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ALBERT BANDURA
presented to: Mam Rikza
Presented By: Muqadas zara ,zunaira,Taha,Arooj younas
Introduction
One of the key concepts Bandura introduced is self-efficacy,
which refers to an individual's belief in their ability to accomplish
tasks and achieve goals.
He proposed that self-efficacy influences how people think, feel,
motivate themselves, and behave.
High self-efficacy is associated with perseverance, resilience,
and a greater likelihood of success,
while low self-efficacy may lead to feelings of helplessness and
decreased motivation.
Albert Bandura is a prominent figure in psychology, particularly known for his
contributions to personality theory and social cognitive theory. Born in 1925,
Bandura's work has had a profound impact on understanding how individuals
develop and express their personalities.He is most widely known for his Bobo
Doll study.
Bandura's social cognitive theory emphasizes the importance of cognitive
processes, observational learning, and environmental factors in shaping
personality. According to this theory, individuals learn not only through direct
experiences but also by observing and modeling the behavior of others.This
notion challenged earlier behaviorist views that focused solely on the role of
reinforcement in learning.
Bandura's research, including the famous Bobo doll
experiments, demonstrated how observational
learning and modeling influence behavior.
These experiments showed that individuals,
particularly children, imitate the behaviors they
observe in others, even if those behaviors are
aggressive.
Observation
Imitation
Modeling
 Who Develop Social learning
Theory?
The concept was theorized by psychologist
Albert Bandura and combined ideas behind
behaviorist and cognitive
learning approaches.Psychologist Albert
Bandura and Robert Sears proposed the
social learning theory as an alternative to the
previous work of fellow psychologist B.F.
Skinner, was famous as a proponent of
the behaviourist theory.
.The concept of social learning theory:
proposed by Albert Bandura, revolves around the idea that individuals
learn by observing others and imitating their behaviors. Here are the key comp
1. Observational Learning: People learn through observation, imitation, and
modeling of behaviors demonstrated by others in their environment.
2. Modeling: Individuals are more likely to imitate behaviors they have observed
in others, especially if the model is someone they perceive as similar,
competent, or prestigious.
3. Vicarious Reinforcement and Punishment:Observers learn from the
consequences experienced by others for their behaviors. If they see someone
being rewarded or punished for a particular behavior, they are more likely to
adopt or avoid that behavior accordingly.
4.Self-Efficacy:
Central to Bandura's theory is the concept of self-efficacy, which
refers to an individual's belief in their own capability to perform tasks
and achieve goals. Higher levels of self-efficacy lead to increased
motivation, effort, and persistence in goal-directed activities.
5.Reciprocal Determinism:
Behavior, environment, and personal factors interact in a
dynamic and reciprocal manner.This means that individuals
influence and are influenced by their environment and their own
actions, leading to a continuous cycle of behavior change.
Observational Learning Process:
The process of observational learning according to Bandura:
Attention:
The first step in observational learning is paying attention to the
model's behavior.This attention can be influenced by various factors
such as the characteristics of the model (e.g., status, similarity to the
observer), the complexity of the behavior, and the environment.
Retention: After paying attention to the model, the observer must
retain the information about the behavior in memory.This involves
encoding the observed behavior into memory structures that can be
retrieved later.
The experiment was conduced because the
Social learning theory explains human
behavior through observation and imitation.
The theory states that humans learn socially,
not just intellectually.This means we learn
from our peers, parents, teachers, coaches,
etc., r
Experiment Center
Point
Bandura was a psychologist who studied human behavior. He is
most widely known for his Bobo Doll study. In these
experiments, Bandura had children watch adults model positive
and negative behaviors towards a toy balloon resembling a
clown. In some cases, the adults were aggressive and violently
beat the doll. After observing this footage, the children were
given hammers and asked to interact with the doll. Most children
who witnessed the aggressive behavior towards the doll also
acted violently towards it, while most children who witnessed
positive, non-aggressive behavior responded less aggressively.
Bandura concluded that the children learned their social
behaviors through observation.
PROCEDURE
By: Emman
Roll no: 05
Bobo Doll Experiment was conducted by a
famous Psychologist Albert Bandura in 1961
at Standford University . According to Albert
Bandura, “observation” and “modelling” plays
a crucial role in “social learning.”
In this experiment,he wanted to study that to
which extent a behaviour is learnt via
“observation” and “Modelling”.
The experiment was conducted into 3 stages
Modelling
Aggression Arousal
Delayed Imitation
Total participants = 72 (24 in each group
which were further divided into subgroups
12 boys and 12 girls )
Age Range: 3 to 6 yrs.
Stage 1 Modelling
Three groups were included along with a
control group.
These groups were divided again into groups
of boys and girls. Each of these subgroups was
then divided so that half of the participants
would be exposed to a same-sex adult model
and the other half would be exposed to an
opposite-sex adult model.
Playroom:
Each child was tested individually to ensure
that their behavior would not be influenced by
other children. .The child was first brought
into a playroom where there were a number
of different activities to explore.The
experimenter then invited the adult model
into the playroom.
Then, an adult model entered the room.There
were different conditions:
*Aggressive model
*Non Aggressive model
Group 1
24 children (12 boys and 12 girls) watched a
male or female model behaving aggressively
towards a toy called a “Bobo doll”.The adult
attacked the Bobo doll in a distinctive manner
– used a hammer in some cases, and in others
threw the doll in the air and shouted “Pow,
Boom.”
Group 2
Another 24 children (12 boys and 12 girls)
were exposed to a non-aggressive model who
played in a quiet and subdued manner for 10
minutes (playing with a tinker toy set and
ignoring the bobo-doll).
Group 3
The final 24 children (12 boys and 12 girls)
were used as a control group and not
exposed to any model at all.
Stage 2 Aggression Arousal
All the children (including the control group)
were subjected to “mild aggression arousal.”.
After the ten-minute exposure to the adult
model, each child was then taken to another
room that contained a number of appealing
toys including a doll set, fire engine, and toy
airplane.
The children were permitted to play for a
brief two minutes, then told they were no
longer allowed to play with any of these
tempting toys.The purpose of this was to
build up frustration levels among the
young participants.
Stage 3 Delayed Imitation
Finally, each child was taken to the last
experimental room.This room contained a
number of “aggressive” toys including a
mallet, a tether ball with a face painted on it,
dart guns, and, of course, a Bobo doll.The
room also included several “non-aggressive”
toys including crayons, paper, dolls, plastic
animals, and trucks.
Each child was then allowed to play in this
room for a period of 20 minutes. During
this time, researchers observed the child’s
behavior from behind a one-way mirror
and judged each child’s levels of
aggression.
The children who watched the adult figures
hitting and punching the Bobo Doll also
started doing the same, punching and using
harsh words toward that bobo doll.
Contrary to that the children who saw the
adults of non aggressive behaviour didn’t
notice the Bobo Doll and diverted their
frustration towards the other toys in the
room.
Predictions
Bandura made several key predictions about
what would occur during the Bobo doll
experiment.
>Boys would behave more aggressively than
girls.
>Children who observed an adult acting
aggressively would be likely to act
aggressively, even when the adult model was
not present.
>Children would be more likely to imitate
models of the same sex rather than models of
the opposite sex.
>The children who observed the non-
aggressive adult model would be less
aggressive than the children who observed
the aggressive model; the non-aggressive
exposure group would also be less aggressive
than the control group.
Bobo Doll Experiment 2 (1963)
The second Bobo Doll Experiment was
conducted right after two years in 1963.But
this time,there is Conditioning along with the
Modelling to see either Consequences exhibit
any impact on behaviour or not.
In this experiment, Bandura showed children a
video of a model acting aggressively toward the
Bobo doll.Three groups of children individually
observed a different final scene in the video.The
children in the control group did not see any scene
other than the model hitting the Bobo doll. In
another group, the children observed the model
getting rewarded for their actions.The last group
saw the model getting punished and warned not to
act aggressively toward the Bobo doll.
All three groups of children were then
individually moved to a room with toys and a
Bobo doll. Bandura observed that the children
who saw the model receiving a punishment
were less likely to be aggressive toward the
doll.
A second observation was especially
interesting.When researchers asked the
children to act aggressively toward the Bobo
doll, as they did in the movie, the children did.
Consequences simply influenced whether or
not the children decided to perform the learned
behaviors.The memory of the aggression was
still present, whether or not the child saw that
the aggression was rewarded or punished.
Ethics
By : Amna Saleem
Roll no: 04
 Ethics followed by Bobo Doll Experiment
Consent
The primary ethical concern in performing
psychological experiments on children is the issue
of consent.
While it is possible for parents or guardians to
give consent on behalf of their children,
Bandura's paper suggests that consent was
obtained only from the teachers of the children
involved.
Confidentiality
Because the subjects in this case were
all children, all this information should have
remained confidential. Instead, videos of
the children undertaking the experiment
were published and widely circulated.This
violates current ethical standards for both
consent and privacy.
Safety
The most basic rule of ethics in human
experimentation is to minimise possible harm to
the subjects.
Bandura's stated goal in the experiment was
to increase the aggressive tendencies in young
children by exposing them to aggressive role
models.This sort of behavioural modification
would be considered mental harm by modern
ethical codes, especially if the subjects are young
children.
 Social Learning theory experiment role
in social psychology:
The social learning theory is still commonly used in
social psychology today and relates with other
behaviorist theories such as nature versus nurture,
symbolic interaction, situated
learning, reinforcement learning and social
development.
The theory states that humans learn socially, not
just intellectually.This means we learn from our
peers, parents, teachers, coaches, etc., rather
than solely from books.
It helps us understand how our environment and
the people around us shape our behavior. It helps
explain how individuals develop new skills and
behaviors by paying attention to the behavior of
others and then trying to reproduce that
behavior themselves.
References
 https://www.techtarget.com/whatis/defin
ition/social-learning-
theory#:~:text=Social%20learning%20th
eory%20is%20the,behaviorist%20and%2
0cognitive%20learning%20approaches.
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobo_doll_ex
periment#:~:text=Experiment%20of%2019
65%3A%20reinforcement%20and%20puni
shment,-
Introduction&text=For%20his%201965%20
study%2C%20Albert,be%20reinforced%20
for%20said%20behaviour.
 Heyes, C. (2012).What's social about
social learning? Journal of Comparative
Psychology, 126(2), 193–
202. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025180
https://youtu.be/dmBqwWlJg8U?si=kzIp9
I0t8UBYzIDt

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Social Learning Theory presentation.pptx

  • 1. ALBERT BANDURA presented to: Mam Rikza Presented By: Muqadas zara ,zunaira,Taha,Arooj younas
  • 3. One of the key concepts Bandura introduced is self-efficacy, which refers to an individual's belief in their ability to accomplish tasks and achieve goals. He proposed that self-efficacy influences how people think, feel, motivate themselves, and behave. High self-efficacy is associated with perseverance, resilience, and a greater likelihood of success, while low self-efficacy may lead to feelings of helplessness and decreased motivation.
  • 4. Albert Bandura is a prominent figure in psychology, particularly known for his contributions to personality theory and social cognitive theory. Born in 1925, Bandura's work has had a profound impact on understanding how individuals develop and express their personalities.He is most widely known for his Bobo Doll study. Bandura's social cognitive theory emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes, observational learning, and environmental factors in shaping personality. According to this theory, individuals learn not only through direct experiences but also by observing and modeling the behavior of others.This notion challenged earlier behaviorist views that focused solely on the role of reinforcement in learning.
  • 5. Bandura's research, including the famous Bobo doll experiments, demonstrated how observational learning and modeling influence behavior. These experiments showed that individuals, particularly children, imitate the behaviors they observe in others, even if those behaviors are aggressive.
  • 7.  Who Develop Social learning Theory?
  • 8. The concept was theorized by psychologist Albert Bandura and combined ideas behind behaviorist and cognitive learning approaches.Psychologist Albert Bandura and Robert Sears proposed the social learning theory as an alternative to the previous work of fellow psychologist B.F. Skinner, was famous as a proponent of the behaviourist theory.
  • 9. .The concept of social learning theory: proposed by Albert Bandura, revolves around the idea that individuals learn by observing others and imitating their behaviors. Here are the key comp 1. Observational Learning: People learn through observation, imitation, and modeling of behaviors demonstrated by others in their environment. 2. Modeling: Individuals are more likely to imitate behaviors they have observed in others, especially if the model is someone they perceive as similar, competent, or prestigious. 3. Vicarious Reinforcement and Punishment:Observers learn from the consequences experienced by others for their behaviors. If they see someone being rewarded or punished for a particular behavior, they are more likely to adopt or avoid that behavior accordingly.
  • 10. 4.Self-Efficacy: Central to Bandura's theory is the concept of self-efficacy, which refers to an individual's belief in their own capability to perform tasks and achieve goals. Higher levels of self-efficacy lead to increased motivation, effort, and persistence in goal-directed activities. 5.Reciprocal Determinism: Behavior, environment, and personal factors interact in a dynamic and reciprocal manner.This means that individuals influence and are influenced by their environment and their own actions, leading to a continuous cycle of behavior change.
  • 11. Observational Learning Process: The process of observational learning according to Bandura: Attention: The first step in observational learning is paying attention to the model's behavior.This attention can be influenced by various factors such as the characteristics of the model (e.g., status, similarity to the observer), the complexity of the behavior, and the environment. Retention: After paying attention to the model, the observer must retain the information about the behavior in memory.This involves encoding the observed behavior into memory structures that can be retrieved later.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. The experiment was conduced because the Social learning theory explains human behavior through observation and imitation. The theory states that humans learn socially, not just intellectually.This means we learn from our peers, parents, teachers, coaches, etc., r
  • 16.
  • 18. Bandura was a psychologist who studied human behavior. He is most widely known for his Bobo Doll study. In these experiments, Bandura had children watch adults model positive and negative behaviors towards a toy balloon resembling a clown. In some cases, the adults were aggressive and violently beat the doll. After observing this footage, the children were given hammers and asked to interact with the doll. Most children who witnessed the aggressive behavior towards the doll also acted violently towards it, while most children who witnessed positive, non-aggressive behavior responded less aggressively. Bandura concluded that the children learned their social behaviors through observation.
  • 20. Bobo Doll Experiment was conducted by a famous Psychologist Albert Bandura in 1961 at Standford University . According to Albert Bandura, “observation” and “modelling” plays a crucial role in “social learning.” In this experiment,he wanted to study that to which extent a behaviour is learnt via “observation” and “Modelling”.
  • 21. The experiment was conducted into 3 stages Modelling Aggression Arousal Delayed Imitation Total participants = 72 (24 in each group which were further divided into subgroups 12 boys and 12 girls ) Age Range: 3 to 6 yrs.
  • 22. Stage 1 Modelling Three groups were included along with a control group. These groups were divided again into groups of boys and girls. Each of these subgroups was then divided so that half of the participants would be exposed to a same-sex adult model and the other half would be exposed to an opposite-sex adult model.
  • 23. Playroom: Each child was tested individually to ensure that their behavior would not be influenced by other children. .The child was first brought into a playroom where there were a number of different activities to explore.The experimenter then invited the adult model into the playroom.
  • 24. Then, an adult model entered the room.There were different conditions: *Aggressive model *Non Aggressive model
  • 25. Group 1 24 children (12 boys and 12 girls) watched a male or female model behaving aggressively towards a toy called a “Bobo doll”.The adult attacked the Bobo doll in a distinctive manner – used a hammer in some cases, and in others threw the doll in the air and shouted “Pow, Boom.”
  • 26. Group 2 Another 24 children (12 boys and 12 girls) were exposed to a non-aggressive model who played in a quiet and subdued manner for 10 minutes (playing with a tinker toy set and ignoring the bobo-doll).
  • 27. Group 3 The final 24 children (12 boys and 12 girls) were used as a control group and not exposed to any model at all.
  • 28. Stage 2 Aggression Arousal All the children (including the control group) were subjected to “mild aggression arousal.”. After the ten-minute exposure to the adult model, each child was then taken to another room that contained a number of appealing toys including a doll set, fire engine, and toy airplane.
  • 29. The children were permitted to play for a brief two minutes, then told they were no longer allowed to play with any of these tempting toys.The purpose of this was to build up frustration levels among the young participants.
  • 30. Stage 3 Delayed Imitation Finally, each child was taken to the last experimental room.This room contained a number of “aggressive” toys including a mallet, a tether ball with a face painted on it, dart guns, and, of course, a Bobo doll.The room also included several “non-aggressive” toys including crayons, paper, dolls, plastic animals, and trucks.
  • 31. Each child was then allowed to play in this room for a period of 20 minutes. During this time, researchers observed the child’s behavior from behind a one-way mirror and judged each child’s levels of aggression.
  • 32. The children who watched the adult figures hitting and punching the Bobo Doll also started doing the same, punching and using harsh words toward that bobo doll. Contrary to that the children who saw the adults of non aggressive behaviour didn’t notice the Bobo Doll and diverted their frustration towards the other toys in the room.
  • 33. Predictions Bandura made several key predictions about what would occur during the Bobo doll experiment.
  • 34. >Boys would behave more aggressively than girls. >Children who observed an adult acting aggressively would be likely to act aggressively, even when the adult model was not present.
  • 35. >Children would be more likely to imitate models of the same sex rather than models of the opposite sex. >The children who observed the non- aggressive adult model would be less aggressive than the children who observed the aggressive model; the non-aggressive exposure group would also be less aggressive than the control group.
  • 37. The second Bobo Doll Experiment was conducted right after two years in 1963.But this time,there is Conditioning along with the Modelling to see either Consequences exhibit any impact on behaviour or not.
  • 38. In this experiment, Bandura showed children a video of a model acting aggressively toward the Bobo doll.Three groups of children individually observed a different final scene in the video.The children in the control group did not see any scene other than the model hitting the Bobo doll. In another group, the children observed the model getting rewarded for their actions.The last group saw the model getting punished and warned not to act aggressively toward the Bobo doll.
  • 39. All three groups of children were then individually moved to a room with toys and a Bobo doll. Bandura observed that the children who saw the model receiving a punishment were less likely to be aggressive toward the doll.
  • 40. A second observation was especially interesting.When researchers asked the children to act aggressively toward the Bobo doll, as they did in the movie, the children did. Consequences simply influenced whether or not the children decided to perform the learned behaviors.The memory of the aggression was still present, whether or not the child saw that the aggression was rewarded or punished.
  • 41.
  • 42. Ethics By : Amna Saleem Roll no: 04
  • 43.  Ethics followed by Bobo Doll Experiment
  • 44. Consent The primary ethical concern in performing psychological experiments on children is the issue of consent. While it is possible for parents or guardians to give consent on behalf of their children, Bandura's paper suggests that consent was obtained only from the teachers of the children involved.
  • 45. Confidentiality Because the subjects in this case were all children, all this information should have remained confidential. Instead, videos of the children undertaking the experiment were published and widely circulated.This violates current ethical standards for both consent and privacy.
  • 46. Safety The most basic rule of ethics in human experimentation is to minimise possible harm to the subjects. Bandura's stated goal in the experiment was to increase the aggressive tendencies in young children by exposing them to aggressive role models.This sort of behavioural modification would be considered mental harm by modern ethical codes, especially if the subjects are young children.
  • 47.  Social Learning theory experiment role in social psychology:
  • 48. The social learning theory is still commonly used in social psychology today and relates with other behaviorist theories such as nature versus nurture, symbolic interaction, situated learning, reinforcement learning and social development.
  • 49. The theory states that humans learn socially, not just intellectually.This means we learn from our peers, parents, teachers, coaches, etc., rather than solely from books. It helps us understand how our environment and the people around us shape our behavior. It helps explain how individuals develop new skills and behaviors by paying attention to the behavior of others and then trying to reproduce that behavior themselves.
  • 53.  Heyes, C. (2012).What's social about social learning? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126(2), 193– 202. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025180