Microbe Challenge July 25, 2011 Sloan C  Workshops Vimlarani Chopra, PhD
Objectives <ul><li>What is microbiology?  </li></ul><ul><li>What are microorganisms?  </li></ul><ul><li>How tiny are bacte...
Microbiology <ul><li>The study of organisms too small to be seen without magnification </li></ul><ul><li>Microorganisms in...
How tiny is bacteria?  <ul><li>An individual bacterium is very tiny.  </li></ul><ul><li>One or two micrometers across.  </...
Microbial Dimensions <ul><li>Microorganisms are measured in micrometers. </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses are measured in nanomet...
Study of Microorganisms <ul><li>Identification of Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Stain the bacteria  </li></ul><ul><li>Three s...
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek  (1632-1723) <ul><li>First to observe living microbes </li></ul><ul><li>Single-lens magnified up t...
Louis Pasteur  (1822-1895) <ul><li>Many diseases are caused by the growth of microbes in the body and not by sins, bad cha...
What do Microorganisms do? <ul><li>Live on astonishing variety of places and live on every food you can imagine </li></ul>...
<ul><li>How to grow bacteria?  </li></ul><ul><li>How to grow bacteria colonies?  </li></ul><ul><li>How to count bacteria? ...
Conclusion  <ul><li>All microorganisms are not disease causing microbes commonly known as pathogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Man...
Have a Nice Day!    Thank You                                http://www.youtube.com/watch?...
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  1. 1. Microbe Challenge July 25, 2011 Sloan C Workshops Vimlarani Chopra, PhD
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>What is microbiology? </li></ul><ul><li>What are microorganisms? </li></ul><ul><li>How tiny are bacteria? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we identify microorganisms? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they our friends or foes? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they present every where? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some disease causing organisms? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Microbiology <ul><li>The study of organisms too small to be seen without magnification </li></ul><ul><li>Microorganisms include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria (unicellular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses (acellular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi (multicellular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa (unicellular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helminthes (worms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae (multicellular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10, 000 to 500,000 X </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How tiny is bacteria? <ul><li>An individual bacterium is very tiny. </li></ul><ul><li>One or two micrometers across. </li></ul><ul><li>Micro means 1/000,000 (one-millionth), they are commonly one millionth of a meter in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>A meter is 39.37 inches (3.33 inches longer than a yard). </li></ul><ul><li>How many bacteria lying snugly side-by-side would it take to reach one meter? </li></ul><ul><li>About one million lying side by side to reach one meter, or 500,000 if they were 2 micrometers wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria divide every 12 to 20 minutes (1:2:4:8...........). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Microbial Dimensions <ul><li>Microorganisms are measured in micrometers. </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses are measured in nanometers </li></ul><ul><li>Worms are measured in millimeters. </li></ul><ul><li>300 years of contributions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Study of Microorganisms <ul><li>Identification of Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Stain the bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Three shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Use DNA based tools </li></ul><ul><li>Binomial (scientific) nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>Naming Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Gives each microbe 2 names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus - noun, always capitalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>species - adjective, lowercase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both italicized or underlined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli (E. coli) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) <ul><li>First to observe living microbes </li></ul><ul><li>Single-lens magnified up to 300X </li></ul><ul><li>Disproved the early belief that some forms of life could arise from vital forces present in nonliving or decomposing matter (flies from manure, etc) </li></ul>
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) <ul><li>Many diseases are caused by the growth of microbes in the body and not by sins, bad character, or poverty, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Showed microbes caused fermentation and spoilage </li></ul><ul><li>Developed pasteurization </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated what is now known as Germ Theory of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a rabies vaccine </li></ul>
  10. 10. What do Microorganisms do? <ul><li>Live on astonishing variety of places and live on every food you can imagine </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient production and energy flow </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposition </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>production of foods, drugs and vaccines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetic engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Bioremediation </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious disease world wide </li></ul><ul><li>2000 microbes </li></ul><ul><li>10 B new infections / year </li></ul><ul><li>13 M deaths from infections / year </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>How to grow bacteria? </li></ul><ul><li>How to grow bacteria colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>How to count bacteria? </li></ul><ul><li>Study the effect of pH on household bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Study the effect of temperature on bacteria growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Study the effect of antibiotics on bacteria count. </li></ul><ul><li>Study the effect of light on bacteria growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Study the effect of UV light on bacteria growth? </li></ul><ul><li>Study Bacteria classification.  </li></ul><ul><li>How can we control the growth of anaerobic bacteria? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we control the growth of aerobic bacteria? </li></ul><ul><li>Study the effect of different nutrients on bacteria growth. </li></ul><ul><li>How fast do the bacteria grow? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusion <ul><li>All microorganisms are not disease causing microbes commonly known as pathogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Many are our dear friends recycle waste matter and help us salvage our mother Earth. </li></ul>http://en.yupis.org/game-YIPy/#play http://en.yupis.org/games/viral-vendetta/
  13. 13. Have a Nice Day!    Thank You                              http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tqOVYpkZ0qs&feature=related                                      

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