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Pressure vessels


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Pressure vessels

  2. 2. 1. Definitions of Pressure Vessels2. Typical Components of Pressure Vessels3. Classification of Pressure Vessels4. Uses of Pressure Vessels5. ASME Codes Used for Pressure Vessels6. Design Criteria7. Comparison Of Pressure Vessels Designed Under the Standard Codes8. Non-Destructive Tests Performed On Pressure Vessels9. Leak- Testing Methods On Pressure Vessels
  3. 3.  A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the gauge pressure. Pressure Vessels are defined in ASME Section VIII, Div 1 introduction: “ Pressure Vessels are containers for the containment of pressure either external or internal. The pressure may be obtained from an external source, or by the application of heat from a direct or indirect source, or any combination thereof.”
  4. 4. 1. Cylindrical or Spherical Shell2. Formed Heads3. Blind Flanges, Cover Plates, Flanges4. Openings And Nozzles5. Supports
  5. 5.  Based on Manufacturing Methods:1) Welded Vessels2) Forged Vessels3) Multiwall Vessels4) Multiwall Wrapped Vessels5) Band Wrapped Vessels Based on Manufacturing Materials:1) Steel Vessels2) Non Ferrous Vessels3) Non Metallic Vessels Based on Geometric Shapes:1) Cylindrical Vessels2) Spherical Vessels3) Rectangular Vessels
  6. 6. 4) Combined Vessels  Based on Installation Methods:1) Vertical Vessels2) Horizontal Vessels Based on Pressure-Bearing Situation:1) Internal Pressure Vessels2) External Pressure Vessels Based on Wall Thickness:1) Thin Wall Vessel2) Thick Wall Vessel Based on Technological Processes:1) Reaction Vessel2) Heat Exchanger Vessel3) Separation Vessel4) Storage Container Vessel
  7. 7.  Based on Operating Temperature:1) Low Temperature Vessels(less than or equal to -20°C)2) Normal Temperature Vessels(Between -20°C to 150°C)3) Medium Temperature Vessels(Between 150°C to 450°C)4) High Temperature Vessels(more than or equal to 450°C) Based on Design Pressure:1) Low Pressure Vessels(0.1MPa to 1.6MPa)2) Medium Pressure Vessels(1.6MPa to 10MPa)3) High Pressure Vessels(10MPa to 100MPa)4) Ultra High Pressure Vessels(More than 100MPa) Based on Usage Mode:1) Fixed Pressure Vessel2) Mobile Pressure Vessel
  8. 8. 1) Industrial compressed air receivers2) Domestic hot water storage tanks3) Diving cylinders4) Recompression chambers5) Distillation towers6) Autoclaves7) Oil refineries and petrochemical plants8) Nuclear reactor vessels9) Pneumatic And Hydraulic Reservoirs10) Storage vessels for liquified gases such as ammonia, chlorine, propane, butane, and LPG.
  9. 9. • ASME BPVC Section IIPart A - Ferrous Material SpecificationsPart B - Nonferrous Material SpecificationsPart C - Specifications for WeldingRods, Electrodes, and Filler MetalsPart D - Properties (Customary)Part D - Properties (Metric)•ASME BPVC Section V - Non destructiveExamination
  10. 10. •ASME Section VIII : Boiler and PressureVessel Code (BPVC)Division 1- Rules for Construction of PressureVesselsDivision 2 - Alternative RulesDivision 3 - Alternative Rules for Constructionof High Pressure Vessels
  11. 11.  Selection Of The Type Of Vessel:i. The operating temperature and pressure.ii. Function and location of the vessel.iii. Nature of fluid.iv. Necessary volume for storage or capacity for processing Design Loads Materials Allowable Stress
  12. 12. Item IS-2825 ASME Code BS-5500 AD- Section VIII MerkblatterScope •Unfired fusion •Welded, riveted, • Unfired fusion •Do/Di < 1.7 welded pressure forged and brazed welded pressure •Vessels and vessels vessels vessels vessel parts •Pressure < 20 •Water capacity>120 gal •Medium and predominantly N/mm2 •Operating pressure > high pressure under static load. •Do/Di < 1.5 15 psi storage vessels •Di > 150 mm •Di>6” •Excludes •Water capacity > transportable 50 litres vessels.materials •Carbon and low •Same as IS-2825 •Carbon, ferritic All metallic alloy steels, high •Cast iron, lined alloy(low and materials and alloy steel, Cu and material cast iron, high) and graphite, glass. Cu alloys, Al and ferritic steel austenitic steels alloys, bolting and •Composite Materials casting alloys
  13. 13. Item IS-2825 ASME Code BS-5500 AD- Section VIII MerkblatterDesign Maximum working Maximum pressure Maximum Based onpressure pressure including at most severe pressure at permissible service static head + 5% conditions most severe pressure maximum working conditions pressure.Design Highest metal Actual metal Actual metal Highesttempera- temperature expected temperature temperature temperatureture under operating expected under expected under expected under conditions operating conditions operating working conditions conditions + margin for uncertainties
  14. 14. Standard codes Tensile Yield strength Sr(rupture Creep stress Strength (N/m2 ) stress) (N/m2 ) (N/m2 ) (N/m2 )ASME: VIII 4 1.6 - 1Div-1ASME: VIII 3 1.5 - -Div-2BS-1515 4 - - -BS-1515 2.5 1.5 1.5 1Part IIBS-5500 2.35 1.5 1.3 1ANCC - 1.5 1.5 -IS-2825 3 1.5 1.5 1
  15. 15. The five principle methods of NDT usedare:1. Visual testing (VT)2. Penetrant testing (PT)3. Magnetic particle testing (MT)4. Ultrasonic testing (UT)5. Radiographic testing (RT)
  16. 16. There are many different methods for pressureand leak testing in the field. Seven of these are:1. Hydrostatic testing2. Pneumatic or gaseous-fluid testing3. Combined pneumatic and hydrostatic testing4. Initial service testing5. Vacuum testing6. Static head testing7. Halogen and helium leak detection test
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