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The right
Peter Newbury, Ph.D.
Director, Centre for Teaching and Learning, and
Senior Advisor for Learning Initiatives, UB...
“fish is fish” by Leo Lionni
We started with a conversation about the “cow-fish” imagined by Fish
when his friend, Frog, d...
The traditional
lecture is based on
the
transmission
model
of learning
3
um.dentistry on flickr CC
Important new number system. Please learn it.
4
1 = 4 = 7 =
2 = 5 = 8 =
3 = 6 = 9 =
What’s this number?
5
Transmission
model
of learning
proven to be less
effective than
active learning
“the equivalent
of blood-letting”
(Wieman,...
Important new number system: tic-tac-toe code
7
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
What number is this?
8
New learning is
based on knowledge
you already have.
You store things in
your long term
memory through a
set of connection...
What
is the
right tool
to help
individuals
learn?
efficiency
10
What
is the
right tool
to help
individuals
learn?
efficiency
quality of
output
11
What
is the
right tool
to help
individuals
learn?
efficiency
quality of
output
urgency
12
What
is the
right tool
to help
individuals
learn?
efficiency
quality of
output
urgency
skill of
“user”
13
What
is the
right tool
to help
individuals
learn?
efficiency
quality of
output
urgency
skill of
“user”
required
training
14
What
is the
right tool
to help
individuals
learn?
efficiency
quality of
output
urgency
skill of
“user”
required
training
o...
16
How
People
Learn
(2000)
Available for free
from the National
Academies Press
17
Key Finding #1
18
Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world
works. If their initial understan...
Key Finding #2
19
To develop competence in an area, students must:
a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,
b) unde...
Key Finding #3
20
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take
control of their own learning ...
Metacognition
thinking
about
thinking
“I am engaging in
metacognition if I
notice that I am
having more
trouble learning
A...
Key Finding #3
22
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take
control of their own learning ...
Connect the dots: match each Key Finding with an Implication and an Environment
23
Key Finding #3
A “metacognitive” approa...
Key Finding #1
24
Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world
works. If their initial understan...
Implications for Teaching
25
Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that
their students bring...
TRANSMISSION MODEL CONSTRUCTIVIST MODEL
26
1 = 4 = 7 =
2 = 5 = 8 =
3 = 6 = 9 =
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
unsupported, unfamiliar b...
Implications for Teaching
27
Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that
their students bring...
Implications for Teaching
28
Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that
their students bring...
Key Finding #2
29
To develop competence in an area, students must:
a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,
b) unde...
30
Implications for Teaching
31
Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many
examples in which the same c...
Implications for Teaching
32
Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many
examples in which the same c...
Development of Expertise
33
aware
unaware
novice expert
Behaviour
Level of Expertise
Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2000)
Development of Expertise
34
Behaviour
Level of Expertise
1
aware
unaware
novice expert
Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (200...
Development of Expertise
35
Behaviour
Level of Expertise
1
2
aware
unaware
novice expert
Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2...
Development of Expertise
36
Behaviour
Level of Expertise
1
2 3
aware
unaware
novice expert
Adapted from Sprague & Stewart ...
Development of Expertise
37
Behaviour
Level of Expertise
1
2 3
4
aware
unaware
novice expert
Adapted from Sprague & Stewar...
Development of Expertise
38
Behaviour
Level of Expertise
2 3
aware
unaware
novice expert
Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2...
Development of Expertise
39
Behaviour
Level of Expertise
1
2 3
4
5
aware
unaware
novice expert
Adapted from Sprague & Stew...
Development of Expertise
40
Behaviour
Level of Expertise
2 3
4
aware
unaware
novice expert
Adapted from Sprague & Stewart ...
Think about the place you’re living…
How many windows are there?
As you counted the windows, did you see them
from inside ...
Key Finding #3
42
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take
control of their own learning ...
Implications for Teaching
43
The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the
curriculum in a variety of...
Implications for Teaching
44
The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the
curriculum in a variety of...
Why do you think instructors, speakers,
helpdesk staff,… ask “Any questions?”
to signal they’re at the end of a section or...
To choose the right tool for the job, consider
 what do you mean by “right”?
efficiency o quality of output o urgency
ski...
The right
Peter Newbury, Ph.D.
Director, Centre for Teaching and Learning, and
Senior Advisor for Learning Initiatives, UB...
References
Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intellig...
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The right tool for the job

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My keynote presentation at the 2017 British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) School of Transportation Development Day on October 31, 2017.

Peter Newbury
UBC Okanagan
CC-BY

Published in: Education
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The right tool for the job

  1. 1. The right Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Director, Centre for Teaching and Learning, and Senior Advisor for Learning Initiatives, UBC Okanagan peter.newbury@ubc.ca peternewbury.org @polarisdotca October 31, 2017 1  tool for the job  job for the tool 
  2. 2. “fish is fish” by Leo Lionni We started with a conversation about the “cow-fish” imagined by Fish when his friend, Frog, described a cow. Fish’s cow-fish isn’t what a cow looks like. And his teacher, Professor Frog, needs to do more than just lecture about cows. Frog should get students to demonstrate their understanding by, say, drawing pictures of cows. Then Frog should wander around the classroom see what his students get (and what they don’t get.) Without witnessing his students’ ideas about cows, and responding to correct misconceptions, there’s a risk students will leave class with strongly-held, incorrect understandings… 2
  3. 3. The traditional lecture is based on the transmission model of learning 3 um.dentistry on flickr CC
  4. 4. Important new number system. Please learn it. 4 1 = 4 = 7 = 2 = 5 = 8 = 3 = 6 = 9 =
  5. 5. What’s this number? 5
  6. 6. Transmission model of learning proven to be less effective than active learning “the equivalent of blood-letting” (Wieman, 2014) 6 We must abandon the “students as empty vessels” model of teaching and learning.
  7. 7. Important new number system: tic-tac-toe code 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  8. 8. What number is this? 8
  9. 9. New learning is based on knowledge you already have. You store things in your long term memory through a set of connections with your existing memories. 9 Rebecca-Lee on flickr CC learning is done by individuals Constructivist model of learning
  10. 10. What is the right tool to help individuals learn? efficiency 10
  11. 11. What is the right tool to help individuals learn? efficiency quality of output 11
  12. 12. What is the right tool to help individuals learn? efficiency quality of output urgency 12
  13. 13. What is the right tool to help individuals learn? efficiency quality of output urgency skill of “user” 13
  14. 14. What is the right tool to help individuals learn? efficiency quality of output urgency skill of “user” required training 14
  15. 15. What is the right tool to help individuals learn? efficiency quality of output urgency skill of “user” required training opportunity for learning 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. How People Learn (2000) Available for free from the National Academies Press 17
  18. 18. Key Finding #1 18 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom.
  19. 19. Key Finding #2 19 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application.
  20. 20. Key Finding #3 20 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.
  21. 21. Metacognition thinking about thinking “I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B.” (J. Flavel, 1976) 21 cognitionmeta
  22. 22. Key Finding #3 22 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.
  23. 23. Connect the dots: match each Key Finding with an Implication and an Environment 23 Key Finding #3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. Designing Classroom Environments Schools and classrooms must be learner centered. Implications for Teaching Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. Designing Classroom Environments To provide a knowledge-centered classroom environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like. Implications for Teaching Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them. Key Finding #2 To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must • have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, • understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and • organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. Implications for Teaching The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject areas. Key Finding #1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. Designing Classroom Environments Ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and students are essential. They permit the teacher to grasp the students’ preconceptions, understand where the students are in the “developmental corridor” from informal to formal thinking, design instruction accordingly, and help both teachers and students monitor progress. Adapted fromHow People Learn (NAP,2000)
  24. 24. Key Finding #1 24 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom.
  25. 25. Implications for Teaching 25 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them.
  26. 26. TRANSMISSION MODEL CONSTRUCTIVIST MODEL 26 1 = 4 = 7 = 2 = 5 = 8 = 3 = 6 = 9 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 unsupported, unfamiliar built on pre-existing knowledge
  27. 27. Implications for Teaching 27 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them.
  28. 28. Implications for Teaching 28 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them. Designing Classroom Environments Schools and classrooms must be learner centered.
  29. 29. Key Finding #2 29 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application.
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. Implications for Teaching 31 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge.
  32. 32. Implications for Teaching 32 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. Designing Classroom Environments To provide a knowledge-centered environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like. Development of Expertise Key Finding #3: metacognition
  33. 33. Development of Expertise 33 aware unaware novice expert Behaviour Level of Expertise Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2000)
  34. 34. Development of Expertise 34 Behaviour Level of Expertise 1 aware unaware novice expert Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2000)
  35. 35. Development of Expertise 35 Behaviour Level of Expertise 1 2 aware unaware novice expert Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2000)
  36. 36. Development of Expertise 36 Behaviour Level of Expertise 1 2 3 aware unaware novice expert Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2000)
  37. 37. Development of Expertise 37 Behaviour Level of Expertise 1 2 3 4 aware unaware novice expert Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2000)
  38. 38. Development of Expertise 38 Behaviour Level of Expertise 2 3 aware unaware novice expert Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2000)
  39. 39. Development of Expertise 39 Behaviour Level of Expertise 1 2 3 4 5 aware unaware novice expert Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2000)
  40. 40. Development of Expertise 40 Behaviour Level of Expertise 2 3 4 aware unaware novice expert Adapted from Sprague & Stewart (2000)
  41. 41. Think about the place you’re living… How many windows are there? As you counted the windows, did you see them from inside or outside? 41 4 5
  42. 42. Key Finding #3 42 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.
  43. 43. Implications for Teaching 43 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject areas.
  44. 44. Implications for Teaching 44 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject areas. Designing Classroom Environments Formative assessments — ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and students — are essential.
  45. 45. Why do you think instructors, speakers, helpdesk staff,… ask “Any questions?” to signal they’re at the end of a section or concept so they can check if it’s okay to continue so they can check if the audience understands so the audience can check if they’re ready to continue 45 “What questions do you have for me?” …and give them enough time to ask a useful question hand gestures by H Alberto Gongora CC-BY
  46. 46. To choose the right tool for the job, consider  what do you mean by “right”? efficiency o quality of output o urgency skill of “user” o required training o opportunity for learning  right for who?  how people learn: we need to create opportunities for individuals to construct their own understanding 46   
  47. 47. The right Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Director, Centre for Teaching and Learning, and Senior Advisor for Learning Initiatives, UBC Okanagan peter.newbury@ubc.ca peternewbury.org @polarisdotca October 31, 2017 47  tool for the job  job for the tool 
  48. 48. References Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Lionni, L. (1970). Fish is Fish. New York, NY:Pantheon Books. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.), Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Sprague, J., & Stuart, D. (2000). The speaker’s handbook. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. Wieman, C.E. (2014). Large-scale comparison of science teaching methods sends clear message. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 11 (23), 8319-8320. 48

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