Cell : Structure and Function Part 01


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Cell : Structure and Function Part 01

  1. 1. Cells Structure and Function ทนพ. สุวิทย์ คล่องทะเล วท.บ. (เทคนิคการแพทย์) เกียรตินิยม มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล 1
  2. 2. 2Campbell et al, Biology; 2009.
  3. 3. Sizes of Living Things 3 Minimum resolution of a LM 2 microns, the size of a small bacterium LM can magnify effectively to 1,000 times the size of the actual specimen. http://amazedatbio.wordpress.com/2012/09/17/life-is-cellular/
  4. 4. Properties of life  Reproduction : o sexual : genetic variation, fertilization o asexual : genetically identical, e.g. sporulation, budding, regeneration, binary fission  Metabolism : anabolism Vs. catabolism  Growth and Development  Response to environment  Homeostasis : regulated via organ system  Organization : Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism o acellular o unicellular : bacteria, yeast o multicellular : plant, animal 4
  5. 5. Cell Theory  All organisms are composed of cells  All cells come only from preexisting cells (Rudolf Virchow)  Cells are the smallest structural and functional unit of organisms  Cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA 5 Robert Hooke (1665) Matthias Jacob Schleiden (1838) plant Theodor Schwann (1839) animal Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1673)
  6. 6. Light microscope 6Campbell et al, Biology; 2009.
  7. 7. Electron microscope  To resolve smaller structures we use EM, which focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen (TEM) or onto its surface (SEM)  TEM are used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells.  A TEM aims an electron beam through a thin section of the specimen. o The image is focused and magnified by electromagnets. o To enhance contrast, the thin sections are stained with atoms of heavy metals.  SEM are useful for studying surface structures.  The SEM has great depth of field, resulting in an image that seems three-dimensional. 7
  8. 8. 8Campbell et al, Biology; 2009.
  9. 9. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells  All cells o surrounded by a plasma membrane. o have cytosol, containing the organelles. o contain chromosomes o have ribosomes  A major difference o eukaryotic cell: chromosomes are contained in the nucleus (within a membranous nuclear envelope) o prokaryotic cell: the DNA is concentrated in the nucleoid 9
  10. 10. A major difference...  Cytoplasm o All the material within the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell is cytoplasm. o Within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is a variety of membrane-bounded organelles of specialized form and function.  Eukaryotic cells are generally much bigger than prokaryotic cells. o smallest bacteria, mycoplasmas, are 0.1 to 1.0 micron. (most bacteria: 1-10 microns) o Eukaryotic cells are typically 10-100 microns in diameter 10
  11. 11. 11 Not present in bacteria nucleus, membrane bounded organelle, cytoskeleton, centriole
  12. 12. 12 Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic Cells “complex” organisms, including all plants, protists, fungi and animals “Simple” organisms, including bacteria and cyanobacteria Contain nucleus and membrane bound organelles Several chromosome Lack nucleus and other membrane-encased organelles. Single chromosome (DNA + non- histone protein) Can specialize for certain functions, multicellular organs and organisms Usually exist as single, virtually identical cells Cellular respiration occur in mitochondria Cellular respiration occur in mesosome (extended membrane) Ribosome: 40s, 60S Ribosome: 30S, 50S Photosynthesis occur in chloroplast Photosynthesis occur in chlorophyll located region Cell Wall present in Plants & Fungi only Cell Wall Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) e.g. Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Anabaena, Spirulina
  13. 13. Cells  Cell coat: Cell wall, Cell membrane  Protoplasm o Nucleus : nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm (chromatin fiber, nucleolus) o Cytoplasm • cytosol • organelle – no membrane bounded: ribosome, centriole, cytoskeleton – single membrane bounded: ER, Golgi complex, lysosome, peroxisome, vacuole – double membrane bounded: mitochondria, chloroplast 13
  14. 14. Animal Cell Anatomy 14 http://traddude.blogspot.com/2008/06/cells-compendium-1.html
  15. 15. Plant Cell Anatomy 15http://minhalogia.blogspot.com/2013_03_ 01_archive.html
  16. 16. Plasma membrane  Fluid mosaic model o Phospholipid bilayer acts more like a fluid than a liquid  Contains integral and peripheral proteins  Semi permeable membrane  Like a city border they surround the cell and are able to regulate entrance and exit 16 Campbell et al, Biology; 2009.
  17. 17. Phospholipid bilayer  polar heads face outward towards the watery environments both inside and outside the cell  non polar tails face inward away from the watery environment 17 http://alevelnotes.com/content_images/i38_phospholipid.gif http://online.morainevalley.edu/WebSupported/BIO111- Gibbons/membra29.jpg
  18. 18. 18 control fluidity of membrane recognition of cell Campbell et al, Biology; 2009.
  19. 19. Function of membrane protein 19Campbell et al, Biology; 2009.
  20. 20. Function of membrane protein  Enzyme  Mediate the passage of ions and most biological molecule  Selective traffic of molecule  Control the interactions between cells of multicellular organisms  Serve as sensor (e.g. receptors, signal transductions) 20 Chandar et al, Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Cell and Molecular Biology; 2010.
  21. 21. Transport through membrane  Passive transport: need no energy, downhill o simple diffusion o facilitated diffusion: channel protein, carrier protein  Active transport: need energy, uphill o primary active : direct hydrolysis of ATP o secondary active : symporters, antiporters  Vesicle transport o endocytosis: receptor mediated, phagocytosis, pinocytosis o exocytosis 21
  22. 22. External environment 22 Gas Hydrophobic molecules Small polar molecules Large polar molecules Charged molecules CO2 O2 Benzene H2O Ethanol Glucose Amino acid Ions H+ Cl- Na+ Ca2+ Cytoplasm
  23. 23. Diffusion 23Campbell et al, biology; 2011.
  24. 24. Osmosis 24Campbell et al, biology; 2011.
  25. 25. Passive transport 25 Chandar et al, Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Cell and Molecular Biology; 2010.
  26. 26. Active transport 26 Na+-Ca2+antiporter in cardiac muscle Na+-glucose transporter in intestinal epithelial cell Chandar et al, Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Cell and Molecular Biology; 2010.
  27. 27. Vesicle Transport 27http://www.shayda.us/WebCT/AP1/AP1_Ex2_Materials/GA_Pag2.jpg
  28. 28. 28 Phagocytosis of microbes Abbas et al, Cellular and Molecular Immunology; 2012.
  29. 29. 29Russell et al, Biology the dynamic science; 2008.