Characteristics Of Living Things

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Characteristics Of Living Things

  1. 1. Characteristics of Living Things
  2. 2. Biology is the Study of Life <ul><li>Biologist study the interactions of life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entomologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ornithologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ichthyologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc… </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How does one define life? <ul><li>There are 6 different Characteristics that an organism must have to be considered living. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Cells/Organization <ul><li>Living things are highly organized: they are all composed of tiny living units called cells . </li></ul><ul><li>Cell  tissue  organ  organ system  organism </li></ul><ul><li>Some organisms consist of only a single cell, others have trillions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul></ul>Image from: http://www.time.com/time/daily/special/genetics/ethics.html
  5. 5. 2. Energy Transformation <ul><li>Living things take in energy and change it into different forms. </li></ul><ul><li>The transformed energy is used to power all of life’s processes (growth, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism is the term for all of an organism’s bio-chemical reactions and energy transformations. </li></ul>Image from http://photographytips.com/page.cfm/3575
  6. 6. 3. Reproduction <ul><li>Individual organisms die, but the species continues because of reproduction . </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction without genetic contribution from two parents is called asexual. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction produces offspring with genetic material from both parents . </li></ul>Imae from http://www.karlloren.com/biopsy/p66.htm Image from http://www.cccturtle.org/contents.htm
  7. 7. 4. Growth (important!) <ul><li>Living things grow over their lifetimes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis -cell division </li></ul><ul><li>Single - celled organisms increase their volume and multicellular organisms add to the number of cells in their body. </li></ul>Image from http://www.sosun.com/company.html
  8. 8. 5. Response to the Environment <ul><li>Living things react to and interact with factors in their surroundings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic factors- non-living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic factors -living </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These reactions can take place almost instantly or over a period of hours, days, months, years, or even generations. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 5. Response to the Environment <ul><li>When presented with the proper stimulus , a living organism will respond . </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur at the cellular level ( homeostasis ) </li></ul><ul><li>A complex set of responses is called behavior . </li></ul>Image from http://agrolink.moa.my/dof/ppat/aquarium/betta/betta.html
  10. 10. 6. Adaptation/Evolution <ul><li>Over (generally) long periods of time (several to thousands generations, depending on the organism), environmental pressures may lead to permanent genetic changes in groups of organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>This process is called evolution . </li></ul><ul><li>These changes, or adaptations, help the organism survive and reproduce in its environment. </li></ul>Image from www.globalallianceafrica.org/ educational_trips.html
  11. 11. Any Questions?

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