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Cambridge IGCSE Biology
1- Characteristics and
classification of living organisms
Biology
Cambridge IGCSE Biology
1.1 characteristics of living organisms
Movement : an action by an organism or part of an
organism causing change of posit...
1.1 characteristics of living organisms
Respiration : the chemical reaction in cells that
break down nutrients molecules t...
1.1 characteristics of living organisms
Sensitivity : the ability to detect and respond to
change in the environment
Exten...
1.1 characteristics of living organisms
Growth : a permanent increase in Size
Extended: a permanent increase in Size and
d...
1.1 characteristics of living organisms
Reproduction : the process that make more of the
same kind of organism
1.1 characteristics of living organisms
Execration : removal from organisms of toxic
material or substances in excessive o...
Nutrition : taking in of material for energy ,
growth and development
Extended: taking in of material for energy ,
growth ...
1.2 concept and use of Classification
classification : putting living organisms in groups
referring to common similarities...
1.2 Classification
classification : putting living organisms in groups
Extended: 1- depending on morphology
2- depending o...
classification : putting living organisms in groups
Extended: 3- DNA ( genetic material )
Animal with more similar base of...
DNA and base pairs
Base pairs hold the two strands of the DNA helix together.
The rules for base pairing are…
There are mi...
classification : putting living organisms in groups
Extended: 3- DNA ( genetic material )
Animal with more similar base of...
1.3 features of living organisms
Plant features Animal features
Movement Fixed ,
stay in one place
Move actively
Nutrition...
Animals features
1- Multicellular
2- cells have no cell wall and chloroplasts
3- feed on organic substance made by other l...
Extended: Fungi Kingdom
1- usually multicellular
2- have nuclei ( singular : nucleus )
3- have cell wall made of chitin
( ...
Extended: protoctista Kingdom
1- multicellular – unicellular
2- have nuclei ( singular : nucleus )
3- may have cell wall a...
Extended: prokaryotic Kingdom
1- unicellular
2- have no nuclei ( singular : nucleus )
3- may have cell wall made of cellul...
Animal kingdom
Phylum vertebrate : all animals have backbone called vertebrates
class fish : all live in water - scaly ski...
class mammals : body covered with hair – have placenta –
young feed on milk from breast
warm blooded – have diaphragm
have...
animal Kingdom
Phylum : arthropods
1- several pairs of jointed legs
2- exoskeleton
3- segmented body
1.3 features of livin...
animal Kingdom
Phylum : arthropods
insects
1- 3 pairs of jointed legs
2- breath through trachea
3- body divided into 3 par...
animal Kingdom
Phylum : arthropods
Crustaceans
1- more than 4 pairs of jointed legs
2- breath through gills
3- segmented b...
animal Kingdom
Phylum : arthropods
Archnids
1- 4 pairs of jointed legs
2- breath through book lungs
3- segmented body
1.3 ...
animal Kingdom
Phylum : arthropods
Myriapods
1- each segment has pairs of jointed legs
2- exoskeleton
3- many segments in ...
Extended:
plant kingdom
Ferns
1- plants with roots ,stems and leaves
2- have leaves called fronds
3- do not produce flower...
Extended:
plant kingdom
Flowering plants
1- plants with roots ,stems and leaves
2- reproduce sexually by flower and seeds
...
Extended: viruses features
1- all of them pathogen ( cause diseases )
Common cold / influenza / AIDS
2- the can not conced...
1.4 Dichotomous keys
Cambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018)  classification of living organisms
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Cambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018) classification of living organisms

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first topic in IGCSE syllabus of academic years 2016 to 2018

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Cambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018) classification of living organisms

  1. 1. Cambridge IGCSE Biology 1- Characteristics and classification of living organisms Biology Cambridge IGCSE Biology
  2. 2. 1.1 characteristics of living organisms Movement : an action by an organism or part of an organism causing change of position
  3. 3. 1.1 characteristics of living organisms Respiration : the chemical reaction in cells that break down nutrients molecules to release energy for metabolism
  4. 4. 1.1 characteristics of living organisms Sensitivity : the ability to detect and respond to change in the environment Extended the ability to detect or sense stimuli in internal or external environment and make appropriate responses
  5. 5. 1.1 characteristics of living organisms Growth : a permanent increase in Size Extended: a permanent increase in Size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both
  6. 6. 1.1 characteristics of living organisms Reproduction : the process that make more of the same kind of organism
  7. 7. 1.1 characteristics of living organisms Execration : removal from organisms of toxic material or substances in excessive of requirements Extended: removal from organisms the waste products of Metabolism which is toxic material and substances in excessive of requirements
  8. 8. Nutrition : taking in of material for energy , growth and development Extended: taking in of material for energy , growth and development ; plants need ( light – water – CO2 – ions ) Animal need ( organic compounds – ions – water) 1.1 characteristics of living organisms
  9. 9. 1.2 concept and use of Classification classification : putting living organisms in groups referring to common similarities e.g: mammals have hair / breasts to feed babies so Human , horses , dogs belong to one group All of them are descended from the same ancestor Distant ancestor species as a group of organisms that can reproduce to produce fertile offspring binomial system of naming species as an internationally agreed system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing genus and species
  10. 10. 1.2 Classification classification : putting living organisms in groups Extended: 1- depending on morphology 2- depending on anatomy
  11. 11. classification : putting living organisms in groups Extended: 3- DNA ( genetic material ) Animal with more similar base of DNA they are more close and that means they have recent ancestor
  12. 12. DNA and base pairs Base pairs hold the two strands of the DNA helix together. The rules for base pairing are… There are millions of base pairs in a DNA molecule that always follow these rules. A always pairs with T C always pairs with G Amazingly, it is the sequence of bases along a DNA molecule that forms the genetic code – it’s that simple!
  13. 13. classification : putting living organisms in groups Extended: 3- DNA ( genetic material ) Animal with more similar base of DNA they are more close and that means they have recent ancestor
  14. 14. 1.3 features of living organisms Plant features Animal features Movement Fixed , stay in one place Move actively Nutrition photosynthesis ( autotrophic ) Hunting for food ( heterotrophic ) Cell structure (Cell wall – cell membrane – cytoplasm – nucleus - chloroplast ) (cell membrane – cytoplasm – nucleus) All living organisms body made of cells contain ( cell membrane – cytoplasm – DNA genetic material ) Extended: all living organisms cells contain ribosome for making protein and enzymes for respiration
  15. 15. Animals features 1- Multicellular 2- cells have no cell wall and chloroplasts 3- feed on organic substance made by other living organisms Plant features 1- Multicellular 2- cells have cell wall (made of cellulose) and chloroplasts 3- feed by photosynthesis 4- may have roots , stems and leaves 1.3 features of living organisms
  16. 16. Extended: Fungi Kingdom 1- usually multicellular 2- have nuclei ( singular : nucleus ) 3- have cell wall made of chitin ( not cellulose ) 4- have no chloroplasts 5- feed by saprophytic or parasitic nutrition 1.3 features of living organisms
  17. 17. Extended: protoctista Kingdom 1- multicellular – unicellular 2- have nuclei ( singular : nucleus ) 3- may have cell wall and chloroplast 4- some feed by photosynthesis ( Autotrophic) some feed on organic substance made by other organisms ( heterotrophic ) 1.3 features of living organisms
  18. 18. Extended: prokaryotic Kingdom 1- unicellular 2- have no nuclei ( singular : nucleus ) 3- may have cell wall made of cellulose 4- have no mitochondria 1.3 features of living organisms
  19. 19. Animal kingdom Phylum vertebrate : all animals have backbone called vertebrates class fish : all live in water - scaly skin – have gills – have fins cold blooded class amphibians : moist scale less skin – cold blooded tadpoles have gills – adults have lungs class reptiles : dry scaly skin – lay eggs with water proof shells cold blooded class birds : covered with feathers – lay eggs with water proof shells – have beak have wings - warm blooded 1.3 features of living organisms
  20. 20. class mammals : body covered with hair – have placenta – young feed on milk from breast warm blooded – have diaphragm have different types of teeth 1.3 features of living organisms
  21. 21. animal Kingdom Phylum : arthropods 1- several pairs of jointed legs 2- exoskeleton 3- segmented body 1.3 features of living organisms
  22. 22. animal Kingdom Phylum : arthropods insects 1- 3 pairs of jointed legs 2- breath through trachea 3- body divided into 3 parts ( head - thorax - abdomen ) 1.3 features of living organisms
  23. 23. animal Kingdom Phylum : arthropods Crustaceans 1- more than 4 pairs of jointed legs 2- breath through gills 3- segmented body 1.3 features of living organisms
  24. 24. animal Kingdom Phylum : arthropods Archnids 1- 4 pairs of jointed legs 2- breath through book lungs 3- segmented body 1.3 features of living organisms
  25. 25. animal Kingdom Phylum : arthropods Myriapods 1- each segment has pairs of jointed legs 2- exoskeleton 3- many segments in body 1.3 features of living organisms
  26. 26. Extended: plant kingdom Ferns 1- plants with roots ,stems and leaves 2- have leaves called fronds 3- do not produce flowers 4- reproduce by spores 1.3 features of living organisms
  27. 27. Extended: plant kingdom Flowering plants 1- plants with roots ,stems and leaves 2- reproduce sexually by flower and seeds 3- seeds produced inside the ovary 1.3 features of living organisms
  28. 28. Extended: viruses features 1- all of them pathogen ( cause diseases ) Common cold / influenza / AIDS 2- the can not conceder as living organism – outside cells found as crystals 3- they are not cells and have protein coat 4- genetic material may be DNA or RNA 5- they are smaller than Bacteria 1.3 features of living organisms
  29. 29. 1.4 Dichotomous keys

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