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A layer of ozone (o3) is present in the
stratosphere 20-25 km above the surface of
the earth . This layer filters out harmful
ultraviolet radiation from the sunlight, thus
protects various life form on the earth . It acts
like a natural sunscreen for the earth .
O2 + hv O + O
Ultraviolet rays decomposes oxygen in to atomic oxygen by
photolytic decomposition .
The atomic oxygen thus farmed rapidly reacts with molecular
oxygen to form ozone .
O + O2 + O3 +
( M is a third body necessary to carry away the energy
released in the reaction )
Ozone thus formed distributes itself in the stratosphere and
absorb harmful ultraviolet radiation (200-320 nm ) and it
continuously converted back to molecular oxygen .
O3 + hv O2 + O
The destruction is mostly caused by chlorofluoro-carbon (CFC)
CCl3F UV CCl2F + Cl
CCl2F2
UV CClF2 + Cl
Cl + O3 ClO + O2
ClO + O Cl + O2
In previous reaction Cl Just acts as a catalyst and reappears .
It is estimated that one Cl atom can destroy 1,00,000 ozone
molecules in one or two years .
F
C
ClCl
Cl
F
C
Cl Cl
Cl
UV
radiation
hits CFC
molecule
O
OO
O
Cl
O O
O
Cl
ClCl
O
O
O
Chlorine
atom
breaks
away
Chlorine
atom
takes one
oxygen
atom to
creat
chlorine
monoxide
Oxygen
atom hits
Chlorine
monoxide
molecule
Chlorine atom is
free and repeat the
depletion process
Chlorine
atom hits
Ozone
molecule
Two
oxygen
atoms
form an
oxygen
molecule
CFC is a combination of carbon , hydrogen , fluorine and
chlorine .
Use of CFC :
(1) Used as coolant in refrigerator and air Conditioners .
(2) Propellants .
(3) Cleaning solvents .
(4) Stuffing of Mattresses .
CFC released in the troposphere reach the stratosphere and
remains there for 65-110 years destroying O3 molecules .
Ozone – depleting potential (ODP) is the ratio of the impact on
ozone caused by a chemical compared to the impact of a
similar mass of CFC-11 .The ODP of CFC-11 is 1.0 .
Substance Uses
Ozone Depleting
Potential
Global warming
Potential
Chloroflurocarbons
(CFCs)
Refrigerants, Cleaning
solvents, aerosol
propellants
0.6 – 1.0 4,680 – 10,72
Halons Fire extinguishers ,
Explosion protection 3 - 10 1,620 – 7,030
Carbon
tetrachloride(CCl4)
Production of CFCs ,
Solvent/diluents 1.1 1380
Methyl chloroform
(CHCl3)
Industrial solvent for
cleaning , inks ,
correction fluid
0.1 144
Methyl Bromide
(CH3Br)
Fumigant used to control
– Borne pests & diseases
in crops prior
0.6 5
Hydro
Chloroflurocarbons
(HCFCs)
Transitional CFC
replacements used as
refrigerants , solvents
0.01 – 0.5 76 - 2,270
Hydro
Flurocarbons
(HFCs)
CFC replacements used
as refrigerants , aerosol
propellants , Solvents
0 122 – 14,130
Ozone depletion in the stratosphere will result in more UV
radiation reaching the earth especially UV-B (290-320 nm) .
The UV-B radiation affects DNA and the photosynthetic
chemicals . Any change in DNA can result in cancer .
Easy absorption of UV rays by the lens and cornea of eye will
result in increase in incidents of cataract .
Melanin producing cells of the apidermis will be destroyed by
UV-rays resulting in immunesuppression .
Phytoplanktons are sensitive to UV exposure to UV exposure .
Ozone depletion will result in decrease in their population
thereby affecting the population of zooplankton , fish .
If the model and measurement of ozone depletion and its
possible effects are correct , it is highly essential to stop
producing any ozone depleting chemicals now . Even after
stopping the production of ozone depletion chemicals , the
models indicated that we still will have to wait to 50 – 100
years for the ozone layer to return to 1985 levels , and
another 100 – 200 years for full recovery . So the best
methord to reduce ozone depleting potential like HCFC ,
hydrocarbons , ammonia etc .
Montreal protocol was formed in 1987 and the participants
agreed to freeze production of CFC at 1986 levels and to
reduce production by 50% by 1999 .
Ozone Layer: Formation, Importance and Depletion

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Ozone Layer: Formation, Importance and Depletion

  • 1.
  • 2. A layer of ozone (o3) is present in the stratosphere 20-25 km above the surface of the earth . This layer filters out harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sunlight, thus protects various life form on the earth . It acts like a natural sunscreen for the earth .
  • 3. O2 + hv O + O Ultraviolet rays decomposes oxygen in to atomic oxygen by photolytic decomposition . The atomic oxygen thus farmed rapidly reacts with molecular oxygen to form ozone . O + O2 + O3 + ( M is a third body necessary to carry away the energy released in the reaction )
  • 4. Ozone thus formed distributes itself in the stratosphere and absorb harmful ultraviolet radiation (200-320 nm ) and it continuously converted back to molecular oxygen . O3 + hv O2 + O
  • 5. The destruction is mostly caused by chlorofluoro-carbon (CFC) CCl3F UV CCl2F + Cl CCl2F2 UV CClF2 + Cl Cl + O3 ClO + O2 ClO + O Cl + O2
  • 6. In previous reaction Cl Just acts as a catalyst and reappears . It is estimated that one Cl atom can destroy 1,00,000 ozone molecules in one or two years . F C ClCl Cl F C Cl Cl Cl UV radiation hits CFC molecule O OO O Cl O O O Cl ClCl O O O Chlorine atom breaks away Chlorine atom takes one oxygen atom to creat chlorine monoxide Oxygen atom hits Chlorine monoxide molecule Chlorine atom is free and repeat the depletion process Chlorine atom hits Ozone molecule Two oxygen atoms form an oxygen molecule
  • 7. CFC is a combination of carbon , hydrogen , fluorine and chlorine . Use of CFC : (1) Used as coolant in refrigerator and air Conditioners . (2) Propellants . (3) Cleaning solvents . (4) Stuffing of Mattresses . CFC released in the troposphere reach the stratosphere and remains there for 65-110 years destroying O3 molecules .
  • 8. Ozone – depleting potential (ODP) is the ratio of the impact on ozone caused by a chemical compared to the impact of a similar mass of CFC-11 .The ODP of CFC-11 is 1.0 .
  • 9. Substance Uses Ozone Depleting Potential Global warming Potential Chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) Refrigerants, Cleaning solvents, aerosol propellants 0.6 – 1.0 4,680 – 10,72 Halons Fire extinguishers , Explosion protection 3 - 10 1,620 – 7,030 Carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) Production of CFCs , Solvent/diluents 1.1 1380 Methyl chloroform (CHCl3) Industrial solvent for cleaning , inks , correction fluid 0.1 144 Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) Fumigant used to control – Borne pests & diseases in crops prior 0.6 5 Hydro Chloroflurocarbons (HCFCs) Transitional CFC replacements used as refrigerants , solvents 0.01 – 0.5 76 - 2,270 Hydro Flurocarbons (HFCs) CFC replacements used as refrigerants , aerosol propellants , Solvents 0 122 – 14,130
  • 10. Ozone depletion in the stratosphere will result in more UV radiation reaching the earth especially UV-B (290-320 nm) . The UV-B radiation affects DNA and the photosynthetic chemicals . Any change in DNA can result in cancer . Easy absorption of UV rays by the lens and cornea of eye will result in increase in incidents of cataract . Melanin producing cells of the apidermis will be destroyed by UV-rays resulting in immunesuppression . Phytoplanktons are sensitive to UV exposure to UV exposure . Ozone depletion will result in decrease in their population thereby affecting the population of zooplankton , fish .
  • 11. If the model and measurement of ozone depletion and its possible effects are correct , it is highly essential to stop producing any ozone depleting chemicals now . Even after stopping the production of ozone depletion chemicals , the models indicated that we still will have to wait to 50 – 100 years for the ozone layer to return to 1985 levels , and another 100 – 200 years for full recovery . So the best methord to reduce ozone depleting potential like HCFC , hydrocarbons , ammonia etc . Montreal protocol was formed in 1987 and the participants agreed to freeze production of CFC at 1986 levels and to reduce production by 50% by 1999 .