11
MUHAMMAD ABDULLAH KHOSAMUHAMMAD ABDULLAH KHOSAMSc MLTMSc MLTTRAINEE TECHNOLOGISTTRAINEE TECHNOLOGISTSTAT LAB LAHOREUrinaly...
CONTENTSCONTENTSIntroductionIntroductionTypes of SpecimenTypes of SpecimenSources of errorsSources of errorsTypes of A...
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONFirst laboratory test performedFirst laboratory test performedUsed for more than 6000 yearsUsed fo...
Types of SpecimenTypes of SpecimenFirst morningFirst morning ((most concentratedmost concentrated))Second voidedSecond voi...
SOURCES OF ERRORSOURCES OF ERROR Contamination with:Contamination with:Bacteria or chemicalsBacteria or chemicalsmenstrua...
− MacroscopicMacroscopic− ChemicalChemical− MicroscopicMicroscopicTypes of AnalysisTypes of Analysis77
Macroscopic ExaminationMacroscopic ExaminationOdor:Odor:− Ammonia-like:Ammonia-like: (Urea-splitting bacteria)(Urea-splitt...
Chemical AnalysisChemical Analysis Urine DipstickUrine DipstickGlucoseBilirubinKetonesSpecific GravityBloodpHProteinUrobil...
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationPer High Power Field (HPF) (400x)Per High Power Field (HPF) (400x)– > 3 eryt...
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationRBCsRBCs1111
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationWBCsWBCs1212
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationTubular EpithelialTubular EpithelialCellsCells1313
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationYeastsYeasts1414
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationRBCs CastRBCs Cast1515
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationWBCs CastWBCs Cast1616
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationTubular Epith. CastTubular Epith. Cast1717
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationGranular CastGranular Cast1818
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationHyaline CastHyaline Cast1919
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationWaxy CastWaxy Cast2020
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationCalcium Oxalate CrystalsCalcium Oxalate Crystals2121
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationCalcium Oxalate CrystalsCalcium Oxalate CrystalsDumbbellDumbbellShapeShape2222
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationTriple Phosphate CrystalsTriple Phosphate Crystals2323
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationUrate CrystalsUrate Crystals2424
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationCholesterol CrystalsCholesterol Crystals2525
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationLeucine CrystalsLeucine Crystals2626
Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationCystine CrystalsCystine Crystals2727
Thank youThank you2828
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Abdullah khosa

  1. 1. 11
  2. 2. MUHAMMAD ABDULLAH KHOSAMUHAMMAD ABDULLAH KHOSAMSc MLTMSc MLTTRAINEE TECHNOLOGISTTRAINEE TECHNOLOGISTSTAT LAB LAHOREUrinalysisUrinalysis22
  3. 3. CONTENTSCONTENTSIntroductionIntroductionTypes of SpecimenTypes of SpecimenSources of errorsSources of errorsTypes of AnalysisTypes of AnalysisMicroscopic ImagesMicroscopic Images 33
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONFirst laboratory test performedFirst laboratory test performedUsed for more than 6000 yearsUsed for more than 6000 yearsPowerful diagnostic toolPowerful diagnostic toolAn index to many normal and pathological mechanisms.An index to many normal and pathological mechanisms.By composition:By composition:95% waterRemaining 5% is composed of mainly ureaTrace amounts of vitamins, minerals,enzymes, hormones, proteins and antibodies 44
  5. 5. Types of SpecimenTypes of SpecimenFirst morningFirst morning ((most concentratedmost concentrated))Second voidedSecond voidedRandom specimenRandom specimen (( most convenientmost convenient))Post-prandial specimenPost-prandial specimen ( usually after 2 hour)( usually after 2 hour)24 hour urine24 hour urine55
  6. 6. SOURCES OF ERRORSOURCES OF ERROR Contamination with:Contamination with:Bacteria or chemicalsBacteria or chemicalsmenstrual bloodmenstrual bloodvaginal or urethral dischargevaginal or urethral discharge Inadequate mixing before examinationInadequate mixing before examination Wrong/inadequate preservativeWrong/inadequate preservative66
  7. 7. − MacroscopicMacroscopic− ChemicalChemical− MicroscopicMicroscopicTypes of AnalysisTypes of Analysis77
  8. 8. Macroscopic ExaminationMacroscopic ExaminationOdor:Odor:− Ammonia-like:Ammonia-like: (Urea-splitting bacteria)(Urea-splitting bacteria)− Offensive:Offensive: Old specimen, pus or inflammationOld specimen, pus or inflammation− Sweet:Sweet: GlucoseGlucose− Fruity:Fruity: KetonesKetonesColor:Color:− ColorlessColorless Diluted urineDiluted urine− Deep YellowDeep Yellow Concentrated UrineConcentrated Urine− Turbid cells or crystalsTurbid cells or crystals− Yellow-GreenYellow-Green Bilirubin / BiliverdinBilirubin / Biliverdin− RedRed Blood / HemoglobinBlood / Hemoglobin88
  9. 9. Chemical AnalysisChemical Analysis Urine DipstickUrine DipstickGlucoseBilirubinKetonesSpecific GravityBloodpHProteinUrobilinogenNitriteLeukocyte30 sec RR: Negative30 sec RR: Negative D. mellitus. Renal glycosuria.30 sec RR: Negative30 sec RR: Negative -increased bilirubin (correlate urobilinogen, S.bilirubin)40 sec RR: Negative40 sec RR: Negative Diabetic ketoacidosis Prolonged fasting2 min RR: 1.003-1.0352 min RR: 1.003-1.035 - Diabetes insipidus60 sec RR: Negative60 sec RR: Negative Hematuria - Hemoglobinuria2 min R.R.: 4.5-8.02 min R.R.: 4.5-8.0 <4.5): high-protein diet, >8.0): renal tubular acidosis60 sec RR: Negative60 sec RR: Negative - Proteinuria and the nephrotic syndrome.60 sec RR: 0.02-1.0 mg/dL60 sec RR: 0.02-1.0 mg/dL High: increased hepatic processing of bilirubin- Low: bile obstruction60 sec RR: Negative60 sec RR: NegativeGram negative bacteriuria2 min RR: Negative - Pyuria - Acute inflammation Renal calculus99SIGNIFICANCEPARAMETERSTIME OFREADING
  10. 10. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationPer High Power Field (HPF) (400x)Per High Power Field (HPF) (400x)– > 3 erythrocytes> 3 erythrocytes– > 5 leukocytes> 5 leukocytes– > 2 renal tubular cells> 2 renal tubular cells– > 10 bacteria> 10 bacteriaPer Low Power Field (LPF) (200x)Per Low Power Field (LPF) (200x)– > 3 hyaline casts or > 1 granular cast> 3 hyaline casts or > 1 granular cast– > 10 squamous cells> 10 squamous cells– Any other cast (RBCs, WBCs)Any other cast (RBCs, WBCs)Presence of:Presence of:– Fungal hyphae or yeast, parasite,Fungal hyphae or yeast, parasite,– Pathological crystals (cystine, leucine, tyrosine)Pathological crystals (cystine, leucine, tyrosine)– Large number of uric acid or calcium oxalate crystalsLarge number of uric acid or calcium oxalate crystalsAbnormal FindingsAbnormal Findings1010
  11. 11. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationRBCsRBCs1111
  12. 12. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationWBCsWBCs1212
  13. 13. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationTubular EpithelialTubular EpithelialCellsCells1313
  14. 14. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationYeastsYeasts1414
  15. 15. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationRBCs CastRBCs Cast1515
  16. 16. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationWBCs CastWBCs Cast1616
  17. 17. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationTubular Epith. CastTubular Epith. Cast1717
  18. 18. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationGranular CastGranular Cast1818
  19. 19. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationHyaline CastHyaline Cast1919
  20. 20. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationWaxy CastWaxy Cast2020
  21. 21. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationCalcium Oxalate CrystalsCalcium Oxalate Crystals2121
  22. 22. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationCalcium Oxalate CrystalsCalcium Oxalate CrystalsDumbbellDumbbellShapeShape2222
  23. 23. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationTriple Phosphate CrystalsTriple Phosphate Crystals2323
  24. 24. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationUrate CrystalsUrate Crystals2424
  25. 25. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationCholesterol CrystalsCholesterol Crystals2525
  26. 26. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationLeucine CrystalsLeucine Crystals2626
  27. 27. Microscopic ExaminationMicroscopic ExaminationCystine CrystalsCystine Crystals2727
  28. 28. Thank youThank you2828

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