Interviewing
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•
•
•

A conversation with a purpose!
How to conduct an interview is the tricky part
Some describe it as an...
Dramaturgy and Interviewing
• Dramaturgy, as a theoretical perspective,
involves the elements and language of theater
“eve...
Types of Interviewing
1) standardized interview
2) Semistandardized interview
3) Unstandardized interview
Ways to conduct ...
Standardized Interview

Semistandardized
Interview

Unstandardized Interview

• Most formally structured
• No deviations f...
Interview Schedule
• Typically an interview is chosen over
questionnaire when the research requires
follow up.
• What some...
Schedule development
• Start with a sort of outline, listing broad
categories that are relevant to study
• Then REFINE by ...
Problem questions
• Affectively worded questions – arouse negative
connotation, i.e. Why?
-neutralize the question
• Doubl...
Length
Common researchers misconceptions:
-participants will not want to partake in
interviews that last several hours
Or ...
Interviewer as an Actor
• Perform your lines, routines, and movements
appropriately
• Must be aware of what the other acto...
Interviewer as director
• Be conscious of how you perform lines and
move
• Must reflect on each segment as if you ere
outs...
Interviewer as choreographer
• Choreograph your own movements and
gestures
• Script your own responses
The interviewer’s repertoire
• Interviewer may adjust throughout, switching
from role to role
• Interviewers rarely improv...
Persuading a subject
• Novice interviewers often make the mistake of
thinking a subject win not discuss certain topics
• O...
Techniques to get new researcher’s started
• Uncomfortable silences – a technique to consciously
create long, silent pause...
10 commandments
1) Never begin an interview cold
2) Remember your purpose
3) Present a natural front
4) Demonstrate aware ...
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Interview

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Interview

  1. 1. Interviewing • • • • A conversation with a purpose! How to conduct an interview is the tricky part Some describe it as an art rather than a skill While others believe it can be learned with practice Truth to both…
  2. 2. Dramaturgy and Interviewing • Dramaturgy, as a theoretical perspective, involves the elements and language of theater “even in research, the line between performer and audience sometimes blurs, and the whole process becomes a dramatic performance” – Denzin (2006)
  3. 3. Types of Interviewing 1) standardized interview 2) Semistandardized interview 3) Unstandardized interview Ways to conduct an interview… 1) Face-to-face 2) telephone interview 3) Computer assisted interviewing
  4. 4. Standardized Interview Semistandardized Interview Unstandardized Interview • Most formally structured • No deviations from question order • Wording of each question asked exactly as written • No adjusting of level of language • No clarification or answering of questions about the interview • No additional question may be added • Similar in format to a pencil and paper survey • More or less structured • Questions may be reordered during the interview • Wording of questions flexible • Level of language may be adjusted • Interviewer may answer question and make clarifications • Interviewer may add or delete probes to interview between subsequent subjects • Completely unstructured • No set order to any questions • No set wording to any questions • Level of language may be adjusted • Interviewer may answer questions and make clarification • Interviewer may add or delete question between interviews
  5. 5. Interview Schedule • Typically an interview is chosen over questionnaire when the research requires follow up. • What someone ate as opposed to how they make food choices • When determining what type of interview format, you must consider the kinds of question you want to ask AND the type of answers you expect to receive.
  6. 6. Schedule development • Start with a sort of outline, listing broad categories that are relevant to study • Then REFINE by determining: -question order -essential questions -extra questions -throw away questions -probing questions -wording of questions
  7. 7. Problem questions • Affectively worded questions – arouse negative connotation, i.e. Why? -neutralize the question • Double Barreled questions – asks responders to answer 2 question in 1. • Complex questions -keep questions brief • Question sequence - start easy to develop rapport
  8. 8. Length Common researchers misconceptions: -participants will not want to partake in interviews that last several hours Or conversely -short interviews will not provide valuable information
  9. 9. Interviewer as an Actor • Perform your lines, routines, and movements appropriately • Must be aware of what the other actor (interviewee) is doing • Listen carefully to line cues in order to not step on the lines of the interviewee • Remain nonjudgmental
  10. 10. Interviewer as director • Be conscious of how you perform lines and move • Must reflect on each segment as if you ere outside the performance • Must assess the adequacy of your performance • May include demonstrating both verbally and visually that you are empathic
  11. 11. Interviewer as choreographer • Choreograph your own movements and gestures • Script your own responses
  12. 12. The interviewer’s repertoire • Interviewer may adjust throughout, switching from role to role • Interviewers rarely improvise • A new technique should not be tried in a real interview • Not that an interviewer can’t pursue unexpected leads or responses, but that the interviewer should be armed with a series of questions that fit virtually any topic -”who with” “where” “how come” “how often”
  13. 13. Persuading a subject • Novice interviewers often make the mistake of thinking a subject win not discuss certain topics • Often if a subject agrees to an interview, they are willing to share more than you would expect • A novice interviewer will often get shaken or rattled if a subject resists or is skeptical to a line of questioning • Need to develop an interview repertoire – Role play with an experienced interviewer – Practice in front of competent critics
  14. 14. Techniques to get new researcher’s started • Uncomfortable silences – a technique to consciously create long, silent pauses – Allows subject to reflect and associate and then break the silence themselves with appropriate info – Should last about 45 seconds. • Echoing – tendency for interviewer to communicate that they understand - “I know what you mean”, “I understand” • Letting People Talk – not step on the interviewee's lines - adjust pace with the interviewee’s pace
  15. 15. 10 commandments 1) Never begin an interview cold 2) Remember your purpose 3) Present a natural front 4) Demonstrate aware hearing 5) Think about appearances 6) Interview in a comfortable place 7) Don’t be satisfied with monsyllabic answers 8) Be respectful 9) Practice, practice, and practice some more 10) Be cordial and appreciative

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