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INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY
GROUP MEMBERS:
 Anoosha Mumtaz
 Nimra Parveez
 Pakeeza Arif
 Sarah Tariq
 Sehar Eida
 Urooj Pervaiz
OBJECTIVES:
Prevalence
Etiology
Suicide risk
Resources and research
Case dealing
PREVALENCE RATE OF
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY:
• According to DSM-5 prevalence rate of intellectual disability is
approximate...
PREVALENCE RATE IN ASIA:
 The prevalence of intellectual disability in Asia
approximately at 0.06-1.3%, with the exceptio...
PREVALENCE ESTIMATES FROM DIFFERENT
COUNTRIES:
Countries Prevalence rate (1000 per)
Australia (i998 )
3.3
Canada (2002) 7....
PREVALENCE RATE ACCORDING TO WHO:
 The WHO estimate the prevalence of intellectual disability
to be between 1% and 3%.
 ...
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS:
 Highest prevalence was seen in child and adolescent
population.
 A higher ID has been found among ...
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS:
Etiology
INFECTIONS AND TOXIC AGENTS:
 Viral encephalitis or genital herpes
 Syphilis or HIV-I german measles during pregnancy
 ...
TRAUMA ( PHYSICAL INJURY)
Bleeding within the brain
Hypoxia
IONIZING RADIATIONS:
 Radiation may act directly on the fertilized ovum or may
produce gene mutations in the sex cells.
MALNUTRITION:
 Protein deficiency
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:
 Poverty
 Family history
BEHAVIORAL
 Impulse control -> frustration tolerance
 Low self esteem
GESTALT:
People with intellectual
disability are unable to
integrate behaviors , feeling,
thinking and their actions and
i...
PSYCHOANALYTIC
 Early disturbance affects the individual’s experience which leads to disturbed
ego structures and ego fun...
SUICIDAL RISKS
 People with ID have a higher incidence
of depression
 Suicide attempts in this population seem
much lower, but they do ...
PITTSBURGH MEDICAL CENTER STUDY BY
HARDAN AND SAHL
 A retrospective study of 233 patients
 12-month period (children and...
 Out of 47
 44 had thoughts of suicide
 Eight had made threats
 Eight had made a suicidal attempt.
 Out of the 47
 1...
RESEARCHES CONDUCTED ON SUICIDAL RATES OF
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY AFFCETED POPULATION IN
PAKISTAN:
 Research conducted re...
IS SUICIDAL RISKS HIGHER IN MALES OR FEMALES? W.R.T
INTERNATIONAL & PAKISTANI STUDY:
A 35-year follow-up study from Finlan...
RESOURCE CENTERS AND
RESEARCHES
RESOURCE CENTERS AND RESEARCH
 More than two fifths of the total disabilities are due to mental illnesses.
 Between 5-15...
RESOURCE CENTERS AND RESEARCHES:
 In order to help the intellectually disabled
people to be able to live independently a
...
PARENTS AS PARTNERS:
 Parents to be well versed of their child’s
disability.
 To be able to provide a wealth of
informat...
AREAS OF FOCUS
FACILITIES AVAILABLE
Individualized educational program, communication, vocational training, speech therapy,
social traini...
People with intellectual disabilities if receive adequate
guidance and support can make great use of their abilities
and s...
CASE DEALING
PREVENTIVE CARE:
 Adaptive equipment
 Written plans
 Psychological treatments
CASE MANAGEMENT:
 Family support
 Vocational programs
 Day programs
 Residential options
 Early intervention
 Specia...
The more you know the better advocate
you can be for your child
 Give Your child Their space
 Provide guidance when it’s...
INDIVIDUALIZED FAMILY SERVICES
PLAN
SPECIAL EDUCATION AND RELATED
SERVICES
TRANSITION PLANNING:
TIPS FOR TEACHERS:
 Learn as much as you can about intellectual disability
 Recognize that you can make an enormous diff...
TIPS FOR PARENTS:
 Meet with the school and develop an IEP to address your child’s
needs
 Learn about intellectual disab...
Intellectual Disability
Intellectual Disability
Intellectual Disability
Intellectual Disability
Intellectual Disability
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Intellectual Disability

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Intellectual Disability

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Intellectual Disability

  1. 1. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY
  2. 2. GROUP MEMBERS:  Anoosha Mumtaz  Nimra Parveez  Pakeeza Arif  Sarah Tariq  Sehar Eida  Urooj Pervaiz
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES: Prevalence Etiology Suicide risk Resources and research Case dealing
  4. 4. PREVALENCE RATE OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: • According to DSM-5 prevalence rate of intellectual disability is approximately 1%. • Prevalence rate vary bye age. • Prevalence for severs intellectual disability is approximately 6 per 1000.
  5. 5. PREVALENCE RATE IN ASIA:  The prevalence of intellectual disability in Asia approximately at 0.06-1.3%, with the exception being China at 6.68%. The prevalence ranged from 4.4 to 48.3%.  Community management of intellectual disabilities in Pakistan a mixed methods study done by Mirza, Tareen A, Davidson LL and Rahman A In Pakistan reported 19.1/1000 for serious ID to 65/1000 for mild ID.
  6. 6. PREVALENCE ESTIMATES FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES: Countries Prevalence rate (1000 per) Australia (i998 ) 3.3 Canada (2002) 7.2 China (2008 ) 9.3 Norway (1998 ) 5.6 USA (1995) 6.2
  7. 7. PREVALENCE RATE ACCORDING TO WHO:  The WHO estimate the prevalence of intellectual disability to be between 1% and 3%.  It is reported that severe intellectual disability was three time more South Asian.  ID three time higher among the Asian community in comparison to the non-Asian community.
  8. 8. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS:  Highest prevalence was seen in child and adolescent population.  A higher ID has been found among male versus female children, approximately 1:5.1.  ID Two times more in low and middle income countries compared to high income countries.
  9. 9. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS:
  10. 10. Etiology
  11. 11. INFECTIONS AND TOXIC AGENTS:  Viral encephalitis or genital herpes  Syphilis or HIV-I german measles during pregnancy  Carbon monoxide and lead may cause brain damage during fetal development or after birth.  An excess of alcohol during pregnancy may lead to congenital malformations  From incompatibility in blood types between mother and fetus
  12. 12. TRAUMA ( PHYSICAL INJURY) Bleeding within the brain Hypoxia
  13. 13. IONIZING RADIATIONS:  Radiation may act directly on the fertilized ovum or may produce gene mutations in the sex cells.
  14. 14. MALNUTRITION:  Protein deficiency
  15. 15. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:  Poverty  Family history
  16. 16. BEHAVIORAL  Impulse control -> frustration tolerance  Low self esteem
  17. 17. GESTALT: People with intellectual disability are unable to integrate behaviors , feeling, thinking and their actions and intentions are not aligned for optimal mental health.
  18. 18. PSYCHOANALYTIC  Early disturbance affects the individual’s experience which leads to disturbed ego structures and ego functions. Examples include: a poorly harmonic identity, frequent bad control of impulses, and/or difficulties tolerating loneliness.
  19. 19. SUICIDAL RISKS
  20. 20.  People with ID have a higher incidence of depression  Suicide attempts in this population seem much lower, but they do occur.  Sternlicht et al reviewed the charts for all residents of a state school for persons with ID and found 12 adolescents (mean IQ 63, range 48–79), who had attempted suicide or revealed suicidal ideation. SUICIDAL RISKS
  21. 21. PITTSBURGH MEDICAL CENTER STUDY BY HARDAN AND SAHL  A retrospective study of 233 patients  12-month period (children and adolescents with developmental disorder)  47 (20%) (34 males, 13 females, mean age 10, and range 4–18 years) had a past or present history of suicide ideation or attempt .
  22. 22.  Out of 47  44 had thoughts of suicide  Eight had made threats  Eight had made a suicidal attempt.  Out of the 47  17 (36%) were mild  Five (11%) were with moderate intellectual disability.  And 22 were affected with severe/profound intellectual disability  but only eight had made attempts.  4/233 cases could be said that the patient had the concept of death.  In this study there was no mention of past or present physical or sexual abuse, but that does not mean that it did not take place. PITTSBURGH MEDICAL CENTER STUDY BY HARDAN AND SAHL
  23. 23. RESEARCHES CONDUCTED ON SUICIDAL RATES OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY AFFCETED POPULATION IN PAKISTAN:  Research conducted reveals that :  80% of people suffering from mental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression & mainly with intellectual disability who commit suicide are the ones who are living in  Low & middle-income cities.  Another research reveals that:  10%–66% suffers from mild to moderate intellectual disability  0.1% from severe disability
  24. 24. IS SUICIDAL RISKS HIGHER IN MALES OR FEMALES? W.R.T INTERNATIONAL & PAKISTANI STUDY: A 35-year follow-up study from Finland reveals:  That the suicidal rates are significantly low among :  males with IDD, at only one-third of the general population risk WHILE  females with IDD are at higher suicide risk in general. Study conducted in Faisalabad (PAKISTAN) (1998 to 2001) revealed  That the suicide rate of 1.12 per 100 000 was measured which had:  male preponderance as compared to women.  The peak incidence was:  more in men aged 20–29 years.
  25. 25. RESOURCE CENTERS AND RESEARCHES
  26. 26. RESOURCE CENTERS AND RESEARCH  More than two fifths of the total disabilities are due to mental illnesses.  Between 5-15 % of people with an intellectual disability show behaviors of concern.  Out of which only 2-20 % actually receive any kind of behavioral support.
  27. 27. RESOURCE CENTERS AND RESEARCHES:  In order to help the intellectually disabled people to be able to live independently a number of schools, institutes and organizations have been set up to provide them with the required facilities.  Aim: To create awareness.
  28. 28. PARENTS AS PARTNERS:  Parents to be well versed of their child’s disability.  To be able to provide a wealth of information for the planning of the child’s educational journey.  Parents’ perspective on child’s intellectual disability: a case study of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan.[University of Peshawar]
  29. 29. AREAS OF FOCUS
  30. 30. FACILITIES AVAILABLE Individualized educational program, communication, vocational training, speech therapy, social training.
  31. 31. People with intellectual disabilities if receive adequate guidance and support can make great use of their abilities and skills.
  32. 32. CASE DEALING
  33. 33. PREVENTIVE CARE:  Adaptive equipment  Written plans  Psychological treatments
  34. 34. CASE MANAGEMENT:  Family support  Vocational programs  Day programs  Residential options  Early intervention  Special education  Transition services
  35. 35. The more you know the better advocate you can be for your child  Give Your child Their space  Provide guidance when it’s needed  Stay involved and build social skills of your child  Get to know other parents of intellectually disabled children
  36. 36. INDIVIDUALIZED FAMILY SERVICES PLAN
  37. 37. SPECIAL EDUCATION AND RELATED SERVICES
  38. 38. TRANSITION PLANNING:
  39. 39. TIPS FOR TEACHERS:  Learn as much as you can about intellectual disability  Recognize that you can make an enormous difference in this student’s life!  Be a part of student’s IEP team, and If you are not part of the student’s IEP team, ask for a copy of his or her IEP  Be as concrete as possible  Break longer, new tasks into small steps  immediate feedback  Teach the student life skills  Work together with the student’s parents and other school personnel
  40. 40. TIPS FOR PARENTS:  Meet with the school and develop an IEP to address your child’s needs  Learn about intellectual disability  Be patient, be hopeful  Give your child chores  Give your child frequent feedback.  Find out what skills your child is learning at school.  Parents Group  Take pleasure in your beautiful one

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