Unit 14 Reproductive System

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Unit 14 Reproductive System

  1. 1. Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  Anatomy h_noveno@hotmail.com 1
  2. 2. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • Gonads – primary sex organs – Testes in males – Ovaries in females • Gonads produce gametes (sex cells) and secrete hormones – Sperm – male gametes – Ova (eggs) – female gametes ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 3
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  4. 4. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • Testes • Duct system – Epididymis – Ductus deferens – Urethra ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 5
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  6. 6. Notes • Dysuria: painful urination • Prostatectomy: removal or scraping of the prostate ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 7
  7. 7. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • Accessory organs – Seminal vesicle – Prostate gland – Bulbourethral gland • External genitalia – Penis – Scrotum ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 8
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  10. 10. TESTES • Coverings of the testes – Tunica albuginea – capsule that surrounds each testis – Septa – extensions of the capsule that extend into the testis and divide it into lobules • Each lobule contains one to four seminiferous tubules – Tightly coiled structures – Function as sperm-forming factories – Empty sperm into the rete testis • Sperm travels through the rete testis to the epididymis • Interstitial cells produce androgens such as testosterone ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 11
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  12. 12. EPIDIDYMIS • Comma-shaped, tightly coiled tube • Found on the superior part of the testis and along the posterior lateral side • Functions to mature and store sperm cells (at least 20 days) • Expels sperm with the contraction of muscles in the epididymis walls to the vas deferens ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 13
  13. 13. DUCTUS DEFERENS (VAS DEFERENS) • Carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct • Passes through the inguinal canal and over the bladder • Moves sperm by peristalsis • Spermatic cord – ductus deferens, blood vessels, and nerves in a connective tissue sheath ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 14
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  15. 15. DUCTUS DEFERENS (VAS DEFERENS) • Ends in the ejaculatory duct which unites with the urethra • Vasectomy – cutting of the ductus deferens at the level of the testes to prevent transportation of sperm ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 16
  16. 16. URETHRA • Extends from the base of the urinary bladder to the tip of the penis • Carries both urine and sperm • Sperm enters from the ejaculatory duct • Regions of the urethra – Prostatic urethra –surrounded by prostate – Membranous urethra – from prostatic urethra to penis – Spongy (penile) urethra – runs the length of the penis ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 17
  17. 17. SEMINAL VESICLES • Located at the base of the bladder • Produces a thick, yellowish secretion (60% of semen) – Fructose (sugar) – Vitamin C – Prostaglandins – Other substances that nourish and activate sperm ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 18
  18. 18. PROSTATE GLAND • Encircles the upper part of the urethra • Secretes a milky fluid – Helps to activate sperm – Enters the urethra through several small ducts ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 19
  19. 19. BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS • Pea-sized gland inferior to the prostate • Produces a thick, clear mucus – Cleanses the urethra of acidic urine – Serves as a lubricant during sexual intercourse – Secreted into the penile urethra ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 20
  20. 20. SEMEN • Mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions • Advantages of accessory gland secretions – Fructose provides energy for sperm cells – Alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidic environment of vagina – Semen inhibits bacterial multiplication – Elements of semen enhance sperm motility ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 21
  21. 21. EXTERNAL GENITALIA • Scrotum – Divided sac of skin outside the abdomen – Maintains testes at 3°C lower than normal body temperature to protect sperm viability ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 22
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  24. 24. EXTERNAL GENITALIA • Penis – Delivers sperm into the female reproductive tract – Regions of the penis • Shaft • Glans penis (enlarged tip) • Prepuce (foreskin) – Folded cuff of skin around proximal end – Often removed by circumcision – Internally there are three areas of spongy erectile tissue around the urethra ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 25
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  27. 27. ANATOMY OF A MATURE SPERM CELL • The only human flagellated cell • DNA is found in the head ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 28
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  30. 30. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • Ovaries • Duct System – Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes) – Uterus – Vagina • External genitalia ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 31
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  34. 34. OVARIES • Composed of ovarian follicles (sac-like structures) • Structure of an ovarian follicle – Oocyte – Follicular cells ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 35
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  36. 36. OVARIAN FOLLICLE STAGES • Primary follicle – contains an immature oocyte • Graafian (vesicular) follicle – growing follicle with a maturing oocyte • Ovulation – when the egg is mature the follicle ruptures – Occurs about every 28 days • The ruptured follicle is transformed into a corpus luteum ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 37
  37. 37. SUPPORT FOR OVARIES • Suspensory ligaments – secure ovary to lateral walls of the pelvis • Ovarian ligaments – attach to uterus • Broad ligament – a fold of the peritoneum, encloses suspensory ligament ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 38
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  39. 39. UTERINE (FALLOPIAN) TUBES • • • • • Receive the ovulated oocyte Provide a site for fertilization Attaches to the uterus Does not physically attach to the ovary Supported by the broad ligament ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 40
  40. 40. UTERINE TUBE FUNCTION • Fimbriae – finger-like projections at the distal end that receive the oocyte • Cilia inside the uterine tube slowly move the oocyte towards the uterus (takes 3–4 days) • Fertilization occurs inside the uterine tube ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 41
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  42. 42. 26 November 2011 01 - 07 December 2011 12 December 2011 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 43
  43. 43. UTERUS • Located between the urinary bladder and rectum • Hollow organ • Functions of the uterus – Receives a fertilized egg – Retains the fertilized egg – Nourishes the fertilized egg ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 44
  44. 44. SUPPORT FOR THE UTERUS • Broad ligament – attached to the pelvis • Round ligament – anchored interiorly • Uterosacral ligaments – anchored posteriorly ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 45
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  46. 46. REGIONS OF THE UTERUS • Body – main portion • Fundus – area where uterine tube enters • Cervix – narrow outlet that protrudes into the vagina ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 47
  47. 47. WALLS OF THE UTERUS • Endometrium – Inner layer – Allows for implantation of a fertilized egg – Sloughs off if no pregnancy occurs (menses) • Myometrium – middle layer of smooth muscle • Serous layer – outer visceral peritoneum ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 48
  48. 48. VAGINA • • • • • Extends from cervix to exterior of body Behind bladder and in front of rectum Serves as the birth canal Receives the penis during sexual intercourse Hymen – partially closes the vagina until it is ruptured ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 49
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  51. 51. EXTERNAL GENITALIA (VULVA) • Mons pubis – Fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis – Covered with pubic hair after puberty • Labia – skin folds – Labia majora – Labia minora ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 52
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  53. 53. EXTERNAL GENITALIA (VULVA) • Vestibule – Enclosed by labia majora – Contains opening of the urethra and the greater vestibular glands (produce mucus) • Clitoris – Contains erectile tissue – Corresponds to the male penis ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 54
  54. 54. ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLANDS • Areola – central pigmented area • Nipple – protruding central area of areola • Lobes – internal structures that radiate around nipple • Alveolar glands – clusters of milk producing glands within lobules • Lactiferous ducts – connect alveolar glands to nipple ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 55
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