MEDA 5700The Instructional Role of Educational Media and Educational Technology – Week 2 Michelle Childress, M.S. Ed. ―WHY DO PEOPLE FALL ASLEEP IN CLASS? IT HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH HOW MUCH SLEEP THEY GOT THE NIGHT BEFORE, WHETHER OR NOT THEY ARE SICK, OR IF THEY ARE HUNG OVER. THE ANSWER CAN BE SUMMED UP IN TWO WORDS. PERCEIVED MEANINGLESSNESS. THIS IS A KEY TO DESIGNING ENGAGING LEARNING EXPERIENCES.‖
OBJECTIVES FOR THE COURSE Possess a working vocabulary and comprehension of Instructional Design (ID) terms Learn how to design instruction for classrooms, businesses, and many other organizations Shape Instructional Design materials through an understanding of design principles and the development of appropriate practices Critique current literature in the field of Instructional Design Develop, follow, and assess your personal model for Instructional Design
OVERVIEW FOR WEEK 21) Review this PowerPoint (PPT) presentation and read Chapter 1 in your text.2) Read Attachment #1 – Design Models (found on D2L)3) Print and complete Attachment #2 – Your Designer Competencies (found in D2L) and put with your files/notes from this class. It is not necessary to submit this to me.4) Complete Activity #1 and #2 (directions found in this PPT; slide 22 and 24) and submit to the D2L Dropbox by the due date on your course calendar.5) Questions? Contact me via email. I check my email on a daily basis (often multiple times each day).
OVERALL QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER AS ANINSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER1) What will students/participants learn? (Learning Outcomes)2) How will you know if students/participants learned? (Assessment)3) How will you assist students/participants to learn? (Teaching)4) How will technology help students/participants learn? (Technology)5) How will technology use help you reexamine outcomes, assessment, and teaching? Teacher Decision Cycle, Shambaugh & Magliaro
GUIDING STANDARDS FOR TEACHING The teacher understand the concepts, tools for inquiry, and structures for the content being taught and is capable of creating meaningful learning experiences. The teacher understands how students learn and develop and can provide learning opportunities to support intellectual, social, and personal development. The teacher uses an understanding of both individual and group motivation and behavior to create an environment which encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation.
AN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER’S TOOLKIT Definitions and Terms Learning Theories Design Models
DEFINITIONS AND TERMS What is design? “A problem-solving process whichis aimed at changing existing solutions into preferred ones.” – Simon “A goal-directed process to achieve a special purpose.” – Crosshttp://www.instructionaldesign.orgA gathering of instructional designinformation: glossary, models, andnotable designers. graphic created with http://www.wordle.com
DEFINITIONS AND TERMS What is instructional design?―An intellectual process to help teacherssystematically analyze learners‘ needsand construct structured ‗possibilities‘ toresponsively address those needs.‖ – Shambaugh & Magliaro, 1997
LEARNING THEORIES What is learning? What is teaching?
LEARNING THEORIESWhat is learning?Over the last century, three theoretical approaches have providedthe primary guidance for instructional practice. Behaviorism (response acquisition) Cognitive psychology (knowledge acquisition) Constructivism (knowledge construction)
BEHAVIORAL THEORYBehavior theory, or response acquisition, dominated the study ofhuman learning during the first half of the century. Behavioral psychology has the perspective that learning is the acquisition of responses to features in our environment. Learning is achieved through frequent responding and immediate reinforcement of appropriate behaviors. Humans acquire complex processes over time through gradual shaping of desired responses through reinforcement.
BEHAVIORAL THEORYDESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Allows for individual pacing and progress Subject matter has organization which must be programmed to create an appropriate content sequence -- ‗teach first things first‘ Tasks are created which have to be mastered in a correct sequence of observed actions (i.e. math problems) Specific objectives specify the tasks to be mastered. Learning is demonstrated by objective measures in which behavior is defined and assessed by a predetermined behavioral indicator
COGNITIVE THEORYBeginning in the 1960s, learning was defined as knowledgeacquisition which has been dominated by the information-processing model of human memory. Cognitive learning theory examines mental models and processes (i.e. thinking, remembering, and problem-solving). Key memory structures and processes were identified— comparing the human memory system to way a computer processes memory and recall. New information is built onto existing knowledge structures with internal executive control being required to enable the entire system to function efficiently.
COGNITIVE THEORYDESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Instruction is structured and promotes thinking activities to support the development of experts Learning strategies are taught which help the student efficiently process new information or solve a problem Organizers and other instructional aids are used as to structure conceptual knowledge needed to be acquired A conceptual assessment is created which is specific to ensure learner efficiency and assess learning
CONSTRUCTIVISM THEORYSince the 1980s, learning has been depicted as knowledgeconstruction within a constructivist framework, where learningresides primarily with the learner. There is an assumption that all thinking is embedded in particular settings and this, along with learning tools and tasks, must be considered when designing instruction There are different types of constructivism—‘radical‘ views understanding as totally individual; ‗Piagetian‘ sees social interaction as a catalyst; and ‗social constructivism‘ emphasizes the social world to define reality and knowledge Learning goals and activity are the focus within the teacher- student interaction.
CONSTRUCTIVISM THEORYDESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Learners are at the center of the design activity and they are taught to organize new knowledge in memory The curriculum centers around ‗real‘ problems which emerge for the learners during the course Communities of learners exist; teachers and peers assume the role of facilitators Teachers help students engage in authentic activities which are situated in real practice (i.e. reciprocal teaching and cooperative learning) Assessment solves real-life problems and promotes self-reflection; learner responsibility is maximized
FIVE MAJOR THEMES OF CURRENTCONCEPTS OF LEARNING1) Organizing knowledge in memory (short-term or working memory and long-term memory)2) Solving problems (develop strategies)3) Developing learners (developmental differences)4) Learning how to learn (metacognition)5) Living and learning in the world (social and cultural context)6) Learning principles (based on learning theories)
LEARNING THEORIES & VIEWS OF TEACHING Learning Theories Behavioral Theory Cognitive Theory Constructivist Theory Response acquisition knowledge acquisition knowledge construction Behavioral Manager Decision-Maker Reflective Practitioner Views of Teaching
WHAT IS TEACHING?HOW IS LEARNING TRANSFERRED FROM THE CLASSROOM TO OUTSIDEAPPLICATIONSLearner-Centered Knowledge-Centered Teacher learns about the Teacher fosters students‘ students‘ backgrounds, use and understanding of interests, and concerns and current knowledge adapts instruction to meet Teacher understands student interests developmental differences Teacher is also a learner in students and designs actively engaged in inquiry appropriate instruction for answers Teacher is responsive to student needs and makes adjustments for learner difficulties
WHAT IS TEACHING?HOW IS LEARNING TRANSFERRED FROM THE CLASSROOM TO OUTSIDEAPPLICATIONSAssessment-Centered Community-Centered Teacher monitors students‘ Develop a community vision learning with assessment shared by students Teaching goals are aligned Interpersonal skills become with assessment decisions an important content Feedback is consistent, learning tool for groups of constructive, and prompt students Teacher must help students learn the value of diversity in a learning community Empowerment of people
ACTIVITY #1 – EFFECTIVE TEACHINGTask Rationale: This task provides a means ofexamining your views on teaching.Task Guidelines:1. List the top three features that characterize effective teaching.2. List three qualities of effective teaching that you would like to develop as a teacher.3. Elaborate briefly on the reasons why you chose your three features of effective teaching.4. Submit this assignment in the designated D2L Dropbox area. (Use 12 size font, double spacing, and correct use of grammar and spelling.) See the due date on the course calendar.
DESIGN MODELS Teaching models give teaches a conceptual andpractical technology from which to teach Teaching models help to understand the content tobe taught as well as reflect upon one‘s views oflearning, the learner, and the role of the teacher (Shambaugh & Magliaro) A design model helps to serve as a visualrepresentation of the instructional process
ACTIVITY #2 – DESIGN MODELSTask Rationale: This task provides an introductionand evaluation task for different design models.Task Guidelines:1. Review the eight design models from the attachment #1 found on D2L (p.31 – 41).2. Indicate the similarities and differences within the models.3. Indicate the models that are easy or difficult to follow.4. Select one model that you could or would use as an Instructional Designer and explain your reasons for the selection.5. Submit this assignment in the designated D2L Dropbox area. (Use 12 size font, double spacing, and correct use of grammar and spelling.) See the due date on the course calendar.
Credits: PowerPoint: Dr. Tammy Barnes and Allyn & BaconPublishers, 2006 version of textbook: Instructional Design: ASystematic Approach for Reflective Practice (Shambaugh andMagliaro)Images: Clipart Etc – Florida‘s Educational TechnologyClearing House [http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/sitemap/sitemap.php]