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a) Fire tube boiler:
The hot gases passes through the tubes that are surrounded
by water. Fire tube boilers are also known by certain
common names-
 1) Cochran
 2) Locomotive
 3) Lancashire
b) Water tube Boiler:
The water passes through the tubes and the hot gases
produced by combustion of fuel, flow outside.
 1) Babcock and Wilcox Boiler
a) Internally fired Boilers:
The furnace is provided inside the boiler shell and is completely
surrounded by water cooled surfaces. This method of firing is used
in:
• Lancashire Boilers
• Cochran Boilers
b) Externally fired Boilers:
The furnace is provided outside/ under the boiler. It has an
advantage that its furnace is simple to construct and can easily
be enlarged, as and when required. This method of firing is
used in
• Babcock and Wilcox Boiler.
i) High pressure Boilers:
Boilers producing steam 80 bar and above are called High pressure
boilers. E.g.
 Babcock and Wilcox Boiler
ii) Low pressure Boilers:
Boilers producing steam Lower than 80 bar are called Low
pressure boilers. E.g.
• Cochran Boilers
• Cornish Boiler
a) Natural circulation method
 Circulation set up by convection current or by gravity.
b) Forced circulation method
 Circulation set up for high pressure steam through
pumps.
The necessary devices installed or mounted for the safety of
boiler and its control are called boiler mountings.
The devices which are installed in the boiler for their efficient
operation and smooth working are called Boiler Accessories.
1. WATER LEVEL INDICATOR
a) Records gauge pressure
b) Elliptical spring tube is also called
Bourdon tube and is made up of
special quality Bronze.
c) Plug (P) is provided for cleaning
the siphon tube.
d) Siphon is filled with cold water to
prevent the hot steam entering
into the bourdon tube and spring
tube remains comparatively cool.
2. Pressure Gauge
3. SAFETY VALVES
LEVER SAFETY VALVE Dead Weight safety valve
High steam & low water safety
valve
Spring loaded safety valve
4. FEED CHECK VALVE
1. It controls the supply of water
to the boiler and prevents the
back flow of water from the
boiler when the feed pump
pressure is less than boiler
pressure of pump is
stopped.
5.BLOW-OFF COCK
6. MANHOLE
 This is provided at suitable position on the boiler shell so that the man can
enter into boiler shell for inspection, maintenance and repairs. This hole is
usually made in elliptical shape of the size convenient for a man to enter
through this hole. The opening is closed by steam tight cover.
The devices used to improve the performance
and operation of the boilers are called boiler
accessories. Main accessories used are:
 Function:
The function of the air pre-heater
is to increase the temperature of
air before it enters the furnace. It
is generally placed after the
economiser.
 Function:
An economiser is a device in
which the waste heat of the flue
gases is utilized for heating the
feed water.
 Function:
The function of an injector is to feed water into the boiler. It is also
used where the space is not available for the installation of a feed
pump
 Function:
Super heater increases the temperature of the steam above its saturation point. The
steam generated above surface of water is always wet. The main negative effect of
supplying wet steam to turbine or steam engine are erosion of turbine blades,
pipes etc., and condensation losses occurs. Therefore steam must be superheated
before supplying to steam turbine or steam engine.
 Function:
Its is a pump which is used to deliver
feed water to the boiler.
 The appliances in common use for
delivering the feed-water into the
steam boilers are:
a) Reciprocating pump
b) Rotary pump
Steam boilers

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Steam boilers

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. a) Fire tube boiler: The hot gases passes through the tubes that are surrounded by water. Fire tube boilers are also known by certain common names-  1) Cochran  2) Locomotive  3) Lancashire
  • 5. b) Water tube Boiler: The water passes through the tubes and the hot gases produced by combustion of fuel, flow outside.  1) Babcock and Wilcox Boiler
  • 6. a) Internally fired Boilers: The furnace is provided inside the boiler shell and is completely surrounded by water cooled surfaces. This method of firing is used in: • Lancashire Boilers • Cochran Boilers b) Externally fired Boilers: The furnace is provided outside/ under the boiler. It has an advantage that its furnace is simple to construct and can easily be enlarged, as and when required. This method of firing is used in • Babcock and Wilcox Boiler.
  • 7. i) High pressure Boilers: Boilers producing steam 80 bar and above are called High pressure boilers. E.g.  Babcock and Wilcox Boiler ii) Low pressure Boilers: Boilers producing steam Lower than 80 bar are called Low pressure boilers. E.g. • Cochran Boilers • Cornish Boiler
  • 8. a) Natural circulation method  Circulation set up by convection current or by gravity. b) Forced circulation method  Circulation set up for high pressure steam through pumps.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. The necessary devices installed or mounted for the safety of boiler and its control are called boiler mountings. The devices which are installed in the boiler for their efficient operation and smooth working are called Boiler Accessories.
  • 17.
  • 18. 1. WATER LEVEL INDICATOR
  • 19. a) Records gauge pressure b) Elliptical spring tube is also called Bourdon tube and is made up of special quality Bronze. c) Plug (P) is provided for cleaning the siphon tube. d) Siphon is filled with cold water to prevent the hot steam entering into the bourdon tube and spring tube remains comparatively cool. 2. Pressure Gauge
  • 20. 3. SAFETY VALVES LEVER SAFETY VALVE Dead Weight safety valve
  • 21. High steam & low water safety valve Spring loaded safety valve
  • 22. 4. FEED CHECK VALVE 1. It controls the supply of water to the boiler and prevents the back flow of water from the boiler when the feed pump pressure is less than boiler pressure of pump is stopped.
  • 24. 6. MANHOLE  This is provided at suitable position on the boiler shell so that the man can enter into boiler shell for inspection, maintenance and repairs. This hole is usually made in elliptical shape of the size convenient for a man to enter through this hole. The opening is closed by steam tight cover.
  • 25. The devices used to improve the performance and operation of the boilers are called boiler accessories. Main accessories used are:
  • 26.  Function: The function of the air pre-heater is to increase the temperature of air before it enters the furnace. It is generally placed after the economiser.
  • 27.  Function: An economiser is a device in which the waste heat of the flue gases is utilized for heating the feed water.
  • 28.  Function: The function of an injector is to feed water into the boiler. It is also used where the space is not available for the installation of a feed pump
  • 29.  Function: Super heater increases the temperature of the steam above its saturation point. The steam generated above surface of water is always wet. The main negative effect of supplying wet steam to turbine or steam engine are erosion of turbine blades, pipes etc., and condensation losses occurs. Therefore steam must be superheated before supplying to steam turbine or steam engine.
  • 30.  Function: Its is a pump which is used to deliver feed water to the boiler.  The appliances in common use for delivering the feed-water into the steam boilers are: a) Reciprocating pump b) Rotary pump