Teaching models


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Teaching models

  1. 1. Teaching Models, Approaches, Strategies and Methods
  2. 2. At the end of the lessons, the students should be able to explain 1.Various teaching models, approaches, strategies and methods of teaching 2.The implications of teaching models on teaching and learning objectives
  3. 3. Definitions … Approaches oA set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language, learning, and teaching oThe explanation of why we teach that way Methods oAn overall plan for systematic presentation of language based upon a selected approach oThe way we teach
  4. 4. Definitions … Strategy oa plan or a program that is extensively used to ensure that a certain message or lesson is passed from the teacher to the student oa skill in planning and managing methods and teaching techniques to achieve learning outcomes Techniques oSpecific activities manifested in the classroom that were consistent with a method and harmony with
  5. 5. TEACHING STRATEGY APPROAC H METHOD TECHNIQUES Inductive Deductive Eclective Communicative Comprehension Oral Natural Situational Constructivism Contextual • Direct • Grammar Translation • Audiolingual • Cognitive code • Natural • Translation • Role play • Simulation • Debate • Brainstorming • Elocution • Discussion • Story telling • Reading aloud • Drama • Interview
  6. 6. Teaching Models 1.The Behavioural Systems Family 2.The Information – Processing Family 3.Social Family 4.The Personal Family Tested steps and procedures to effectively generate desired outcomes. Can be classified into 4 categories
  7. 7. 1. The Behavioural Systems Family Drawn from the body of knowledge known as Behaviour Theory Behavioural models of instruction and learning have their origins in classical and operant conditioning environments that stimulate individuals to act in certain ways
  8. 8. 1.The Behavioural Systems Family Educator’s task is to identify the kinds of environmental variables that affect learner behaviour and apply the findings to enhance learning Among the models in this category are Mastery Learning, Learning from Simulations, Direct Learning and Social
  9. 9. 1. The Behavioural Systems Family Mastery Learning  based on the concept that all students can learn when provided with conditions appropriate to their situation  students are to master certain skills – 80% before moving on to new materials  the student must reach a predetermined level of mastery on one unit before they are allowed to
  10. 10. 1. The Behavioural Systems Family Mastery Learning  organizes materials to be learned in relatively small, sequenced instructional modules that are presented to the students with assessments of learning embedded  Learning tasks are regulated according to the progress of the learners and which teach students to pace themselves for optimal performance
  11. 11. 1. The Behavioural Systems Family Learning from Simulations  Allows students to face realistic conditions  Learning by doing  Done through simulations and discussions  Nurtures and instructs a variety of educational outcomes – concepts and skills; cooperation and competition; critical thinking and decision-making.
  12. 12. 2. The Information-Processing Family Emphasize ways of enhancing the learner’s innate drive to make sense of the world by: 1. Acquiring and organizing data 2. Sensing problems and generating solutions to them 3. Developing concepts and language for conveying them
  13. 13. 2. The Information-Processing Family based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli. equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment.
  14. 14. 2. The Information-Processing Family Some models provide the learner with information and concepts Some emphasize concept formation and hypothesis testing Others generate creative thinking A few are designed to enhance general intellectual ability Many are useful for studying the self and society – suitable for achieving the personal and social goals of education
  15. 15. 2. The Information-Processing Family Among the models which are in this category:  Advance Organizer  Inquiry Training  Concept Attainment/Concept Learning/ Concept Formation/ Category Learning
  16. 16. 2. The Information-Processing Family Advance Organizer  an instructional unit that is used before direct instruction, or before a new topic; this is sometimes called a hook, set induction, or anticipatory set  popularized by David Ausubel in 1968  introduced in advance of direct instruction
  17. 17. 2. The Information-Processing Family Advance Organizer  presented at a higher level of abstraction than the information presented later  designed to bridge the gap between what the learner already knows and what she needs to know  use of advance organizers has shown, through several research studies, to improve levels of understanding and recall
  18. 18. 2. The Information-Processing Family Inquiry Training  Is built around sets of puzzling problems which students attempt to solve by collecting and verifying data, developing concepts, and building and testing hypotheses
  19. 19. 2. The Information-Processing Family Inquiry Training  Stemmed from the observations “When children are young the world to them is full of questions to ask. Somewhere along the way, they get the idea that becoming an adult means leaving the world of questioning to enter the world of knowing the answers. ”
  20. 20. 2. The Information-Processing Family Inquiry Training  describes approaches to learning that are based on the investigation of questions, scenarios or problems - often assisted by a facilitator  Inquirers will identify and research issues and questions to develop their knowledge or solutions
  21. 21. 2. The Information-Processing Family Concept Attainment  Provides teachers with a conceptual alternative to induction, enabling them to control data sets and help students develop precise knowledge of concepts  is largely based on the works of the cognitive psychologist Jerome Bruner
  22. 22. 2. The Information-Processing Family Concept Attainment  is a strategy which requires a learner to compare and contrast groups or categories that contain concept- relevant features with groups or categories that do not contain concept-relevant features.  a learning task in which a human or machine learner is trained to classify objects by being shown a set of example objects along with their class labels.