Resources and research
PREVALENCE RATE OF
• According to DSM-5 prevalence rate of intellectual disability is
• Prevalence rate vary bye age.
• Prevalence for severs intellectual disability is approximately 6
PREVALENCE RATE IN ASIA:
The prevalence of intellectual disability in Asia
approximately at 0.06-1.3%, with the exception being
China at 6.68%. The prevalence ranged from 4.4 to 48.3%.
Community management of intellectual disabilities in
Pakistan a mixed methods study done by Mirza, Tareen
A, Davidson LL and Rahman A In Pakistan reported
19.1/1000 for serious ID to 65/1000 for mild ID.
PREVALENCE ESTIMATES FROM DIFFERENT
Countries Prevalence rate (1000 per)
Australia (i998 )
Canada (2002) 7.2
China (2008 ) 9.3
Norway (1998 ) 5.6
USA (1995) 6.2
PREVALENCE RATE ACCORDING TO WHO:
The WHO estimate the prevalence of intellectual disability
to be between 1% and 3%.
It is reported that severe intellectual disability was three
time more South Asian.
ID three time higher among the Asian community in
comparison to the non-Asian community.
Highest prevalence was seen in child and adolescent
A higher ID has been found among male versus female
children, approximately 1:5.1.
ID Two times more in low and middle income countries
compared to high income countries.
INFECTIONS AND TOXIC AGENTS:
Viral encephalitis or genital herpes
Syphilis or HIV-I german measles during pregnancy
Carbon monoxide and lead may cause brain damage during
fetal development or after birth.
An excess of alcohol during pregnancy may lead to
From incompatibility in blood types between mother and
TRAUMA ( PHYSICAL INJURY)
Bleeding within the brain
Radiation may act directly on the fertilized ovum or may
produce gene mutations in the sex cells.
People with intellectual
disability are unable to
integrate behaviors , feeling,
thinking and their actions and
intentions are not aligned for
optimal mental health.
Early disturbance affects the individual’s experience which leads to disturbed
ego structures and ego functions.
Examples include: a poorly harmonic identity, frequent bad control of
impulses, and/or difficulties tolerating loneliness.
People with ID have a higher incidence
Suicide attempts in this population seem
much lower, but they do occur.
Sternlicht et al reviewed the charts for
all residents of a state school for
persons with ID and found 12
adolescents (mean IQ 63, range 48–79),
who had attempted suicide or revealed
PITTSBURGH MEDICAL CENTER STUDY BY
HARDAN AND SAHL
A retrospective study of 233 patients
12-month period (children and
adolescents with developmental disorder)
47 (20%) (34 males, 13 females, mean
age 10, and range 4–18 years) had a past
or present history of suicide ideation or
Out of 47
44 had thoughts of suicide
Eight had made threats
Eight had made a suicidal attempt.
Out of the 47
17 (36%) were mild
Five (11%) were with moderate intellectual disability.
And 22 were affected with severe/profound intellectual disability
but only eight had made attempts.
4/233 cases could be said that the patient had the concept of death.
In this study there was no mention of past or present physical or sexual abuse, but
that does not mean that it did not take place.
PITTSBURGH MEDICAL CENTER STUDY BY
HARDAN AND SAHL
RESEARCHES CONDUCTED ON SUICIDAL RATES OF
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY AFFCETED POPULATION IN
Research conducted reveals that :
80% of people suffering from mental disorders such as
schizophrenia, depression & mainly with intellectual disability
who commit suicide are the ones who are living in
Low & middle-income cities.
Another research reveals that:
10%–66% suffers from mild to moderate intellectual
0.1% from severe disability
IS SUICIDAL RISKS HIGHER IN MALES OR FEMALES? W.R.T
INTERNATIONAL & PAKISTANI STUDY:
A 35-year follow-up study from Finland
That the suicidal rates are significantly low
males with IDD, at only one-third of the
general population risk
females with IDD are at higher suicide risk in
Study conducted in Faisalabad (PAKISTAN)
(1998 to 2001) revealed
That the suicide rate of 1.12 per 100 000 was
measured which had:
male preponderance as compared to women.
The peak incidence was:
more in men aged 20–29 years.
RESOURCE CENTERS AND RESEARCH
More than two fifths of the total disabilities are due to mental illnesses.
Between 5-15 % of people with an intellectual disability show behaviors of concern.
Out of which only 2-20 % actually receive any kind of behavioral support.
RESOURCE CENTERS AND RESEARCHES:
In order to help the intellectually disabled
people to be able to live independently a
number of schools, institutes and organizations
have been set up to provide them with the
Aim: To create awareness.
PARENTS AS PARTNERS:
Parents to be well versed of their child’s
To be able to provide a wealth of
information for the planning of the child’s
Parents’ perspective on child’s intellectual
disability: a case study of Khyber
The more you know the better advocate
you can be for your child
Give Your child Their space
Provide guidance when it’s needed
Stay involved and build social skills of your child
Get to know other parents of intellectually disabled children
TIPS FOR TEACHERS:
Learn as much as you can about intellectual disability
Recognize that you can make an enormous difference in this
Be a part of student’s IEP team, and If you are not part of the
student’s IEP team, ask for a copy of his or her IEP
Be as concrete as possible
Break longer, new tasks into small steps
Teach the student life skills
Work together with the student’s parents and other school
TIPS FOR PARENTS:
Meet with the school and develop an IEP to address your child’s
Learn about intellectual disability
Be patient, be hopeful
Give your child chores
Give your child frequent feedback.
Find out what skills your child is learning at school.
Take pleasure in your beautiful one