, Andromeda, Ursa Major, Ursa Minor<br />Astrology<br />Taurus (bull), Gemini (twins), Sagittarius (archer)<br />
  8. 8. Where did Latin come from?<br />To sound impressive/snooty: A descendant of the Ancient Proto-Indo-European language.<br />Or, to sound normal: It evolved from the languages spoken by the tribes that lived in Latium, an area in western central Italy. <br />
  9. 9. Where did Latin Go?<br />Ummm…it died.<br />Medieval Latin is still used by the Catholic church.<br />BUT…it still has lots of kids. There are 20+ Romance languages. The big 6 are: Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, Catalan.<br />Wait! What happened to English? Why am I taking this class if English didn’t come from Latin?<br />English is a Germanic language, which is sort of a cousin Latin. English and Latin are still very heavily connected.<br />
  10. 10. Is Latin hard?<br />No! The hardest parts are:<br />Understanding the concepts of declining nouns and conjugating verbs.<br />Memorizing, memorizing, memorizing…<br />Some Latin is ridiculously easy. Can you guess what these words mean?<br />Dictator<br />Gloria<br />Rosa<br />Elephantus<br />Intelligentia<br />
  11. 11. The Latin Language<br />Latin uses (basically) the same alphabet as we do.<br />Latin has the same parts of speech as English.<br />Noun Verb<br />Adjective Adverb<br />Pronoun Preposition<br />ConjunctionInterjection<br />Latin is an inflected language – which means word order is not as important as the form of the words.<br />
  12. 12. Word Order<br />In English word order matters – with a few special exceptions:<br /><ul><li>Poetry
  13. 13. 900 year old Jedi masters </li></li></ul><li>Typical Class Structure<br />Review prior week’s exercises<br />New grammar lesson<br />New vocabulary words<br />Translation practice<br />Latin Phrases<br />Geography<br />History<br />Culture<br />Mythology<br />Homework assigned (start working on together, if time)<br />
  14. 14. Okay, so if I suffer through this class then I’m done with Foreign Languages? Please?<br />Well, not exactly. Talk to your parents about how many hours you need for credit on your transcript.<br />Ideas for more hours:<br />Memorize vocabulary<br />Study aspect of Roman life<br />Report/Project for class<br />More translation practice<br />Study ancient history<br />Lapbooks<br />National essay writing contests<br />
  15. 15. Let’s Get Started!<br />Nouns<br />First declension, feminine nouns<br />Singular and plural<br />Nominative and accusative<br />Verbs<br />First conjugation, 3rd person, present active indicative<br />Singular and plural<br />
  16. 16. Latin Alphabet<br />ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ<br />i represents both i and j<br />As the i represented both the vowel i and the consonant j, the v represented both the vowel u and the consonant v; but for some reason it’s more acceptable to use u and v so we’ll make it easy and let you have both.<br />y and z occur only in words borrowed from Greek<br />
  17. 17. Pronunciation<br />First, you must decide which pronunciation we want:<br />As if it were English<br />“Church Latin”<br />As the ancient Romans did<br />
  18. 18. Pronunciation<br />But how can we know how the ancient Romans spoke Latin? They didn’t leave us YouTube videos to listen to. And, remember, it’s dead!<br />Ancient grammar books<br />Languages derived from Latin<br />Spelling errors<br />Transcriptions into other alphabets (e.g., Greek)<br />
  19. 19. Pronunciation - Vowels<br /> Short Long<br />
  20. 20. Pronunciation - Dipthongs<br />All other consecutive vowels are pronounced as separate syllables: debeo, habeat, audio<br />
  21. 21. Pronunciation – Consonants<br />BCDFGHIJKLMNPQRSTVXY<br />
  22. 22. Pronunciation – Consonants<br />BCDFGHIJKLMNPQRSTVXY<br />
  23. 23. Pronunciation – Consonants<br />BCDFGHIJKLMNPQRSTVXY<br />
  24. 24. Pronunciation – Consonants<br />BCDFGHIJKLMNPQRSTVXY<br />
  25. 25. Pronunciation – Consonants<br />BCDFGHIJKLMNPQRSTVXY<br />
  26. 26. Pronunciation – Consonants<br />BCDFGHIJKLMNPQRSTVXY<br />
  27. 27. Pronunciation – Consonantal Blends<br />
  28. 28. Accentuation and Accent Marks<br />Next week…<br />
  29. 29. Nouns<br />In Latin, the form of the noun changes to indicate:<br />Number – singular or plural (like adding –s or –es in English, but a little more complicated)<br />Case – function in the sentence. This is rare in English, except with personal pronouns:<br />
  30. 30. Nouns<br />Every Latin noun is one of 3 genders:<br />Masculine<br />Feminine<br />Neuter<br />Different genders follow different patterns of word endings to indicate case and number.<br />
  31. 31. Nouns<br />Every Latin noun is in one of five declensions. A declension is like a word family. The nouns in a declension follow the same pattern of word endings to indicate case and number.<br />Consider English – some words need +s to form the plural and others need +es. There are rules to govern which words need which endings.<br />
  32. 32. Nouns<br />For vocabulary you must memorize the nominative singular, genitive singular, gender, and meaning.<br />puella, puellae, F, girl<br />First declension nouns end in –a for nominative singular and –ae for genitive singular. <br />95% of first declension nouns are feminine.<br />
  33. 33. Nouns<br />The stem of a noun is the word without its case ending. <br />puell / a(stem) (nominative singular ending)<br />puell / ae(stem) (genitive singular ending)<br />
  34. 34. Nouns<br />There are 5 (actually 7-8) cases in Latin:<br />Nominative – subject <br />Genitive – possession <br />Dative – indirect object<br />Accusative – direct object <br />Ablative<br />Today we will learn nominative and accusative.<br />
  35. 35. Nouns<br />Nominative Case<br />Subject<br />The king ruled his subjects.<br />The people obeyed the king.<br />Predicative Nominative (follows a linking verb)<br />Tom is a farmer.<br />The escaped prisoner is a woman.<br />
  36. 36. Nouns<br />Accusative Case<br />Direct Object of a verb<br />The king ruled his subjects.<br />The people obeyed the king.<br />Object of certain prepositions (in a few weeks…)<br />
  37. 37. Nouns<br />First Declension Noun Endings<br />
  38. 38. Nouns<br />Puella, puellae, F, girl<br />Stem = puell<br />
  39. 39. Nouns<br />Translate girl/girls into Latin in the following sentences.<br />
  40. 40. Verbs<br />Verbs change to reflect the following:<br />Person: 1st (I, we), 2nd (you), 3rd (he, she, it, they)<br />Number: Singular or plural<br />Tense: There are 6, but for now think present, past, and future<br />Voice<br />Active: Subject performs the verb action. (The girl kicks the ball.)<br />Passive: Subject receives the verb action. (The ball is kicked by the girl.)<br />Mood: Worry about this later. 95% of first year Latin is Indicative mood.<br />There are 4 conjugation (families) of verbs in Latin. Each has its own pattern of indicators for Person, Number, Tense, Voice, and Mood<br />
  41. 41. Verbs<br />Four principal parts of a verb<br />
  42. 42. Verbs<br />For vocabulary you must memorize the four principal parts and the meaning.<br />First conjugation nouns end in –o for the first principal part and –are for the second principal part.<br />Most first conjugation verbs are regular, so you only need to memorize the first two principal parts if the last two follow the pattern.<br />
  43. 43. Verbs<br />The stem of a verb is the infinitive with the –re dropped.<br />voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatus, to call<br />voca / re(stem)<br />(Note: This is the present stem and is used for the first 3 tenses. When we get to the other tenses, we’ll talk about the other stem.)<br />
  44. 44. Verbs<br />Endings for 1st Conjugation Verbs<br />***The final “a” disappears!<br />
  45. 45. Verbs<br />Present Active Indicative of voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatus: to call<br />
  46. 46. Verbs<br />There does not have to be a subject to agree with the verb. It can be assumed.<br />Vocat.<br /> He is calling. <br />(or she or it; use context if possible to figure it out)<br />However, there can be a subject. In that case, the subject and verb must agree in number.<br />Puellavocat. <br /> The girl is calling.<br />Puellaevocant. <br /> The girls are calling.<br />
  47. 47. Vocabulary<br />Nouns<br />discipula, discipulae, F: female student<br />femina, feminae, F: woman<br />filia, filiae, F: daughter<br />magistra, magistrae, F: female teacher<br />puella, puellae, F: girl<br />regina, reginae, F: queen<br />serva, servae, F: female servant/slave<br />
  48. 48. Vocabulary<br />Verbs<br />ambulo (1): walk<br />amo (1): love<br />laudo (1): praise<br />porto (1): carry<br />voco (1): call<br />
  49. 49. Vocabulary<br />Et: and<br />Non: not<br />Sed: but<br />