This slide will guide other researchers that wants to collect data using Interview method. It teaches how to analyse the data as well. This was a presentation that was carried out in our research method class by our group.
1) Definition of interview
1) Types of interview
a) Personal interview
b) Telephone interview
c) Focus Group
d) Depth interview
e) Project techniques
3) Roles of interviewer.
4) How to conduct an interview?
4) How to create interview questions?
5) How to analyze data gathered from an interview?
6) Advantages and disadvantages of interview?
FLOW OF THE PRESENTATION
What is an interview?
•Interview is commonly used survey
method in social sciences.
•It involves the gathering of data
through direct verbal interaction
between the interviewer and
• It is an interactional communication process which
involves the asking of questions by the interviewer
for the specific purpose of obtaining research-relevant
information and answering of questions by the
Types of interview
• A face to face two way communication
between the interviewer and the respondents
• carried out in a planned manner and is referred
to as „structured interview‟.
An interview which all the questions asked are
all planned beforehand.
(cont) Personal interview
(cont) Personal interview
A) Rapport Building
Important for the interviewer to build rapport
with the interviewee.
This will enables greater and easier
communication between the two people.
Interviewer must try to make the respondent
feels comfortable before starting the interview.
(cont.) Personal Interview
interviewer identifying himself by giving him
his name and the purpose of the interview.
technique of encouraging the respondents to
answer completely, freely and relevantly.
(cont.) Personal interview
The interviewer will do the writing of the
response, either during the interview or after
interviewer should thank the respondent and
assure him about the worth of his answers
Assure him the confidentiality of his
Collecting data by asking the interviewee
questions via telephone.
Save time and eliminate the uncomfortable
Focus Group Interview
A research method that brings together a small
group of consumers to discuss the product or
advertising, under the guidance of a trained
(cont.) Focus Group Interview
• Respondents for a focus group interview are
• Members for this interview is normally
between to 5-10, but 6-8 persons per group is
Projective Techniques Interview
• Allow respondents to express themselves in
a different way.
• They speak indirectly by projecting their
thoughts and ideas- by talking about other
people, objects, or situations.
• Provides better understanding about
human needs and emotional values.
Roles of an interviewer
• To locate and enlist cooperation of
- Know how to find respondents, locate them.
- Work on how to find the suitable time when
the respondents are most readily available.
- Motivate respondents to do good job. If the
interviewer does not take the work
seriously, why would the respondent.
- Must be motivated and able to communicate
that motivation to the respondent.
- Must be very attuned and responsive – what
interviewee is doing and saying.
• Clarify any confusions / concerns.
- Interviewers have to be able to think on their
feet. Respondents may raise objections or
concerns that were not anticipated.
- The interviewer has to be able to respond
candidly and informatively.
• Observe quality of responses
- Whether the interview is personal or over the
phone, the interviewer is in the best position to
judge the quality of the information that is
• Conduct a good interview.
- Has to conduct a good interview.
- Every interview has a life of its own. Some
respondents are motivated and attentive, others
are distracted or disinterested. The interviewer
also has good or bad days.
- An ethically sensitive interviewer will not
want to place undue pressure on the person
he/she is talking to.
CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW
• Interviewers must be trained in the procedures
for conducting the specific interview, and these
procedure must be “standardized” so that the
respondents receive as consistent and identical
interviews as possible.
• To schedule the interview, a mutually
convenient time for the potential respondent
and the interviewer must be identified.
• Interviewers should have flexible schedules so they
are available at times convenient for the
• After the interview is scheduled or initiated, it is
necessary to obtain the respondent’s cooperation.
• An advance letter informing the respondent about
the study can be effective in obtaining cooperation.
• The respondents should be informed about the
purposes of the study and the importance of their
• Respondents should not be threatened by the
interview or subsequent use of data.
• Making the respondent informed and
comfortable about the interview does much to
• The interviewer must know the extent of
probing desirable and the extent of
elaboration allowed if the respondent has
• Because interview is a social encounter, it is
important that interviewer establish a good
rapport with the respondent.
• Confidentiality of information should be
assured, and the respondent should not be
threatened by the questions.
• The data-recording procedures used in the
interview should be efficiently structured so that
they do not interfere with the process of
conducting the interview.
• A tape recorder can retain the entire oral
communication, but the interviewer should get the
respondent‟s consent before using one.
KEY STEPS TO CONDUCT AN
• Making contact with interviewee
• Preparing for the interview
- Coming up with questions
• Meeting with your interviewee
• Following up on your interview
SETTING UP THE INTERVIEW
• Contact the potential interviewee in advance
• Be sure that you ask for the interview. This
person is doing you a favour.
• Arrange a specific time and place, and let the
interviewee know how much time it will take.
• Identifying the topic that you will be
discussing during the interview.
PREPARING FOR THE INTERVIEW
• Be sure to write out a list of questions in
• Find out whatever information you can
about the person you’re interviewing.
• Decide which questions are highest priority
if time runs short.
• Decide what your goals are for the
COMING UP WITH QUESTIONS
• Ask yourself : “What is it that I need to
• Write down a list of things that you are hoping
to find out.
• Write a list of questions that you think will
lead to these answers.
• Check the questions carefully to see if the
wording could be offensive to your
• The kind of questions asked in qualitative
interviews are highly variable.
• Kvale (1996) has suggested 9 different kinds
1) Introducing questions : “Have you ever...?”
“Why did you go to...?”
“Please tell me about when your interest in X
2) Follow-up questions: getting the interviewee to
elaborate his / her answer, such as ‘Could you say
some more about that?’; ‘What do you mean by
that.....?’; even ‘Yeeees?’
3) Probing questions: following up what has been said
through direct questioning.
4) Specifying questions : ‘ What did you do then?’;
‘How did X react to what you said?’
5) Direct questions : „Do you find it easy to keep smiling when
„Are you happy with the way you and your husband decide
how money should be spent?‟
Such question are perhaps best left until towards the end of the
interview, in order not to influence the direction of the
interview too much.
6) Indirect questions : „What do most people round here think of
the ways that management treats its staff?‟, followed up by „Is
that the way you feel too?‟, in order to get at the individual‟s
7) Structuring questions : „I would now like to move on
to different topic‟.
8) Silence : Allow pauses to signal that you want to give
the interviewee the opportunity to reflect and amplify
9) Interpreting questions : „Do you mean that your
leadership role has had to change from one of
encouraging others to a more directive one?‟;
• ‘Is it fair to say that what you are suggesting is that
you don’t mind being friendly towards customers
most of the time, but when they are unpleasant or
demanding you find it more difficult?’
FORMULATING QUESTIONS FOR AN
WITH THE RESEARCH
Creating a complete, written copy of the recorded interview by playing
the recording back and typing each word that is spoken on the
recording, noting who spoke which words.
Better: if includes non- verbal communication: gestures and intonations
Can follow transcription conventions.
Consider the following questions
when transcribing data:
•Is special formatting needed to meet the requirements of qualitative
•Will the transcription be verbatim (every utterance recorded) or
only include complete thoughts and useful information?
•How will background noises, interruptions, and silences be recorded, if
•How will non-standard grammar, slang, and dialects be
If you hire a transcriber, explain how to format documents following your
transcription rules. Be sure to check the transcription against the audio recording
for accuracy. Providing transcribers with your interview questions is also helpful.
1)- Exploring the data to become
familiar with the interview
- Identify some patterns across
2) Kristen Exterberg (2002)
suggested that there are two
types of coding: open coding
and close coding
3) Do coding: identify themes
across the interview data by
reading and rereading the data
Do open coding : Make a note of
whatever themes seem to jump
out to you
-4) Require multiple rounds
- You will begin to see some
commonalities in the data
MAKING CONNECTIONS TO THE
DO FOCUS CODING
1) Identify themes that seem to be related, perhaps merging some by
referring back to Research Questions
2) Give each emerged theme a name (code)
Code: A shorthand representation of some more complex set of issues or
1) Identify the passages of data that represent the codes
For example: RQ: What are the major perceptual barriers to bilingual
programs in public schools?
Theme Subcategories Interview Excerpt
Fear 1. Job security “Teacher feel it‟s kind of a one-way system in that
the teachers who are in the all-English program are
fearful at a real basic visceral level that their jobs
and their livelihood are at risk”
2. Lack of knowledge of
“When the child needs to come into the first year
and has 90% in Spanish and 10% in English, it's
easily perceived that we are withholding English
from the child. “
3. Ethnocentric “Based again in the fact that the United States is a
very isolated island in that we are closed in by two
oceans and we have never had the habit of
stretching out beyond our borders much, or
valuing much of what is beyond our borders. We
are xenophobic in that sense. So we haven't
traditionally learned other languages, or been
interested in other languages.”
Berkowitz (1997) suggests considering these
questions when coding qualitative data:
•What common themes emerge in responses about specific
topics? How do these patterns (or lack thereof) help to
illuminate the broader central question(s) or hypotheses?
•Are there deviations from these patterns? If so, are there
any factors that might explain these deviations?
•Are the patterns that emerge similar to the findings of
other studies on the same topic? If not, what might
explain these discrepancies?
Have other’s perspectives
The people will review the transcript and
use the mentioned coding scheme to code
Results are then shared
Any discrepancies are discussed and
Changes in coding scheme may include
additions, deletions, and clarifications.
Finalize the data coded
that have been divided
into themes to produce
Put the cutting passage into each
Can have multiple copies of
transcripts as data that may be
placed into more than one
The data is then reviewed
and an understanding of
each theme is reached
Notes and comments can be
written on the index cards to
denote the researcher’s ideas while
examining the data
Interpret the themes in a way that
contributes to the development of
knowledge, that is in the context of
contextual frameworks or theories
1. Opportunity for Feedback – Interviewer can provide direct feedback
to the respondent, give clarifications and help alleviate any
misconceptions or apprehensions over confidentiality that the
respondent may have in answering the interviewer‟s questions
2. Probing Complex Answers – Interviewers can probe if the
respondent‟s answer is too brief or unclear. This gives interviewers
some flexibility in dealing with unstructured questions and is
especially suited for handling complex questions
3. Length of Interview – If the questionnaire is very lengthy, the
personal interview is the best technique for getting respondents
to cooperate, without overtaxing their patience
4. Complete Questionnaires – Personal ensures ensure that the
respondent will answer all questions asked, unlike in
telephone interview where the respondent may hang up or in
mail questionnaire where some questions may go unanswered
5. Props & Visual Aids – Interviewers have the opportunity of
showing respondents items such as sample products, graphs
ands sketches, which can aid in their answers
6. High Participation – Interviewing respondents personally can
increase the likelihood of their participation, as many people
prefer to communicate directly verbally and sharing
information and insights with interviewers
1. Cost – Personal interviews are usually more expensive than mail, telephone
and internet surveys. Factors influencing the cost of the interview include the
respondents‟ geographic proximity, the length and complexity of the
questionnaire, and the number of non-respondents
2. Lack of Anonymity – Respondents are not anonymous in a personal (face-to-
face) interview and may be reluctant to disclose certain information to the
interviewer. Hence, considerable must be expended by the interviewer when
dealing with sensitive questions to avoid bias effects on the respondent‟s part
3. Necessity for Callbacks – When a person selected for interview cannot be
reached the first time, a callback has to be scheduled which result in extra cost
and time spent
4.Variance Effects – It has been shown that the demographic
characteristics of the interviewer can influence the answers of
the respondents. In one study, male interviewers had a much
larger variance of answers than female interviewers in a sample
of most female individuals
5. Dishonesty – Interviewers cheat to make their life easier and
save time and effort
6. Personal Style – The interviewers individual questioning style,
techniques, approach and demeanor may influence the
7. Global Considerations – Cultural aspects may influence
peoples‟ willingness to participate in an interview (e.g.
repressive Middle Eastern cultures discourage females from
being questioned by male interviewers)
• So we can use the interview technique as one of
the data collection methods for the research.
• It makes the researcher to feel that the data what
he collected is true and honest and original by
nature because of the face to face interaction.