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Different types of interview

Different types of interview

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Different types of interview

  1. 1. Research Methods Basic Qualitative Research Methods Different Types of Interviews
  2. 2. In today’s lecture • Interviews with different paradigms • Interviews with different levels of flexibility • Interviews conducted by different means • Interviews recorded in different ways • Interviews with different types of interviewees
  3. 3. What is interviewing • Interviewing is questioning human beings in order to obtain knowledge. • Interviewing is the most widely employed method in qualitative research. • Differences: 1. Philosophical position 2. Flexibility 3. Means 4. Way of recording 5. Type of interviewee 6. Type of data
  4. 4. Different philosophical positions • Quantitative interviewing: data are gathered through the standardised questionnaire with rigidly structured questions and answers. • Qualitative interviewing: data are gathered through flexible and non-standardised questioning.
  5. 5. Different levels of flexibility • Structured interview • Unstructured interview • Semi-structured interview
  6. 6. Questioning techniques At the most basic level your questions will either be open or closed: •Open Ended- a question that does not limit the potential answer that a participant could give and encourages detail. Could you give me your opinion about which method of coaching is the most valuable and suggest reasons for this? •Closed – a question that is presented to a participants that limits potential answers to a list or “yes” or “no”. What is your favourite team in football/rugby/cricket/ netball etc? Other Methods: - Hypothetical. - Multi- Barrelled. - Observational. - Behavioural/Competency Based. - Data Recall. - Reasoning. - Evaluation.
  7. 7. Structured interview Corbetta (2003) • All respondents are asked the same questions with the same wording and in the same sequence. • Respondents (Interviewees) are free to answer as they wish. • A questionnaire with open-ended questions of a lesser degree of standardization. • Unable to probe as deeply as unstructured interview serves. • Used when the researcher wants to gather data to describe a given social phenomenon quantitatively but knows little about that phenomenon.
  8. 8. Unstructured interview • Neither the content nor the form of the questions is predetermined. • The interviewer raises the topics, encourages the respondent to elucidate further and leads them back to the main point only if they begin to digress towards subjects irrelevant. • When unforeseen but relevant sub-themes arise during the interview, they will be developed further. • The timing of interview should be determined by the respondent.
  9. 9. Semi-structured interview • The interviewer normally has a list of questions, which serves as a set of guidelines. • The interviewer decides in which order the various topics are dealt with and the wording of the questions. • The interviewer is free to develop any themes arising during the interview. • Flexibility within a predetermined scheme.
  10. 10. Interview methodology issues Interviewer effect/bias This concept refers to the possibility that a researcher may influence or distort opinions. Leading Questions •You must be very careful not to elicit a certain response from a participant. For example: I think that the best form of exercise is swimming, would you agree with this?
  11. 11. Example interview View the following Interview with one of the greatest players ever to play football: Does the researcher use: •Open and Closed questions. •Interviewer bias. •Leading questions. •Lionel Messi.
  12. 12. Different means • Face-to-face interview • Telephone interview • Online interview • Interview by email/mail
  13. 13. Face-to-face interview • The best way of conducting qualitative interview. • Unstructured, semi-structured or informal. • Conversation with facial expression and body language. • Taking notes can be difficult. • Transcription can be time-consuming. • The interviewer is able to lead.
  14. 14. Telephone interview • Unstructured or semi-structured • Conversation without facial expression and body language. • Taking notes can be easier. • Transcription can be time-consuming. • The interviewer is able to lead.
  15. 15. Online interview • Written conversation • Semi-structured • Time-consuming • Easy and accurate transcription • The interviewer is able to lead.
  16. 16. Interview by email/mail • Structured • Follow-up questions are often needed. • Easy and accurate transcription • The interviewer is unable to lead.
  17. 17. Different ways of recording • Notes • Camera • Recorder
  18. 18. Notes • Taken after but not during informal or unstructured interview. • Often taken during semi-structured interview. • More a means of reminding the interviewer rather than a means of recording data. • Transcription based upon notes may be less accurate. • The interviewer does not need the interviewee’s consent before he takes any notes.
  19. 19. Camera or recorder • The interviewee’s consent must be gained before a camera or a recorder is used to record the interview. • A lot of respondents do not want what they say to be recorded. • Problem of reactivity. • Transcription could be time-consuming but accurate. • The interviewer may still take notes during or after the interview.
  20. 20. Different types of interviewees Flick (2006): • Interview with a person: individual interests, biographical account and single case. • Interview with an expert: interests of his or her capacity for a certain field or activity, representing a group of people with specific knowledge or abilities. The interviewer should be familiar with the topics in order to successfully conduct an expert interview. • Interview with focus groups
  21. 21. Seminar Work Task: Interview two friends in the group. Develop an interview guide/list of questions: Central topic: which Sports club do you support and why? From this: Report your findings. • Step 1: Make a question-list which includes at least 4 questions relevant to the central topic. • Step 2: Verbally question the first interviewee and ask your second to write out their answers to your questions. • Step 3: Explain the differences between the two interviews.
  22. 22. Required Reading • The textbook: Mason, J. (2002) Qualitative Researching (2nd Ed), London: Sage. • This week’s required reading: Chapter 4

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