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2/18/2...
Unit 2
Cells, Tissues and Membranes
[
2]
Hilario Cruzada Noveno Jr.
Lecturer [

2/18/2014

h_noveno@hotmail.com

]

2
Cells & Tissues
• Carry out all chemical activities needed to
sustain life
• Cells are the building blocks of all living t...
Figure 1.1

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h_noveno@hotmail.com

4
• Cells are organized into three main regions
– Nucleus
– Cytoplasm
– Plasma membrane

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h_noveno@hotmail.com

5
The Cell
The functional unit of the human body.
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h_noveno@hotmail.com

6
The Cell and its parts [

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]

7
The Nucleus [
• Control center of the
cell
– Contains genetic
material (DNA)
• Three regions
– Nuclear membrane
– Nucleolu...
Nuclear Membrane [
• Barrier of nucleus
• Consists of a double
phospholipid
membrane
• Contain nuclear pores
that allow fo...
Nucleoli [
• Nucleus contains one or
more nucleoli
• Sites of ribosome
production

]
•

– Ribosomes then migrate
to the cy...
Chromatin [

]

• Composed of DNA and
protein
• Scattered throughout
the nucleus
• Chromatin condenses
to form chromosomes...
Chromatin [

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]

12
Plasma Membrane [
• Barrier for cell contents
• Double phospholipid
layer

]
•

– Hydrophilic heads
– Hydrophobic tails

•...
Plasma Membrane Specialization
[
]
• Microvilli
– Finger-like projections
that increase surface
area for absorption

•

2/...
Plasma Membrane Specialization
[
]
• Membrane junctions
– Tight junctions
– Desmosomes
– Gap junctions

•
Desmosomes

2/18...
Cytoplasm [
• Material outside the
nucleus and inside the
plasma membrane

]
•

– Cytosol
• Fluid that suspends other
elem...
Cytoplasmic Organelles
[
]

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17
Cytoplasmic Organelles
[
]
• Ribosomes

•

– Made of protein and
RNA
– Sites of protein synthesis
– Found at two locations...
Cytoplasmic Organelles
[
]
• Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
– Fluid-filled tubules for
carrying substances
– Two types of ER

...
Cytoplasmic Organelles
[
]
• Golgi apparatus
– Modifies and packages
proteins
– Produces different types
of packages
• Sec...
Golgi apparatus [

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]

21
Cytoplasmic Organelles
[
]
• Lysosomes
– Contain enzymes that
digest nonusable
materials within the cell

• Peroxisomes

n...
Cytoplasmic Organelles
[
]
• Mitochondria

•

– “Powerhouses” of the
cell
– Change shape
continuously
– Carry out reaction...
Cytoplasmic Organelles
[
]
• Cytoskeleton

•

– Network of protein
structures that extend
throughout the
cytoplasm
– Provi...
Cytoplasmic Organelles
[
]
• Cytoskeleton

•

– Three different types
• Microfilaments
• Intermediate filaments
• Microtub...
Cytoplasmic Organelles
[
]

Cytoskeleton
Three different types
Microfilaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules

2/18/20...
Cytoplasmic Organelles
[
]
• Centrioles

Centrioles •

– Rod-shaped bodies
made of microtubules
– Direct formation of
mito...
Cellular Projections
[
]
• Not found in all cells
• Used for movement

•

– Cilia moves materials
across the cell surface
...
Cell Diversity
[
]

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Cell Diversity
[
]

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Types of Cells

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31
Tissues

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32
Body Tissues
[
]
• Cells are specialized for
particular functions
• Tissues

•

– Groups of cells with
similar structure a...
Epithelial Tissues
[
]
• Found in different areas
– Body coverings
– Body linings
– Glandular tissue
• Functions
– Protect...
Epithelium Characteristics
[
]
• Cells fit closely together
• Tissue layer always has
one free surface
• The lower surface...
Classification of Epithelium
[
]
• Number of cell layers
– Simple – one layer
– Stratified – more than
one layer

•
---

2...
Classification of Epithelium
[
]
• Shape of cells
– Squamous – flattened
– Cuboidal – cube-shaped
– Columnar – column-like...
Simple Epithelium
[
]
• Simple squamous
– Single layer of flat cells
– Usually forms membranes
• Lines body cavities
• Lin...
Simple Epithelium
[
]
• Simple cuboidal

– Single layer of cube-like
cells
– Common in glands and
their ducts
– Forms wall...
Simple Epithelium
[
]
• Simple columnar
– Single layer of tall cells
– Often includes goblet
cells, which produce mucus
– ...
Simple Epithelium
[
]
• Pseudostratified
– Single layer, but some
cells are shorter than
others
– Often looks like a
doubl...
Simple Epithelium
[
]

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42
Stratified Epithelium
[
]
• Stratified squamous
– Cells at the free edge
are flattened
– Found as a protective
covering wh...
Stratified Epithelium
[
]

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44
Stratified Epithelium
[
]
• Stratified cuboidal

•

– Two layers of cuboidal cells

• Stratified columnar
– Surface cells ...
Stratified Epithelium
[
]
• Transitional epithelium

•

– Shape of cells depends
upon the amount of
stretching
– Lines org...
Stratified Epithelium
[
]

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47
Glandular Epithelium
[
]
• Gland – one or more
cells that secretes a
particular product
• Two major gland types

--

•

– ...
Connective Tissue
[
]
• Found everywhere in
the body
• Includes the most
abundant and widely
distributed tissues
• Functio...
Connective Tissue Characteristics
[
]
• Variations in blood
supply

•

– Vascular (with blood
vessel)
– Avascular (without...
Extracellular Matrix
[
]
• Two main elements
– Ground substance –
mostly water along
with adhesion proteins
and polysaccha...
•
Connective Tissues
•
•
•
•

Osseus (bone)
Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartialge
Fibrocartilage
Dense connective tissue
– T...
Connective Tissue Types
[
]
• Bone (osseous tissue)
– Composed of:

•

• Bone cells in lacunae
(cavities)
• Hard matrix of...
Connective Tissue Types
[
]

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Connective Tissue Types
[
]
• Hyaline cartilage

•

– Most common cartilage
– Composed of:
• Abundant collagen fibers
• Ru...
Connective Tissue Types
[
]

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Connective Tissue Types
[
]
• Elastic cartilage

•

– Provides elasticity
– Example: supports the
external ear

2/18/2014
...
Connective Tissue Types
[
]
• Fibrocartilage

•

– Highly compressible
– Example: forms cushionlike discs between
vertebra...
Connective Tissue Types
[
]

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59
Connective Tissue Types
[
]
• Dense connective tissue
– Main matrix element
is collagen fibers
– Cells are fibroblasts
– E...
Connective Tissue Types
[
]

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61
Connective Tissue Types
[
]
• Areolar connective
tissue

•

– Most widely distributed
connective tissue
– Soft, pliable ti...
Connective Tissue Types
[
]

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63
Connective Tissue Types
[
]
• Adipose tissue
– Matrix is an areolar
tissue in which fat
globules
predominate
– Many cells ...
Connective Tissue Types
[
]

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h_noveno@hotmail.com

65
Connective Tissue Types
[
]
• Reticular connective
tissue
– Delicate network of
interwoven fibers
– Forms stroma
(internal...
Connective Tissue Types
[
]

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h_noveno@hotmail.com

67
Connective Tissue Types
[
]
• Blood

•

– Blood cells surrounded
by fluid matrix
– Fibers are visible during
clotting
– Fu...
Connective Tissue Types
[
]

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69
•
Connective Tissues
•
•
•
•

Osseus (bone)
Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartialge
Fibrocartilage
Dense connective tissue
– T...
Muscle Tissue
[
]
• Function is to produce
movement
• Three types

•

– Skeletal muscle
– Cardiac muscle
– Smooth muscle

...
Muscle Tissue Types
[
]
• Skeletal muscle

•

– Voluntary control
– Cells attached to
connective tissue
– Striated cells
–...
Muscle Tissue Types
[
]

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h_noveno@hotmail.com

73
Muscle Tissue Types
[
]
• Cardiac muscle
– Found only in the
heart
– Involuntary control
– Cells attached to
other cardiac...
Muscle Tissue Types
[
]

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h_noveno@hotmail.com

75
Muscle Tissue Types
[
]
• Smooth muscle
– Involuntary muscle
– Surrounds hollow
organs
– Attached to other
smooth muscle c...
Muscle Tissue Types
[
]

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77
Characteristics

Skeletal muscle

Cardiac muscle

Smooth muscle

Striated

Yes

Yes

Not visible

Control

Voluntary

Invo...
Muscle Tissue Types
[
]
• Neurons and nerve
support cells
• Function is to send
impulses to other areas
of the body

•

– ...
Muscle Tissue Types
[
]

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80
Tissue Repair
[
]
• Regeneration
– Replacement of
destroyed tissue by the
same kind of cells

•

• Fibrosis
– Repair by de...
Events Tissue Repair
[
]
• Capillaries become very
permeable

•

– Introduce clotting
proteins
– Wall off injured area

• ...
Regeneration of Tissues
[
]
• Tissues that regenerate
easily
– Epithelial tissue
– Fibrous connective
tissue and bone
• Ti...
Developmental Aspects of Tissue
[
]
• Epithelial tissue arises
from all three primary
germ layers
• Muscle and connective
...
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Unit 2 Cells, Tissues & Membranes

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Unit 2 Cells, Tissues & Membranes

  1. 1. Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 1
  2. 2. Unit 2 Cells, Tissues and Membranes [ 2] Hilario Cruzada Noveno Jr. Lecturer [ 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 2
  3. 3. Cells & Tissues • Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life • Cells are the building blocks of all living things • Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 3
  4. 4. Figure 1.1 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 4
  5. 5. • Cells are organized into three main regions – Nucleus – Cytoplasm – Plasma membrane 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 5
  6. 6. The Cell The functional unit of the human body. 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 6
  7. 7. The Cell and its parts [ 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 7
  8. 8. The Nucleus [ • Control center of the cell – Contains genetic material (DNA) • Three regions – Nuclear membrane – Nucleolus – Chromatin 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] (DNA) 8
  9. 9. Nuclear Membrane [ • Barrier of nucleus • Consists of a double phospholipid membrane • Contain nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] • 9
  10. 10. Nucleoli [ • Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli • Sites of ribosome production ] • – Ribosomes then migrate to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 10
  11. 11. Chromatin [ ] • Composed of DNA and protein • Scattered throughout the nucleus • Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides • 2/18/2014 11 h_noveno@hotmail.com
  12. 12. Chromatin [ 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 12
  13. 13. Plasma Membrane [ • Barrier for cell contents • Double phospholipid layer ] • – Hydrophilic heads – Hydrophobic tails • Also contains protein, cholesterol, an d glycoproteins 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 13
  14. 14. Plasma Membrane Specialization [ ] • Microvilli – Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption • 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 14
  15. 15. Plasma Membrane Specialization [ ] • Membrane junctions – Tight junctions – Desmosomes – Gap junctions • Desmosomes 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 15
  16. 16. Cytoplasm [ • Material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane ] • – Cytosol • Fluid that suspends other elements – Organelles • Metabolic machinery of the cell – Inclusions • Non-functioning units 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 16
  17. 17. Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 17
  18. 18. Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Ribosomes • – Made of protein and RNA – Sites of protein synthesis – Found at two locations • Free in the cytoplasm • Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 18
  19. 19. Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) – Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances – Two types of ER • ER) ER • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum – Studded with ribosomes – Site where building materials of cellular membrane are formed • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum – Functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification of drugs 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 19
  20. 20. Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Golgi apparatus – Modifies and packages proteins – Produces different types of packages • Secretory vesicles • Cell membrane components • Lysosomes 2/18/2014 Lysosomes h_noveno@hotmail.com 20
  21. 21. Golgi apparatus [ 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 21
  22. 22. Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Lysosomes – Contain enzymes that digest nonusable materials within the cell • Peroxisomes nonusable Peroxisomes – Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes • Detoxify harmful substances • Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals) – Replicate by pinching in half 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 22
  23. 23. Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Mitochondria • – “Powerhouses” of the cell – Change shape continuously – Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food – Provides ATP for cellular energy 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 23
  24. 24. Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Cytoskeleton • – Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm – Provides the cell with an internal framework 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 24
  25. 25. Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Cytoskeleton • – Three different types • Microfilaments • Intermediate filaments • Microtubules 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 25
  26. 26. Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] Cytoskeleton Three different types Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 26
  27. 27. Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Centrioles Centrioles • – Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules – Direct formation of mitotic spindle during cell division 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 27
  28. 28. Cellular Projections [ ] • Not found in all cells • Used for movement • – Cilia moves materials across the cell surface – Flagellum propels the cell 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 28
  29. 29. Cell Diversity [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 29
  30. 30. Cell Diversity [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 30
  31. 31. Types of Cells 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 31
  32. 32. Tissues 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 32
  33. 33. Body Tissues [ ] • Cells are specialized for particular functions • Tissues • – Groups of cells with similar structure and function – Four primary types • • • • 2/18/2014 Epithelium Connective tissue Nervous tissue Muscle h_noveno@hotmail.com 33
  34. 34. Epithelial Tissues [ ] • Found in different areas – Body coverings – Body linings – Glandular tissue • Functions – Protection – Absorption – Filtration – Secretion 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 34
  35. 35. Epithelium Characteristics [ ] • Cells fit closely together • Tissue layer always has one free surface • The lower surface is bound by a basement membrane • Avascular (have no blood supply) • Regenerate easily if well nourished • 2/18/2014 35 h_noveno@hotmail.com
  36. 36. Classification of Epithelium [ ] • Number of cell layers – Simple – one layer – Stratified – more than one layer • --- 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 36
  37. 37. Classification of Epithelium [ ] • Shape of cells – Squamous – flattened – Cuboidal – cube-shaped – Columnar – column-like – -- --- 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 37
  38. 38. Simple Epithelium [ ] • Simple squamous – Single layer of flat cells – Usually forms membranes • Lines body cavities • Lines lungs and capillaries • 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 38
  39. 39. Simple Epithelium [ ] • Simple cuboidal – Single layer of cube-like cells – Common in glands and their ducts – Forms walls of kidney tubules – Covers the ovaries • 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 39
  40. 40. Simple Epithelium [ ] • Simple columnar – Single layer of tall cells – Often includes goblet cells, which produce mucus – Lines digestive tract • 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 40
  41. 41. Simple Epithelium [ ] • Pseudostratified – Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others – Often looks like a double cell layer – Sometimes ciliated, such as in the respiratory tract – May function in absorption or secretion • 2/18/2014 41 h_noveno@hotmail.com
  42. 42. Simple Epithelium [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 42
  43. 43. Stratified Epithelium [ ] • Stratified squamous – Cells at the free edge are flattened – Found as a protective covering where friction is common – Locations • • Skin • Mouth • Esophagus 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 43
  44. 44. Stratified Epithelium [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 44
  45. 45. Stratified Epithelium [ ] • Stratified cuboidal • – Two layers of cuboidal cells • Stratified columnar – Surface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and shape • Stratified cuboidal and columnar – Rare in human body – Found mainly in ducts of large glands 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 45
  46. 46. Stratified Epithelium [ ] • Transitional epithelium • – Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching – Lines organs of the urinary system 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 46
  47. 47. Stratified Epithelium [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 47
  48. 48. Glandular Epithelium [ ] • Gland – one or more cells that secretes a particular product • Two major gland types -- • – Endocrine gland • Ductless • Secretes hormones – Exocrine gland • Empty through ducts to the epithelial surface • Example: sweat and oil glands 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 48
  49. 49. Connective Tissue [ ] • Found everywhere in the body • Includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissues • Functions • – Binds body tissues together – Supports the body – Provides protection 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 49
  50. 50. Connective Tissue Characteristics [ ] • Variations in blood supply • – Vascular (with blood vessel) – Avascular (without blood vessel) • Extracellular matrix – Non-living material that surrounds living cells 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 50
  51. 51. Extracellular Matrix [ ] • Two main elements – Ground substance – mostly water along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide molecules – Fibers -- • • Produced by the cells • Three types – Collagen fibers – Elastic fibers – Reticular fibers 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 51
  52. 52. • Connective Tissues • • • • Osseus (bone) Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartialge Fibrocartilage Dense connective tissue – Tendons – Ligaments • • • • 2/18/2014 Areolar connective tissue Adipose tissue Reticular connective tissue Blood h_noveno@hotmail.com 52
  53. 53. Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Bone (osseous tissue) – Composed of: • • Bone cells in lacunae (cavities) • Hard matrix of calcium salts • Large numbers of collagen fibers – Used to protect and support the body 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 53
  54. 54. Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 54
  55. 55. Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Hyaline cartilage • – Most common cartilage – Composed of: • Abundant collagen fibers • Rubbery matrix – Entire fetal skeleton is hyaline cartilage 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 55
  56. 56. Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 56
  57. 57. Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Elastic cartilage • – Provides elasticity – Example: supports the external ear 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 57
  58. 58. Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Fibrocartilage • – Highly compressible – Example: forms cushionlike discs between vertebrae 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 58
  59. 59. Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 59
  60. 60. Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Dense connective tissue – Main matrix element is collagen fibers – Cells are fibroblasts – Examples • Tendon – attach muscle to bone • Ligaments – attach bone to bone 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com • --- 60
  61. 61. Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 61
  62. 62. Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Areolar connective tissue • – Most widely distributed connective tissue – Soft, pliable tissue – Contains all fiber types – Can soak up excess fluid – Lines many organs of the body 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 62
  63. 63. Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 63
  64. 64. Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Adipose tissue – Matrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominate – Many cells contain large lipid deposits – Functions • • Insulates the body • Protects some organs • Serves as a site of fuel storage 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 64
  65. 65. Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 65
  66. 66. Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Reticular connective tissue – Delicate network of interwoven fibers – Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of lymphoid organs • Lymph nodes • Spleen • Bone marrow 2/18/2014 • • h_noveno@hotmail.com 66
  67. 67. Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 67
  68. 68. Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Blood • – Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix – Fibers are visible during clotting – Functions as the transport vehicle for materials 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 68
  69. 69. Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 69
  70. 70. • Connective Tissues • • • • Osseus (bone) Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartialge Fibrocartilage Dense connective tissue – Tendons – Ligaments • • • • 2/18/2014 Areolar connective tissue Adipose tissue Reticular connective tissue Blood h_noveno@hotmail.com 70
  71. 71. Muscle Tissue [ ] • Function is to produce movement • Three types • – Skeletal muscle – Cardiac muscle – Smooth muscle 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 71
  72. 72. Muscle Tissue Types [ ] • Skeletal muscle • – Voluntary control – Cells attached to connective tissue – Striated cells – Cells have more than one nucleus 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 72
  73. 73. Muscle Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 73
  74. 74. Muscle Tissue Types [ ] • Cardiac muscle – Found only in the heart – Involuntary control – Cells attached to other cardiac muscle cells at intercalated disks – Striated cells – One nucleus per cell 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com • 74
  75. 75. Muscle Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 75
  76. 76. Muscle Tissue Types [ ] • Smooth muscle – Involuntary muscle – Surrounds hollow organs – Attached to other smooth muscle cells – No visible striations – One nucleus per cell 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com • 76
  77. 77. Muscle Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 77
  78. 78. Characteristics Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Striated Yes Yes Not visible Control Voluntary Involuntary Cells Multinucleated Mononucleated Attachment Organs 2/18/2014 Attached to other Attached to other cardiac muscles Connective tissue smooth muscle at intercalated cells discs Skeletal muscles Heart h_noveno@hotmail.com Bronchus Lungs Diaphragm Blood vessels Bladder GIT 78
  79. 79. Muscle Tissue Types [ ] • Neurons and nerve support cells • Function is to send impulses to other areas of the body • – Irritability – Conductivity 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 79
  80. 80. Muscle Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 80
  81. 81. Tissue Repair [ ] • Regeneration – Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells • • Fibrosis – Repair by dense fibrous connective tissue (scar tissue) • Determination of method – Type of tissue damaged – Severity of the injury 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 81
  82. 82. Events Tissue Repair [ ] • Capillaries become very permeable • – Introduce clotting proteins – Wall off injured area • Formation of granulation tissue • Regeneration of surface epithelium 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 82
  83. 83. Regeneration of Tissues [ ] • Tissues that regenerate easily – Epithelial tissue – Fibrous connective tissue and bone • Tissues that regenerate poorly – Skeletal muscle • Tissues that are replaced largely with scar tissue – Cardiac muscle – Nervous tissue (brain and spinal cord) 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com • 83
  84. 84. Developmental Aspects of Tissue [ ] • Epithelial tissue arises from all three primary germ layers • Muscle and connective tissue arise from the mesoderm • Nervous tissue arises from the ectoderm • With old age there is a decrease in mass and viability in most tissues 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com • viabililty 84

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