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SHRI S'AD VIDYAMANDAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Branch : Mechanical Engineering
Semester : 5 Sem
Year : 2015-2016
Subject : Design of Machine Elements (2151907)
Presentation Topic : End Closure of Pressure Vessel
Presentation By : Nilrajsinh Vasandia
Enrollment No : 130454119006 (New), 130990119060 (Old)
Outline:
• What is Pressure Vessel ?
• End Closure in pressure vessels
• Types of End closure
• Reference’s
What is a pressure vessel ?
• A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or
liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient
pressure.
End Closure in Pressure Vessels
• Closing end of the pressure vessel is called as End closure. Also it is
referred as Manhole.
• Types of End closure are:
• Flat Heads
• Formed Head
The heads are either welded or bolted with the main vessel shell
Flat heads
• The flat heads or plates are the simplest type of end closure used only
for small diameter vessels.
• They are also used as manhole covers in low pressure vessels and as
covers for small openings.
• The thickness of the flat head is given by,
C
Pi
diht 

7.0• th = thickness of head
• di = inner dia of vessel shell
• pi = design pressure, N/mm2
• σ = allowable tensile stress, N/mm2
• C = corrosion allowance
th
di
Formed Head
• The formed heads, which are commonly used in pressure vessel, are
commonly used in pressure vessels, are normally fabricated from a
single circular flat plate by forming.
• Different types of formed head are :
1. Plain formed head
2. Torispherical Dished Head
3. Semi-Elliptical Dished Head
4. Hemispherical Head
5. Conical head
Formed Head: Plain
• The plain head formed head are used for
horizontal cylindrical storage vessels at
atmospheric pressure.
• They are also used for the bottom ends
of vertical cylindrical vessels that rest on
concrete slabs and do not have diameter
in excess of 7 meters.
• The thickness of the plain formed head is
given by,
C
Pi
diht 

4.0
• th = thickness of head, mm
• ric = inner corner radius, mm ≥ 𝑜. 1di
• Sf = straight flange length, mm = 3 th or 20 which ever is greater
Formed Head: Torsional Dished head
• The torispherical dished heads are used
for vertical or horizontal pressure vessel
or horizontal pressure vessel in the
pressure range from 0.1 N/mm2 or 1.5
N/mm2
• These type of heads are shaped by using
two radii : the dish radius or crown radius
(Rc) & inner corner radius or knuckle
radius (ric)
• The thickness of the torispherical dished
head is given by,
Cht 
pi0.2-all2
cif RpK
 








ic
c
f
r
R
kWhere 3
4
1
,
Formed Head: Semi-Elliptical head
• The Semi-elliptical dished heads are used for
pressure vessels above 1.5 N/mm2 pressure.
The ratio of the major axis to the minor axis is
generally taken as 2.
• The thickness of the semi-elliptical dished
head is given by,
Cht 
pi0.2-all2
cif dpk

 2)(2
6
1
, 1KkWhere f 
• S
f = 3 th or 20 mm, Whichever is greater
Formed Head: Hemispherical head
• The hemispherical head are strongest of all the
formed heads. They are free from dis-
continuties and hence used in high pressure
vessels.
• The thickness of the semi-elliptical dished
head is given by,
Cht 
pi0.4-all4
ii dp

• S
f = 3 th or 20 mm, Whichever is greater
Formed Head: Conical Head
• The Conical heads are widely used as
bottom heads to facilitate the removal
or draining of the material.
• The semicore angle is usually taken as
300.
• The thickness of the semi-elliptical
dished head is given by,
Cht 
 cospi)-all(2
ii dp
• S
f = 3 th or 20 mm, Whichever is greater

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Design of End Closure in pressure vessel

  • 1. SHRI S'AD VIDYAMANDAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Branch : Mechanical Engineering Semester : 5 Sem Year : 2015-2016 Subject : Design of Machine Elements (2151907) Presentation Topic : End Closure of Pressure Vessel Presentation By : Nilrajsinh Vasandia Enrollment No : 130454119006 (New), 130990119060 (Old)
  • 2. Outline: • What is Pressure Vessel ? • End Closure in pressure vessels • Types of End closure • Reference’s
  • 3. What is a pressure vessel ? • A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.
  • 4. End Closure in Pressure Vessels • Closing end of the pressure vessel is called as End closure. Also it is referred as Manhole. • Types of End closure are: • Flat Heads • Formed Head The heads are either welded or bolted with the main vessel shell
  • 5. Flat heads • The flat heads or plates are the simplest type of end closure used only for small diameter vessels. • They are also used as manhole covers in low pressure vessels and as covers for small openings. • The thickness of the flat head is given by, C Pi diht   7.0• th = thickness of head • di = inner dia of vessel shell • pi = design pressure, N/mm2 • σ = allowable tensile stress, N/mm2 • C = corrosion allowance th di
  • 6. Formed Head • The formed heads, which are commonly used in pressure vessel, are commonly used in pressure vessels, are normally fabricated from a single circular flat plate by forming. • Different types of formed head are : 1. Plain formed head 2. Torispherical Dished Head 3. Semi-Elliptical Dished Head 4. Hemispherical Head 5. Conical head
  • 7. Formed Head: Plain • The plain head formed head are used for horizontal cylindrical storage vessels at atmospheric pressure. • They are also used for the bottom ends of vertical cylindrical vessels that rest on concrete slabs and do not have diameter in excess of 7 meters. • The thickness of the plain formed head is given by, C Pi diht   4.0 • th = thickness of head, mm • ric = inner corner radius, mm ≥ 𝑜. 1di • Sf = straight flange length, mm = 3 th or 20 which ever is greater
  • 8. Formed Head: Torsional Dished head • The torispherical dished heads are used for vertical or horizontal pressure vessel or horizontal pressure vessel in the pressure range from 0.1 N/mm2 or 1.5 N/mm2 • These type of heads are shaped by using two radii : the dish radius or crown radius (Rc) & inner corner radius or knuckle radius (ric) • The thickness of the torispherical dished head is given by, Cht  pi0.2-all2 cif RpK           ic c f r R kWhere 3 4 1 ,
  • 9. Formed Head: Semi-Elliptical head • The Semi-elliptical dished heads are used for pressure vessels above 1.5 N/mm2 pressure. The ratio of the major axis to the minor axis is generally taken as 2. • The thickness of the semi-elliptical dished head is given by, Cht  pi0.2-all2 cif dpk   2)(2 6 1 , 1KkWhere f  • S f = 3 th or 20 mm, Whichever is greater
  • 10. Formed Head: Hemispherical head • The hemispherical head are strongest of all the formed heads. They are free from dis- continuties and hence used in high pressure vessels. • The thickness of the semi-elliptical dished head is given by, Cht  pi0.4-all4 ii dp  • S f = 3 th or 20 mm, Whichever is greater
  • 11. Formed Head: Conical Head • The Conical heads are widely used as bottom heads to facilitate the removal or draining of the material. • The semicore angle is usually taken as 300. • The thickness of the semi-elliptical dished head is given by, Cht   cospi)-all(2 ii dp • S f = 3 th or 20 mm, Whichever is greater